Santa Ana, California
Santa Ana /ˌsæntə ˈænə/ is the county seat and second most populous city in Orange County, California. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2011 population at 329,427, Santa Ana is located in Southern California, adjacent to the Santa Ana River, about 10 miles away from the California coast. Founded in 1869, the city is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, Santa Ana is a very densely populated city, ranking fourth nationally in that regard among cities of over 300,000 residents. In 2011 Forbes ranked Santa Ana the fourth-safest city of over 250,000 residents in the United States, Santa Ana lends its name to the Santa Ana Freeway, which runs through the city. It shares its name with the nearby Santa Ana Mountains, and the Santa Ana winds, the current Office of Management and Budget metropolitan designation for the Orange County Area is Santa Ana–Anaheim–Irvine, California. Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño are indigenous to the area, the Tongva called the Santa Ana area Hotuuk.
After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá out of Mexico City, capitol of New Spain, on November 1,1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano was established within this valley. This Santa Ana Valley comprised most of what is now called Orange County, in 1810, year of the commencement of the war of Mexican Independence, Jose Antonio Yorba, a sergeant of the Spanish army, was granted land that he called Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Yorbas rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Irvine, Yorba Linda, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and unincorporated El Modena and this rancho was the only land grant in Orange County granted under Spanish Rule. Surrounding land grants in Orange County were granted after Mexican Independence by the new government, after the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, Alta California became part of the United States and American settlers arrived in this area. Claimed in 1869 by Kentuckian William H, by 1905 the Los Angeles Interurban Railway, a predecessor to the Pacific Electric Railway, extended from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, running along Fourth Street downtown.
Firestone Boulevard, the first direct route between Los Angeles and Santa Ana, opened in 1935, it was enlarged into the Santa Ana Freeway in 1953. Santa Ana was the home of the original Glenn L. Martin aviation company, during World War II, the Santa Ana Army Air Base was built as a training center for the United States Army Air Forces. The base was responsible for continued growth in Santa Ana. In 1958, Fashion Square Mall was built, adjoining the existing Bullocks Department Store building that was built in 1954 and it opened north of downtown and became a major retail center for the area. In 1987, the mall was renovated and became MainPlace Mall. The current mayor of Santa Ana is Miguel A. Pulido, the first mayor of Latino descent in the citys history, since the 1980s, Santa Ana has been characterized by an effort to revitalize the downtown area which had declined in influence. The Santa Ana Artists Village was created around Cal State Fullertons Grand Central Art Center to attract artists and young professionals to live-work lofts, the process has continued into 2009 with the reopening of the historic Yost Theater
1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes
The 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes occurred along the Lost Coast of Northern California on April 25 and 26. The sequence encompassed both interplate and intraplate activity that was associated with the Mendocino Triple Junction, a system of three major faults that converge near Cape Mendocino. The total number of aftershocks followed the events exceeded 2,000. No surface ruptures were present in the area, but landslides closed roads. Also discovered was about 1 m of coastal uplift near Cape Mendocino, the tsunami was significant not because of its run-up, but because of the speed with which it reached the coast and for how long the waves persisted. The Mendocino Triple Junction formed 29–30 mya at 31° N when the Pacific-Farallon spreading center initially approached the subduction zone off the coast of western North America, the Rivera Triple Junction shifted to the southeast to its current position at 23° N. Once the Pacific Plate and North American Plate connected the boundary became that of a fault due to the northwestward motion of the Pacific Plate relative to the North American Plate.
The San Andreas Fault continues to lengthen to the northwest and the southeast as the two triple junctions continue their transient motion, the region near the triple junction experiences high seismicity, with more than 60 earthquakes of intensity VI or greater or magnitudes ≥5.5 since 1853. Investigation of more than 1,200 surveys from the North Coast area led to the assignment of an intensity rating of IX on the Modified Mercalli scale for the region near Petrolia. Both shocks were of intensity VIII, occurred at a depth of 20 kilometers, of the several thousand aftershocks in the sequence, none were found to have occurred on the Mendocino Fracture Zone, but numerous events were located on the eastward projection of that fault. The mainshocks rupture duration was described as a smooth nine seconds, the initial event caused a number of wood framed homes in Scotia to come off their foundations while the porches of some other homes became detached. The 25 MW cogeneration plant there that used wood waste products to both the lumber company and the town suffered damage and both lumber mills were shut down for several weeks.
