Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a literature of ideas. Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying science fiction is what we point to when we say it, a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography, you do not know what it is, in 1970 or 1971William Atheling Jr. According to science fiction writer Robert A, rod Serlings definition is fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. Science fiction elements include, A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, a spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots, futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers. Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted physical laws, for time travel, wormholes. New and different political or social systems, e. g. utopian, dystopian, post-scarcity, paranormal abilities such as mind control, telepathy, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of science itself. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Keplers work the first science fiction story and it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earths motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, more examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Wells The War of the Worlds describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry and it is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth. In the late 19th century, the scientific romance was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland, the term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon. In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars
Lloyd Biggle Jr.
Lloyd Biggle Jr. was a musician, author, and internationally known oral historian. Biggle was born in 1923 in Waterloo, Iowa and he served in World War II as a communications sergeant in a rifle company of the 102nd Infantry Division, during the war, he was wounded twice. His second wound, a wound in his leg received near the Elbe River at the end of the war. After the war, Biggle resumed his education and he received an A. B. Degree with High Distinction from Wayne State University and M. M. and Ph. D. degrees from the University of Michigan. Biggle taught at the University of Michigan and at Eastern Michigan University in the 1950s and he began writing professionally in 1955 and became a full-time writer with the publication of his novel, All the Colors of Darkness in 1963, he continued in the writing profession until his death. He was celebrated in science fiction circles as the author who introduced aesthetics into a known for its scientific. His stories frequently used musical and artistic themes, such notables as songwriter Jimmy Webb and novelist Orson Scott Card have written of the tremendous effect that his early story, The Tunesmith, had on them in their youth. Among Biggles enduring science fiction creations were the Interplanetary Relations Bureau, in the field of mystery writing, Biggles Grandfather Rastin stories appeared for many years in Ellery Queens Mystery Magazine. He loved writing historical fiction set in late Victorian and Edwardian England and these were followed by a series of stories featured in Alfred Hitchcocks Mystery Magazine starring Biggles Victorian sleuth, Lady Sara Varnley. He published two-dozen books as well as stories and numerous articles. His last novel was The Chronocide Mission and he was writing almost to the moment of his death. I can write faster than the magazines can publish them, he once said. Biggle was the founding Secretary Treasurer of Science Fiction Writers of America and he was a member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Disabled American Veterans, and the Military Order of the Purple Heart. He died after a battle with leukemia and cancer. Banks, Michael A. Lloyd Biggle Jr. Locus, Lloyd Biggle Jr. at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Science Fiction Oral History Association. Lloyd Biggle Papers at the Kenneth Spencer Research Library at the University of Kansas
Avram Davidson was an American writer of fantasy fiction, science fiction, and crime fiction, as well as the author of many stories that do not fit into a genre niche. Davidson edited The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction from 1962 to 1964 and his last novel The Boss in the Wall, A Treatise on the House Devil was completed by Grania Davis and was a Nebula Award finalist in 1998. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction says he is perhaps sfs most explicitly literary author, Davidson wrote many stories for fiction magazines beginning in the 1950s, after publishing his first fiction in Commentary and other Jewish intellectual magazines. Davidson was active in science fiction fandom from his teens, Eszterhazy, a sort of even more erudite Sherlock Holmesian figure living in the mythical Scythia-Pannonia-Transbalkania, the waning fourth-largest empire in Europe. Lesser known and uncollected during his lifetime are his mystery stories and these mystery stories frequently have a historical setting, and are intricately plotted. In addition, Davidson ghosted two Ellery Queen mysteries, And on the Eighth Day and The Fourth Side of the Triangle, other noteworthy works are his collaborations. In Marco Polo and the Sleeping Beauty, co-written with Grania Davis, after Davidsons death, Grania Davis also finished The Boss in the Wall, a claustrophobic horror novel that bears little resemblance to the work of any other writer. His earlier historical essays were scrupulously researched, even published by magazines just as happy to offer fiction as fact. Later essays were handicapped by a lack of resources in the libraries of the towns where Davidson lived in the pre-Internet era. Davidsons work is marked by a strong interest in history, with his plots often turning on what at first might seem like minor events, however, Davidsons most obvious characteristics are his plotting and style. Very little may happen in a Davidson story, but he enjoyed describing it in enormous detail, hidden among the detail are facts or omissions that later prove to be the pebbles that start avalanches of major consequences. These touches often succeed through their sheer boldness, as well as the comedy that runs through many of his most ambitious works. In general, Davidsons attitude to his readers is similar to that of Nineteenth Century authors, He assumes that his readers are there to be amused, Davidson was born in 1923 in Yonkers, New York. He served as a Navy hospital corpsman with the Marine Corps in the Pacific during World War II and this made his study of and conversion to Tenrikyo in the 1970s rather surprising. While editing The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction he lived in Mexico and he lived in a rural district of Novato, in northern Marin County, California, in 1970, but later moved closer to San Francisco. He lived in a house in Sausalito, at the southern end of Marin County next to San Francisco in 1971 and 1972. In his later years, he lived in Washington state, including a stay in the Veterans Home in Bremerton. He died in his apartment in Bremerton on May 8,1993
James E. Gunn (writer)
James Edwin Gunn is an American science fiction writer, editor, scholar, and anthologist. His work as an editor of anthologies includes the six-volume Road to Science Fiction series and he won the Hugo Award for Best Related Work in 1983 and he has won or been nominated for several other awards for his non-fiction works in the field of science fiction studies. The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America made him its 24th Grand Master in 2007 and he was inducted by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 2015. Gunn is an emeritus of English, and the founding director of the Center for the Study of Science Fiction. Gunn served in the U. S. Navy during World War II, after which he attended the University of Kansas, earning a Bachelor of Science in Journalism in 1947 and a Masters of Arts in English in 1951. He served as President of the Science Fiction Writers of America from 1971–1972 and was President of the Science Fiction Research Association from 1980–1982, SFWA honored him as a Grand Master of Science Fiction in 2007. Gunn began his career as a fiction writer in 1949. He has had almost 100 stories published in magazines and anthologies and has written 28 books, many of his stories and books have been reprinted around the world. From 1949 to 1952, Gunn wrote ten stories published as by Edwin James. The first two in print, Communication and Paradox, were published in September and October 1949 by editor Sam Merwin in Startling Stories and his novels were first published by Gnome Press in 1955, Star Bridge, written by Gunn and Jack Williamson, and This Fortress World. Scribners published Gunns novel The Listeners in 1972 and it was runner-up for the first annual John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel, carl Sagan called it one of the very best fictional portrayals of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence ever written. In 1996, Gunn wrote a novelization of The Joy Machine and his stories also have been adapted into radioplays and teleplays. The first four volumes, published by Mentor New American Library from 1977 to 1982, are organized chronologically, the last two volumes, published by White Wolf, Inc. in 1998, feature The British Way and Around the World. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy