Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C.
Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club and part of the Maccabi Tel Aviv sports club. Founded in 1906 as the HaRishon Le Zion-Yafo Association, Maccabi Tel Aviv is the oldest, largest and most decorated club in Israel. With the establishment of the city of Tel Aviv in 1909, in 1922 they became the first Jewish football club to participate in local competitions. Maccabi Tel Aviv have won more titles than any other Israeli club, winning 22 League Championships,23 prestigious State Cups, the club is named after the Maccabees. Maccabi Tel Aviv FC invest a lot of money in the development, the clubs youth system operate football academies at three sites in the Tel Aviv area, working with over 750 children aged 6–15. The club also runs 17 youth teams with 400 players between 9 and 19 years old and these teams tend to compete very successfully in local and national leagues. Durims decided to establish the Palestine League, in the same year the State Cup was founded under the name People Cup. That same year, the first Tel Aviv derby was played, with Maccabi winning, Maccabi won their first State Cup in 1929 after beating Maccabi HaShmonai. Maccabi won the State Cup for a time in 1930, beating the 48th Regiment of Foot 2–1, and a third in 1933. In 1936 the club was invited to play in the United States, on their way, Maccabi played in France, losing, 2–0, to Racing Paris and 3–1 to Lille. In the United States, Maccabi defeated the All-star team of New York City in front of 50,000 in Yankee Stadium. Maccabi also defeated the American Soccer League team in Brooklyn and Philadelphia on their ground, 1–0, and also played in Canada. Maccabi continued their tour in the USA and lost, 3–2, to St. Louis Stars, after returning from the United States, Maccabi players went on strike because they had not been paid. In 1937, after a year of action, the Football Association accepted their demands. In that year, Maccabi Tel Aviv also won their first league title, in 1939, after the start of World War II, Maccabi won their second championship. At the end of the season, Maccabi went to another tour and they played 18 games, winning 11, losing 5 and drawing 2. The games were against State sides, regional sides and five tests against the Australian national team, winning one, drawing one, in 1941 Maccabi won their first double, Winning both the league and State Cup, beating Hapoel Tel Aviv, 2–1, in the final. Between 1941 and 1945 the league was suspended because of the war, in 1946, the league was still suspended but the State Cup returned with Maccabi beating Hapoel Rishon LeZion, 6–0, on aggregate in the final
Israel Football Association
The Israel Football Association, also known as IFA, is the governing body of football in Israel. It organizes a variant of football leagues, cups. The association is based in Ramat Gan, IFA was founded in 1928 as the Palestine Football Association. The Palestine Football Association was founded in July 1928 under the British Mandate, in 1954, the Israel Football Association was admitted to the Asian Football Confederation. In 1974, the Israel Football Association was expelled from the AFC due to pressure from Arab. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. In 1992, the IFA was admitted to UEFA as an associate member, since 1992, Israeli clubs have been playing in the various UEFA club competitions and the Israeli national teams play in UEFA championships. In 1979, Yosef Yekutieli, the founder of the IFA, was awarded the Israel Prize for dedicating his life to promoting and laying the foundation of Israeli sports. Football in Israel List of football stadiums in Israel Sport in Israel Official website Israel at FIFA site Israel at UEFA site
No. 14 Squadron RAF
No.14 Squadron of the Royal Air Force currently operates the Beechcraft Shadow R1 in the Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance role from RAF Waddington. No.14 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps was formed on 3 February 1915 at Shoreham with Maurice Farman S.11 and B. E.2 aircraft. After a few months of training it departed for the Middle East in November of that year for Army co-operation duties during the Sinai. In 1916 the squadrons B. E. 2s were supplemented with a number of D. H. 1A two seat fighters for escort duties, with the type remaining in use until March 1917. Other fighters operated by the fighter flight included the Bristol Scout and Vickers FB.19. The squadron flew in support of British forces in the Third Battle of Gaza in late 1917 and it was recalled to the UK in January 1919 and disbanded the following