In Rio Dell, across the Eel River from Scotia, glass store fronts along the street were shattered. In Petrolia the general store was destroyed by fire, and in Fortuna, a six figure portion of that figure was due to losses at the high schools gymnasium. The two aftershocks the following morning were separated by less than four hours and both caused at least as much damage as the mainshock. The water supply in Rio Dell was terminated when the main was severed at the abutment to the Eel River bridge. Some were mere seconds while others lasted for hours, but the plants performance at Ruth Reservoir was deemed acceptable. Damage estimates were as high as $75 million, one third of which was due to bridges and roads, the American Red Cross compiled damage statistics in the county and the totals included 906 damaged homes and apartments
The Bancroft Library in the center of the Berkeley campus of the University of California, Berkeley, is the universitys primary special-collections library. It was acquired from its founder, Hubert Howe Bancroft, in 1905, the collection at that time consisted of 50,000 volumes of materials on the history of California and the North American West. It is the largest such collection in the world, the building the library is located in, the Doe Annex, was completed in 1950. The inception of the Bancroft Library dates back to 1859, looking through his stock he was agreeably surprised to find some 50 or 75 volumes. There was no fixed purpose at this time to collect a library, during his next visit to the eastern states, without special pains or search, he secured whatever fell under his observation in second-hand stores of New York and Philadelphia. He had collected in all not far from a 1,000 volumes and had begun to feel satisfied. When, however, I visited London and Paris, and rummaged the enormous stocks of second-hand books in the hundreds of stores of that class, my eyes began to open.
And so it was, when the collection had reached one thousand volumes, I fancied I had them all, special journeys were made to all parts of Europe, as well as the Americas, in the interest of his collection. And not only was every nook and corner of the world thus ramsacked, while his vague ideas of materials for writing a history gradually assumed more definite form, Bancroft had as yet no idea of writing a history himself. The bibliophile reached the determination to make his collection as complete as it was possible to make it. Neither time, nor money, nor personal attention would be spared, agents were appointed in all the leading book marts of the world, no book must be lost because of its high price, no opportunity was to be missed to obtain everything in existence on the subject. By buying up at auction in European cities individual collections, and even libraries, in 1869, it is reported that Bancroft held, including pamphlets, about 16,000 volumes. These were lodged on the floor of the Market Street building.
Bancroft now decided to begin work, but the collecting went rapidly forward without interruption. He would erect on some convenient spot a fireproof library building, the library was moved to the building October 9,1881. There the library stood for years, when the question of State purchase was taken up, the Bancroft Library was said to contain from 50,000 to 60,000 volumes of books, pamphlets and manuscripts. Prof. Joseph Cummings Rowell, Librarian of the State University, after personal examination. In 1887, a bill was presented in the State Legislature to purchase the library for the State for $250,000, but the proposition was quickly defeated
Lionel H. Pries, was a leading architect and educator in the Pacific Northwest. Pries was born in San Francisco and raised in Oakland and he graduated with a B. A. in Architecture from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1920, where he studied under John Galen Howard. He studied under Paul Cret at the University of Pennsylvania, after travel in Europe, he returned to San Francisco where he practiced architecture for the next four years, although he spent a year in Santa Barbara after the 1925 earthquake. In 1928, Pries moved to Seattle to join Penn classmate William J. Bain in the firm Bain & Pries, initially successful, the firm could not survive the Depression and dissolved in late 1931. Thereafter Pries focused on his career as an educator, although he took on architectural projects under his own name. Pries joined the faculty of the Department of Architecture at the University of Washington in fall 1928, from 1931 to 1932, Pries served as Director of the Art Institute of Seattle. For a time he was part of the circle of Northwest artists that included Kenneth Callahan, Morris Graves, Pries exhibited as an artist in the late 1920s and from the mid-1930s to the mid-1940s.
Priess architectural works from the late 1930s to the 1960s showed a mix of Modernism and regionalism, Pries was gay, but deeply closeted in the University of Washington community. He anticipated teaching at least until he reached retirement age, but was forced to resign his university position in 1958 after he was picked up in a sting in Los Angeles. The reason for Priess abrupt departure from the university was concealed at the time, Pries worked as a drafter until he was able to retire in 1964, lived quietly until his death in 1968. In 1981 the University of Washington College of Architecture and Urban Planning established the Lionel Pries Endowed Fund, in 1984 architecture student Drew Rocker published an essay on Pries in the regional design journal Arcade. In the mid-1980s, students in the College of Architecture and Urban Planning established an award to recognize teaching excellence and named it the “Lionel Pries Teaching Award. ”Priess influence and significance were cited by many of his students, notably Yamasaki in his autobiography.
