1923 in science
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Astronomy and space science
- June – Hermann Oberth publishes Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("By Rocket into Planetary Space").
- October 21 – First official public showing of a planetarium projector, a Zeiss model at the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
- Karl von Frisch publishes "Über die 'Sprache' der Bienen. Eine tierpsychologische Untersuchung" ("On the 'language' of bees: an examination of animal psychology").
- Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy publish their discovery of the transition metal element hafnium (72Hf) in zirconium ore, working in Copenhagen (Latin: Hafnia).
- Niels Bohr and Dirk Coster, working in Copenhagen, produce a paper on X-ray spectroscopy and the periodic system of the elements.
- Gilbert N. Lewis and Merle Randall's textbook Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Reactions is influential in the replacement of the concept of chemical affinity by free energy.
- Otto Julius Zobel of Bell Labs describes the type of signal processing filter sections based on the image impedance design principle which will become known as Zobel networks.
- December 29 – Vladimir K. Zworykin files his first patent (in the United States) for "television systems".
- February – The Maudsley Hospital, established jointly by the London County Council and Henry Maudsley, admits its first psychiatric patients.
- First vaccine for Diphtheria
- July 13 – An American Museum of Natural History expedition to Mongolia under Roy Chapman Andrews is the first in the world to discover fossil dinosaur eggs. Initially thought to belong to the ceratopsian Protoceratops, they are determined in 1995 actually to belong to the theropod Oviraptor. On August 11 Peter Kaisen recovers the first Velociraptor fossil known.
- Nobel Prizes
- Copley Medal: Horace Lamb
- Wollaston Medal for Geology: William Whitaker
- January 1 – Daniel Gorenstein (died 1992), American mathematician.
- February 13 – Chuck Yeager, American pilot.
- February 14 – Doris Calloway, née Howes (died 2001), American nutritionist.
- March 4 – Patrick Moore (died 2012), English astronomer.
- March 9 – Walter Kohn, Viennese-born physicist.
- March 10 – Val Logsdon Fitch (died 2015), American nuclear physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- April 1 – Brigitte Askonas (died 2013), Viennese-born British immunologist.
- April 2 – G. Spencer-Brown, English mathematician.
- April 23 – Walter Pitts (died 1969), American logician and cognitive psychologist.
- July 5 – Ivo Pitanguy (died 2016), Brazilian plastic surgeon.
- July 23 – Ulf Grenander, Swedish-born mathematician.
- July 31 – Stephanie Kwolek (died 2014), American polymer chemist.
- September 9 – Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (died 2008), American virologist.
- September 13 – Miroslav Holub (died 1998), Czech immunologist and poet.
- September 26 – John Ertle Oliver (died 2011), American geophysicist.
- October 29 – Carl Djerassi (died 2015), Viennese-born chemist.
- November 8 – Jack Kilby (died 2005), American electrical engineer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- November 18 – Alan Shepard (died 1998), American astronaut.
- December 13 – Philip Warren Anderson, American physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics
- February 10 – Wilhelm Röntgen (born 1845), physicist, discoverer of X-rays, Nobel laureate.
- February 24 – Edward Morley (born 1838), chemist.
- March 8 – Johannes Diderik van der Waals (born 1837), physicist.
- March 27 – James Dewar (born 1842), chemist.
- July 16 – Sydney Mary Thompson (born 1847), geologist and botanist.
- August 23 – Hertha Ayrton (born 1854), electrical engineer.
- October 3 – Kadambini Ganguly (born 1861), physician.
- December 2 – Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen (born 1834), surveyor, geologist and naturalist.
- December 7 – Sir Frederick Treves (born 1853), surgeon.
- December 27 – Gustave Eiffel (born 1832), structural engineer.
- Chartrand, Mark (September 1973). "A Fifty Year Anniversary of a Two Thousand Year Dream (The History of the Planetarium)". The Planetarian. International Planetarium Society. 2 (3). ISSN 0090-3213. Retrieved 2009-02-26.
- Zoologische Jahrbücher (Physiologie) 40: pp. 1–186.
- Coster, D.; Hevesy, G. (20 January 1923). "On the Missing Element of Atomic Number 72". Nature. 111 (2777): 79. Bibcode:1923Natur.111...79C. doi:10.1038/111079a0.
- Hevesy, G. (1925). "The Discovery and Properties of Hafnium". Chemical Reviews. 2: 1. doi:10.1021/cr60005a001.
- Bohr, N.; Coster, D. (December 1923). "Röntgenspektren und periodisches System der Elemente". Zeitschrift für Physik A. 12 (1): 342–374. Bibcode:1923ZPhy...12..342B. doi:10.1007/BF01328104.
- According to chemistry historian Henry M. Leicester.
- Singh, Simon (1999). The Code Book: the Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-879-1.
- Zobel, O. J. (1923). "Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave Filters". Bell System Technical Journal. 2: 1–46. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1923.tb00001.x.
- Fastovsky, David. "Life and Death in a 70 Million-Year-Old Sand Sea". Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- AMNH 6515. Osborn, Henry F. (1924). "Three new Theropoda, Protoceratops zone, central Mongolia". American Museum Novitates. 144: 1–12. hdl:2246/3223.