A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights. The straights transition to the circular turn through an easement curve. The first velodromes were constructed during the mid-late 19th century, some were purpose-built just for cycling, and others were built as part of facilities for other sports, many were built around athletics tracks or other grounds and any banking was shallow. Early surfaces included cinders or shale, though concrete, indoor velodromes were common particularly in the late 19th and early 20th century. For example, the Vélodrome dhiver was built in Paris in 1909, International competitions such as the Olympic Games led to more standardisation, two-straight oval tracks quickly became the norm, and gradually lap lengths reduced. The Vélodrome de Vincennes, used for the 1896 Games was 500 m per lap, while Antwerps Vélodrome dAnvers Zuremborg, used in 1920, by the 1960s, tracks of 333.333 m length were commonly used for international competitions.
Since 1990, such events are held on velodromes with 250 m laps. London’s 2012 Olympic velodrome and a new velodrome in Turkmenistans capital city Ashgabat both have a 250 m track and a 6, 000-seat spectator capacity, banking in the turns, called superelevation, allows riders to keep their bikes relatively perpendicular to the surface while riding at speed. When travelling through the turns at racing speed, which may exceed 85 km/h, at the ideal speed, the net force of the centrifugal force and gravity is angled down through the bicycle, perpendicular to the riding surface. Riders are not always travelling at speed or at a specific radius. Most events have all over the track. Team races have some riders at speed and others riding more slowly, in match sprints riders may come to a stop by performing a track stand in which they balance the bicycle on the sloped surface while keeping their feet locked into the pedals. For these reasons, the banking tends to be 10 to 15 degrees less than physics predicts, the straights are banked 10 to 15 degrees more than physics would predict.
These compromises make the track ridable at a range of speeds, from the straight, the curve of the track increases gradually into the circular turn. This section of decreasing radius is called the easement spiral or transition and it allows bicycles to follow the track around the corner at a constant radial position. Thus riders can concentrate on tactics rather than steering, bicycles for velodromes have no brakes. They employ a fixed rear gear, or cog, that does not freewheel
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Classic cycle races
The classic cycle races are most prestigious one-day professional cycling road races in the international calendar. All of these events run in western Europe, have been fixtures on the calendar for decades. They are normally held at roughly the time each year. The five most revered races are described as the Monuments. For the 2005 to 2007 seasons, the Classics formed part of the UCI ProTour run by the Union Cycliste Internationale, the ProTour replaced the UCI Road World Cup series which contained only one-day races. Although cycling fans and sports media use the term classic. UCI, the governing body of cycling, has no mention at all of the term in its rulings. This poses problems to define the characteristics of races and makes it impossible to make precise lists. However, many of these tend to shift over time and are often opinions of a personal nature. Because of the ambiguity and inflation of the term classic. Given the lack of a definition of classic races, these are professional races mostly regarded as classics.
It includes all of the events of the UCI World Tour. Together, Milan–San Remo, the Cobbled classics and the Ardennes classics make up the Spring Classics, all held in March, Milan–San Remo – the first true Classic of the year, its Italian name is La Primavera. This race is held on the Sunday closest to the vernal equinox. E3 Harelbeke – the first of the Spring Classics in Flanders, gent–Wevelgem – first raced in 1934, in recent years held on the Sunday between Milan-San Remo and the Tour of Flanders. Tour of Flanders – is normally raced in early April, first held in 1913, Paris–Roubaix – La Reine or lEnfer du Nord is traditionally held one week after the Tour of Flanders, and was first raced in 1896. Amstel Gold Race – normally held mid-April, it is the first of the three Ardennes Classics or hill classics, one week after Paris–Roubaix, La Flèche Wallonne – the Walloon Arrow is the second Ardennes Classic, since 2004 held mid-week between the Amstel Gold Race and Liège–Bastogne–Liège. Liège–Bastogne–Liège – La Doyenne, the oldest Classic, was first raced in 1892 and it is the third Ardennes Classic, held in late April, one week after the Amstel Gold Race
Jules Vanhevel was a Belgian racing cyclist. He was a professional from 1919 to 1936, in the literature, his name is often misspelled as Jules Van Hevel. The cyclist Jules A. Vanhevel should not be confused with Jules K. Vanhevel, the last miller of the East Mill at Gistel, Jules Vanhevel served as a cyclist in the 1st Artillery Regiment and in the trench mortars Van Doren of the 1st Army Division. He was injured and was sent to England ill, in the ancient hostelry De Engel at Ichtegem, of the family Maeckelbergh, one can admire a unique collection of Jules Vanhevel. Robert Maeckelbergh was the caretaker of Jules Vanhevel and married his sister Lea, Jules van Hevel, Levensschets Van Den Kampioen Der Kampioenen Als Baanrenner
Roubaix is a city in Northern France, located in the Lille metropolitan area. As regards towns boundaries, Roubaix is encompassed by seven cities which constitute its immediate neighbouring environment, alongside those municipalities and twenty-one other communes, belongs to the land of Ferrain, a little district of the former Castellany of Lille between the Lys and Escaut rivers. As the crow flies, the distance between Roubaix and the cities is some odd,16 kilometres to Tournai,18 kilometres to Kortrijk,84 kilometres to Brussels and 213 kilometres to Paris. This area consists predominantly of Holocene deposits of alluvial origin and it is flat and low, with an elevation drop of only 35 m over its 13.23 square kilometres. The lowest altitude of this stands at 17 m, while its highest altitude is 52 m meters above the sea level. Opened in 1877, the Canal de Roubaix crosses the town from its northern neighbourhoods to its eastern neighbourhoods, the Canal de Roubaix closed in 1985, after more than a century in use.
Thank to the European funded project Blue Links, the waterway has been reopened to navigation since 2011, despite some American statements that weather conditions in Roubaix were bad during the 19th century, the area of the city is not known for undergoing unusual weather events. The current citys name is most likely derived from two Frankish words, raus meaning reed and baki meaning brook, thence the sense of Roubaix can probably find its origin on the banks of the three following historical brooks, Espierre and Favreuil. The place was mentioned for the first time in a Latinised form in the 9th century, the following names were in use,1047 and 1106 Rubais,1122 Rosbays,1166 Rusbais,1156 and 1202 Robais,1223 Roubais. Over the span of centuries, the name evolved to Roubaix as shown on Mercators map of Flanders published at Leuven in 1540, parallel to the official and usual name Roubaix, some translations are worth a mention. Firstly, though the city has never belonged to the Flemish-speaking area, the Dutch Language Union established Robaais as the citys proper Dutch name.
Inhabitants of Roubaix are known in English as Roubaisians and in French as Roubaisiens or in the feminine form Roubaisiennes, natively called Roubaignos or in the feminine form Roubaignoses. From the 21st century, communes with more than 10,000 population have sample surveys held every year, by the late 18th century, the city began to emerge as regional textile manufacturing centre and its population increased, reaching a level of 8,091 in 1800. As a result of the process of the 19th century. Belgian settlement was a feature of the Roubaisian life at that time, the rate of natural increase shew to be a more important component of the population growth in that period. At the 20th century threshold, the Roubaisian population reached a peak of 124,661, the population of the city was 95,866 at the January 2013 census. This enables Roubaix to remain the third largest municipality in the region Hauts-de-France, after Lille and this spoken vernacular is locally known as Roubaignot. Until the early 20th century this patois prevailed, in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War and the German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, many Jews left their homes and emigrated