Pries is cited in recent monographs on A. Quincy Jones, Roland Terry, Jeffrey Karl, Lionel H. Pries, Artist, From Arts and Crafts to Modern Architecture University of Washington Press and London,2007. Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, Modern or Traditional, Lionel H. Pries and Architectural Education at the University of Washington, 1928–1942, Pacific Northwest Quarterly 96, pages 132–150. Rocker, Lionel H. Pries, Educator of Architects, Drew, Lionel H. Pries, in Shaping Seattle Architecture, A Historical Guide to the Architects, University of Washington Press and London,1994, pages 228–233. Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Archive Pacific Northwest magazine, Seattle Times Seattle Times art critic Sheila Farr DOCOMOMO WEWA glbtq
Moorish Revival architecture
The Moorish garden structures built at Sheringham Hall, Norfolk, ca. By the mid-19th century, the style was adopted by the Jews of Central Europe, as a consequence, Moorish Revival spread around the globe as a preferred style of synagogue architecture. In Spain, the country conceived as the place of origin of Moorish ornamentation, in Catalonia, Antoni Gaudís profound interest in Mudéjar heritage governed the design of his early works, such as Casa Vicens or Astorga Palace. In Andalusia, the Neo-Mudéjar style gained belated popularity in connection with the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and was epitomized by Plaza de España, a Spanish nobleman built the Palazzo Sammezzano, one of Europes largest and most elaborate Moorish Revival structures, in Tuscany between 1853 and 1889. Another exception was Bosnia, after its occupation by Austria-Hungary and this included application of ornamentations and other Moorish design strategies neither of which had much to do with prior architectural direction of indigenous Bosnian architecture.
The central post office in Sarajevo, for example, follows distinct formal characteristics of design like clarity of form, constructed in 1848 and destroyed by fire ten years later, this architectural extravaganza sprouted bulbous domes and horseshoe arches. After the American Civil War, Moorish or Turkish smoking rooms achieved some popularity, there were Moorish details in the interiors created for the Henry Osborne Havemeyer residence on Fifth Avenue by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The 1914 Pittock Mansion in Portland, Oregon incorporates Turkish design features, as well as French and Italian ones, the smoking room in particular has notable Moorish revival elements. The 1891 Tampa Bay Hotel, whose minarets and Moorish domes are now the pride of the University of Tampa, was a particularly extravagant example of the style, other schools with Moorish Revival buildings include Yeshiva University in New York City. George Washington Smith used the style in his design for the 1920s Isham Beach Estate in Santa Barbara, Immaculate Conception Church, is a striking example of Moorish Revival Architecture.
Across the street was the College of the Immaculate Conception, housing a chapel with two stained glass domes, the chapel was disassembled and about half of it was installed in the present Jesuit High School. The Shriners, an organization, often chose a Moorish Revival style for their Temples. C. El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium, Arizona Medinah Temple, murat Shrine, Indiana, the largest Shrine temple in North America, now officially known as Old National Centre. Augustine, FL,1883 Campo Pequeno bullring, Lisbon,1892 Henry B, south Melbourne, Australia,1976 Moorish Revival in New York Architecture
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was an American architect celebrated for his work in Gothic Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival design. He designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press, in life, Goodhue freed his architectural style with works like El Fureidis in Montecito, one of the three estates designed by Goodhue. Goodhue was born in Pomfret, Connecticut to Charles Wells Goodhue and his second wife, due to financial constraints he was educated at home by his mother until, at age 11 years, he was sent to Russells Collegiate and Commercial Institute. Finances prevented him from attending university, but he received a degree from Trinity College in Connecticut in 1911. In lieu of formal training, in 1884 he moved to Manhattan, New York City, to apprentice at the firm of Renwick. Goodhues apprenticeship ended in 1891 when he won a competition for St. Matthews in Dallas. This circle included Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard University and Ernest Fenollosa of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and it was through this group that Goodhue met Ralph Adams Cram, who would be his business partner for almost 25 years.
Cram and Goodhue were members of societies, including the Pewter Mugs. In 1892–1893 they published an art magazine called The Knight Errant. The multitalented Goodhue was a student of design and type design. In 1896, he created the Cheltenham typeface for use by a New York printer and this typeface came to be used as the headline type for The New York Times. In 1891, Cram and Goodhue formed the firm of Cram, Wentworth. The firm was a leader in Neo-Gothic architecture, with significant commissions from ecclesiastical, the Gothic Revival Saint Thomas Church was designed by them and built in 1914 on Manhattans Fifth Avenue in New York City. In 1915, Goodhue accepted membership to what is now as the American Academy of Arts. In 1917, Goodhue was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, Goodhue, in departed into a series of radically different stylistic experiments over his independent career. His first was the Byzantine Revival style for St. Bartholomews Episcopal Church on New York Citys Park Avenue and this was for the significant commission of the El Prado Quadrangles layout and buildings at the major 1915 Panama-California Exposition, located in San Diegos Balboa Park.
