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Kalleshvara Temple, Aralaguppe

The Kalleshvara temple is located in Aralaguppe, a village in the Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. According to historian I. K. Sarma, the temple is a fine example of native Western Ganga art of the 9th century, with influences from the Badami Chalukya and Nolamba architectural idioms, it was commissioned by a vassal king of the Nolamba dynasty. Historians I. K. Sarma, B. S. Ali and K. V. Soundara Rajan date the temple to the late 9th century to early 10th-century period. B. S. Ali calls this temple one of the finest examples of Western Ganga art while Aschwin Lippe and Soundara Rajan feel the temple is more consistent with contemporary Nolamba style; the dating of the temple is confirmed by two inscriptions. One inscription in the temple dated 895 C. E. describes the commissioning of the temple by a Nolamba king under his overlord, the Western Ganga King Rachamalla II. The inscription records the grant made by King Rachamalla II himself to the construction of this temple.

The other inscription, a Hero stone in the temple tank, confirms that this region was under the overall control of the Western Ganga Dynasty during this period. Historian Sarma argues that the Western Gangas and Nolambas had close links with regards to "cultural art" and they would have, in their commission, common guilds of architects and sculptors. According to Sarma, the three lateral shrines with an enclosure for Nandi the bull, the vehicle of the god Shiva, was added during the Hoysala period and this is confirmed by art critic Takeo Kamiya; the plan of the sanctum is a square pyramidal one, with a plain exterior with simple pilasters, a vestibule separating the sanctum from a closed hall with an exceptionally well sculptured section called the mahamantapa or navaranga. The superstructure over the shrine and vestibule have been renovated at a period but the base on which the temple stands is original in construction; the doorjamb and the lintel above the main door have exceptional art.

The doorjamb exhibits seated door keepers at the base, bold scrolls of decorative creepers that run along the sides of the main door and contain Yaksha and Yakshis. Above the door, forming the lintel is a sculpture of Gajalakshmi with elephants showering her from either side. Sarma feels this sculpture may have inspired the monolithic carving at the main entrance on the Vindyagiri hill in the famous Jain heritage town of Shravanabelagola; the ceiling panel grid of images in the mahamantapa needs special mention and speaks of the good taste of the Ganga-Nolamba architects. The panel images include a four handed dancing and well ornamented Shiva, a four tusked elephant carrying on its back the god Indra and his consort Sachi. Sarma, I. K.. Temples of the Gangas of Karnataka. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. Kamiya, Takeyo. "Architecture of Indian subcontinent". Indian Architecture. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved 27 December 2012

Gordon Sigurjonsson

Guðmundur "Gordon" Sigurjónsson was an Icelandic athlete and trainer. A well known wrestler in his home country, he was part of a group of Icelanders that showcased Glíma at the 1908 Summer Olympics, he was a coach for the Canadian Winnipeg Falcons that won the first gold medal in Ice hockey at the 1920 Summer Olympics. Guðmundur was born in Litluströnd at Mývatn on 15 April 1883 to Friðfinna Davíðsdóttir and Sigurjón Guðmundsson, he was the second youngest of 10 children. After being raised in poverty, he moved to Reykjavík in 1905, at the age of 22. There he started training Glíma, an Icelandic wrestle, which he mastered. On 2 August 1907, he participated in the Konungsglíman at Þingvellir, a Glíma competition in the honor of king Frederick VIII of Denmark visit to Iceland, he was one of seven Icelanders. After studying sports training and therapy in England, Guðmundur moved to Winnipeg in Canada in 1914 where he learned Greco-Roman wrestling and Ice hockey, he served in the Canadian military from 1916 to 1919, becoming a sergeant in the 27th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War.

In 1920, he was the trainer of the Winnipeg Falcons when it won the gold medal in ice hockey for Canada at the 1920 Summer Olympics. Guðmundur became a well known trainer in Glíma and track & field, he was a member of the Independent Order of Good Templars and a staunch believer in abstinence from alcohol and drugs. In January 1924, Guðmundur charged to the police by a man named Steindór Sigurðsson, for ill treatment of patients in Litli-Kleppur, a psychiatric hospital where Guðmundur worked, for trying to entice him into having sexual intercourse with him, a violation of the Icelandic sodomy law at the time. Steindór withdrew the charges, claiming that bootleggers had payed him to implicate Guðmundur to those crimes as he was hurting their business. Nonetheless, the police investigation continued and trial started on 28 February the same year with 14 witnesses called. Guðmundur was aquitted of ill treatment of patients but was sentenced to eight months in prison for having sexual relations with another man.

He served three months of the sentence before being set free. He was the only person to have served a prison sentence for violating the Icelandic sodomy law. In 1930, Guðmundur started working in the sports movement again. In 1942 he started training Glíma at Íþróttafélag Reykjavíkur and in 1948, he was part of the training staff that followed the Icelandic Olympic athletes that competed at the 1948 summer Olympics. Guðmundur died on 14 January 1967, at the age of 83, he was buried 5 months on 14 June, at his family plot close to Mývatn