month. On 1 February 1920 the squadron was reformed in Ramleh by renumbering No.111 Squadron, the squadron operated Bristol Fighters and used them for various duties including photo surveying and air policing. The squadron patrolled Trans-Jordan and Palestine for the next 20 years, the squadron fully equipped with DH. 9As in January 1926. Fairey IIIFs replaced the squadrons DH. 9As in November 1929, the Fairey Gordon, a radial engined derivative of the IIIF re-equipped the squadron in September 1932, being used for operations against Arab rioters during the 1933 Palestine riots. In March 1938, the squadron replaced its Gordons with Vickers Wellesley monoplane bombers, when World War II broke out the squadron was transferred to Egypt but soon returned to Amman. It lost its first Wellesley to Italian defences on 14 June during a raid against Massawa. The Squadron started to receive twin-engined Bristol Blenheims in September that year, flying its first Blenheim mission on 20 September, in March 1941 it carried out bombing raids in support of the assault on Keren. In April 1941, following the liberation of Addis Ababa, the squadron was sent to Egypt for operations over the Western Desert, on 7 July 1941, the squadron withdrew from the Western Desert, being based in Palestine and Iraq until it returned to Egypt in November 1941. On 17 August 1942,14 Squadron was withdrawn from operations to convert to the Martin Marauder, the squadron flew its first operational mission with the Marauder, a maritime reconnaissance mission on 26 October 1942. The squadron used its Marauders for ling-range maritime reconnaissance missions, minelaying and anti-shipping attack with torpedoes, the squadrons Marauders sank a Tanker with torpedoes on 19 January 1943 and two more merchant ships on 21 February. In March 1943, it started performing anti-submarine missions out of Algeria, basing detachments in Italy and Sardinia, the Squadron flew its last Marauder mission on 21 September that year, leaving its equipment behind when it transferred back to the UK. On its return to the UK, the squadron was based at RAF Chivenor and carried out anti-submarine mission over the Western Approaches and the Bay of Biscay using Vickers Wellington Mk. XIVs. The squadron was disbanded on 1 June 1945 but was reborn the same day
Hebrew is a language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide, of whom over 5 million are in Israel. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, the earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family, Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language. Hebrew had ceased to be a spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt. Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and it survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to Ethnologue, had become, as of 1998, the language of 5 million people worldwide. After Israel, the United States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers, Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon Hakodesh, the modern word Hebrew is derived from the word Ivri, one of several names for the Israelite people. It is traditionally understood to be a based on the name of Abrahams ancestor, Eber. This name is based upon the root ʕ-b-r meaning to cross over. Interpretations of the term ʕibrim link it to this verb, cross over, in the Bible, the Hebrew language is called Yәhudit because Judah was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation. In Isaiah 19,18 it is called the Language of Canaan, Hebrew belongs to the Canaanite group of languages. In turn, the Canaanite languages are a branch of the Northwest Semitic family of languages, according to Avraham ben-Yosef, Hebrew flourished as a spoken language in the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah during about 1200 to 586 BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew was a vernacular in ancient times following the Babylonian exile. In July 2008 Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a ceramic shard at Khirbet Qeiyafa which he claimed may be the earliest Hebrew writing yet discovered, dating around 3000 years ago. The Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the beginning of the Monarchic Period, classified as Archaic Biblical Hebrew, the calendar presents a list of seasons and related agricultural activities. The Gezer calendar is written in an old Semitic script, akin to the Phoenician one that through the Greeks, the Gezer calendar is written without any vowels, and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places where later Hebrew spelling requires it
Maccabi Petah Tikva F.C.
Maccabi Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. It is part of the Maccabi sports club and currently plays in the Israeli Premier League. In 1921, after the death of founder member Avshalom Gisin during the 1921 Palestine riots, the club added his name to the name. In 1927 the club moved to the Maccabi Petah Tikva Ground, in 1935 they won their first piece of silverware, beating Hakoah Tel Aviv 1–0 in the cup final. In 1939 they reached the final again, but lost 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, the following year they won the Haaretz tournament. The club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949, in the next season they finished as runners-up to champions Maccabi Tel Aviv and also won the State Cup, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0. In 1953–54 they also finished second with Eliezer Spiegel finishing as the top goalscorer on 16 goals from 22 matches. After several seasons of mid-table finishes, Maccabi finished bottom of the table in 1962–63 and were due to be relegated to Liga Alef, however, the Israel Football Association decided to expand the league from 12 to 15 clubs and they were spared demotion. However, the club was relegated at the end of the 1965–66 season after finishing second from bottom, after two seasons in Liga Alef the club returned to the top division in 1969. At the end of the 1970–71 season the club was relegated again after finishing second from bottom, although Maccabi finished bottom in 1974–75, they were again reprieved from relegation due to league expansion. However, after a performance in 1976–77 they did go down. After making another return to the top flight, the club maintained several mid-table finishes. In 1990 and 1991 the club won the Liga Artzit Toto Cup and they returned to the top division in 1991 and have remained there since. In 1995 the club won the top divisions Toto Cup for the first time, in 2001 the club reached the cup final for the first time in 49 years, losing 3–0 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 2003–04 they finished third, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, however, the home leg of their third qualifying round tie against SC Heerenveen was cancelled by UEFA due to a baggage handlers strike, and they lost the away leg 5–0. In 2004–05 the club finished second in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup again and this time they were more successful, beating Macedonian side FK Baskimi 11–0 on aggregate, before knocking out Partizan Belgrade. However, in the stage they finished bottom having lost all four matches. As of 1 February 201604 – Morad Megamadov, Center back, the club played at the Maccabi Petah Tikva ground between 1926 and the 1970s
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile, adaptable and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world. The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, later being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
Ramla is a city in central Israel. The city is predominantly Jewish with a significant Arab minority, Ramla was founded circa 705–715 CE by the Umayyad governor and future caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. Ramla lies along the route of the Via Maris, connecting old Cairo with Damascus, at its intersection with the road connecting the port of Jaffa with Jerusalem. It was conquered many times in the course of its history, by the Abbasids, the Ikhshidids, the Fatimids, the Seljuqs, the Crusaders, the Mameluks, the Turks, the British, and the Israelis. After an outbreak of the Black Death in 1347, which reduced the population. Under Arab and Ottoman rule the city became an important trade center, napoleons French Army occupied it in 1799 on its way to Acre. The town had an Arab majority before most of its Arab inhabitants were expelled or fled during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the town was subsequently repopulated by Jewish immigrants. In 2001, 80% of the population were Jewish and 20% Arab, in recent years, attempts have been made to develop and beautify the city, which has been plagued by neglect, financial problems and a negative public image. New shopping malls and public parks have been built, and a museum opened in 2001. A2013 Israeli police report documented that the Central District ranks fourth among Israels seven districts in terms of drug-related arrests, today, five prisons are located in Ramla, including the maximum-security Ayalon Prison. Its name was derived from the Arabic word raml, meaning sand, the early residents came from nearby Ludd. Ramla flourished as the capital of Jund Filastin, which was one of the five districts of the Syrian province of the Ummayad, Ramla was the principal city and district capital almost until the arrival of the Crusaders in the 11th century. In the 8th century, the Ummayads built the White Mosque, the remains of this mosque, flanked by a minaret added at a later date, can still be seen today. In the courtyard are underground water cisterns from this period, Ramla was sometimes referred to as Filastin, in keeping with the common practice of referring to districts by the name of their main city. The 10th-century geographer al-Muqaddasi describes Ramla at the peak of its prosperity, It is a fine city and it combines manifold advantages, situated as it is in the midst of beautiful villages and lordly towns, near to holy places and pleasant hamlets. Commerce here is prosperous, and the markets excellent. The bread is of the best, the lands are well favoured above all others, and the fruits are the most luscious. This capital stands among fields, walled towns and serviceable hospices. Ramlas economic importance, shared with the city of Lydda, was based on its strategic location
Ratner was born in Kraków, Poland, and emigrated to Vienna in 1914, where he joined Hakoah Vienna. In 1920 Ratner emigrated to Mandatory Palestine, where he joined Maccabi Tel Aviv, in 1928 Ratner moved to Maccabi Avshalom Petah Tikva, and later to Hapoel Petah Tikva, where he stayed, in several functions, including as club manager, until 1954. In 1934, Ratner was appointed as manager of the Mandatory Palestine national football team for its campaign in the 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, after the campaign, which lasted two matches, Ratner stepped down. Ratner, who hebraized his last name to Leumi, died on 21 January 1964
Lod is a mixed Jewish-Arab city 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv in the Central District of Israel. In 2015 it had a population of 72,819, the name is derived from the Biblical city of Lod, and it was a significant Judean town from the Maccabean Period to the early Christian period. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War most of the citys Arab inhabitants were expelled in the 1948 Palestinian exodus from Lydda, the town was resettled by Jewish immigrants, most of them from Arab countries, alongside 1,056 Arabs who remained. Israels main international airport, Ben Gurion International Airport is located on the outskirts of the city, the Hebrew name Lod appears in the Bible as a town of Benjamin, founded by Shamed or Shamer. In the New Testament, it appears as its Greek form, the city also finds reference in an Islamic Hadith, as the location of the battlefield where the antichrist will be slain before the Day of Judgment. Pottery finds have dated the citys initial settlement to 5600–5250 BC, the earliest written record is in a list of Canaanite towns drawn up by the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III at Karnak in 1465 BC. From the fifth century BC until the Roman conquest in 70 CE, according to Martin Gilbert, during the Hasmonean period, Jonathan Maccabee and his brother Simon Maccabaeus enlarged the area under Jewish control, which included conquering the city. In 43 BC, Cassius, the Roman governor of Syria, sold the inhabitants of Lod into slavery, during the First Jewish–Roman War, the Roman proconsul of Syria, Cestius Gallus, razed the town on his way to Jerusalem in 66 CE. It was occupied by Emperor Vespasian in 68 CE, in the period following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, Rabbi Tarfon, who appears in many Tannaitic and Jewish legal discussions, served as a rabbinic authority in Lod. During the Kitos War, 115-117 CE, the Roman army laid siege to Lod, torah study was outlawed by the Romans and pursued mostly in the underground. The distress became so great, the patriarch Rabban Gamaliel II, other rabbis disagreed with this ruling. Lydda was next taken and many of the Jews were executed, in 200 CE, emperor Septimius Severus elevated the town to the status of a city, calling it Colonia Lucia Septimia Severa Diospolis. The name Diospolis may have been bestowed earlier, possibly by Hadrian, at that point, most of its inhabitants were Christian. The earliest known bishop is Aëtius, a friend of Arius, in December 415, the Council of Diospolis was held here to try Pelagius, he was acquitted. In the sixth century, the city was renamed Georgiopolis after St. George, a soldier in the guard of the emperor Diocletian, the Church of St. George is named for him. The Madaba map shows Lydda as a city under a black inscription with a cluster of buildings. An isolated building with a plaza in front of it might represent the St. George shrine. The population of al-Ludd was relocated to Ramla, as well, with the relocation of its inhabitants and the construction of the White Mosque in Ramla, al-Ludd lost its importance and fell into decay
Royal Army Service Corps
It became a Forming Corps of the Royal Logistic Corps. For centuries, army transport was operated by contracted civilians, the first uniformed transport corps in the British Army was the Royal Waggoners formed in 1794. It was not a success and was disbanded the following year, in 1799, the Royal Waggon Corps was formed, by August 1802, it had been renamed the Royal Waggon Train. This was reduced to two troops in 1818 and finally disbanded in 1833. A transport corps was not formed again until the Crimean War, in 1855, the Land Transport Corps was formed. This was renamed the Military Train the following year, in 1869, there was a major reorganisation of army supply and transport capabilities. Before 1869, supply duties had been the responsibility of the Commissariat, in 1869, the commissaries of the Commissariat and the officers of the Military Train amalgamated into the Control Department. The following year the other ranks of the Military Train were redesignated the Army Service Corps, in November 1875, the Control Department was divided into the Commissariat and Transport Department and the Ordnance Store Department. In January 1880, the Commissariat and Transport Department was renamed the Commissariat and Transport Staff, the ASC subsequently absorbed some transport elements of the Royal Engineers. In 1918, the received the Royal prefix for its service in the First World War. It was divided into Transport and Supply Branches, before the Second World War, RASC recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 2 inches tall and could enlist up to 30 years of age. They initially enlisted for six years with the colours and a six years with the reserve. Alone among the Services, RASC personnel were considered to be combatant personnel, in 1965, the RASC was merged with the Transportation and Movement Control Service of the Royal Engineers to form the Royal Corps of Transport. All its supply functions, along with the clerks, were transferred to the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, leaving the new RCT solely responsible for transport. In 1993, the RCT and RAOC were merged to form the Royal Logistic Corps, officers of the Control Department, Commissariat and Transport Department, and Commissariat and Transport Staff held different ranks from the rest of the Army. From February 1885 they were given military ranks, which they held in conjunction with their commissary ranks. Officers of the ASC and RASC held full military rank