He was the architect, taking over from Irving Gill, with Carleton Winslow Sr. The Panama-California Expositions style was seen by many and widely published, becoming influential in California
Orange County, California
Orange County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232 making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States and its county seat is Santa Ana. It is the second most densely populated county in the state, the countys four largest cities, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach each have populations exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange Countys cities are on the Pacific coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Orange County is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in the county, the newest is Aliso Viejo, Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870, when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city and it is mostly suburban except for some traditionally urban areas at the centers of the older cities of Anaheim, Huntington Beach and Santa Ana.
There are several edge city-style developments such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, the county is famous for its tourism as the home of attractions like Disneyland, Knotts Berry Farm, and several beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. It is part of the Tech Coast, members of the Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana, on November 1,1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the areas first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba, both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively. The Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834, the Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, and Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California. A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the industry, cattle ranching.
In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and this growth led the California legislature to divide Los Angeles County and create Orange County as a separate political entity on March 11,1889. The county is said to have named for the citrus fruit in an attempt to promote immigration by suggesting a semi-tropical paradise–a place where anything could grow. Other citrus crops and oil extraction were important to the early economy. Orange County benefited from the July 4,1904 completion of the Pacific Electric Railway, the link made Orange County an accessible weekend retreat for celebrities of early Hollywood. It was deemed so significant that Pacific City changed its name to Huntington Beach in honor of Henry E. Huntington, president of the Pacific Electric, Transportation further improved with the completion of the State Route and U. S. Route 101 in the 1920s
Mission Santa Barbara
Mission Santa Barbara, known as Santa Barbara Mission, is a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscan order near present-day Santa Barbara, California. The mission is the namesake of the city of Santa Barbara as well as of Santa Barbara County, Mission Santa Barbara is the only mission to remain under the leadership of the Franciscan Friars since its founding, and today is a parish church of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. Mission Santa Barbaras name comes from the legend of Saint Barbara, the early missionaries built three different chapels during the first few years, each larger than the previous one. It was only after the Santa Barbara earthquake on December 21,1812, which destroyed the existing buildings and it was completed and dedicated in 1820. The towers were damaged in the June 29,1925 earthquake. The appearance of the inside of the church has not been altered significantly since 1820, many elements of the Missions extensive water treatment system, all built by Chumash Indians labor under the direction of the Franciscans remain to this day.
The larger reservoir, which was built in 1806 by the expedient of damming a canyon, had been a component of the Citys water system until 1993. The original fountain and lavadero are intact near the entrance to the Mission, a dam constructed in 1807 is situated in the current Santa Barbara Botanic Garden up Mission Canyon. The Missions tanning vats, pottery kiln, and guard house are all in ruins to this day, in 1818, two Argentine ships under the command of the French privateer Hipólito Bouchard approached the coast and threatened the young town of Santa Barbara. The padres armed and trained 150 of the neophytes to prepare for attack, with their help, the Presidio soldiers confronted Bouchard, who sailed out of the harbor without attacking. Some Franciscans serve on the Board of Trustees along with scholars and community members and it is the oldest library in the State of California that still remains in the hands of its founders, the Franciscans. Beginning with the writings of Hubert Howe Bancroft, the library has served as a center for study of the missions for more than a century.
The collections of the Santa Barbara Mission-Archive Library had their inception in the 1760s with Fray Junipero Serras plans for missions in Alta California, the collections include named sections, the Junipero Serra Collection, the California Mission Documents, and the Apostolic College collection. The archive-library has a collection of early California writings, maps. In 1840, Alta California Territory and Baja California Territory were removed from the Diocese of Sonora to form the Diocese of Both Californias. Bishop Francisco Garcia Diego y Moreno, OFM, established his cathedra at Mission Santa Barbara, making the chapel the pro-cathedral of the diocese until 1849. Under Bishop Thaddeus Amat y Brusi, C. M. the chapel served as a pro-cathedral, for the Diocese of Monterey and the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles. It is for this reason that of all the California missions, at that time, that particular architectural feature was restricted to a cathedral church
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
United States Government Publishing Office
The United States Government Publishing Office is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. Following signature by the President, the change took effect on December 17,2014, the Government Publishing Office was created by congressional joint resolution on June 23,1860. It began operations March 4,1861, with 350 employees, for its entire history, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia. An additional structure was attached to its north in years, the activities of GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code. The Public Printer, who serves as the head of GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice, the Public Printer selects a Superintendent of Documents. The Superintendent of Documents is in charge of the dissemination of information at the GPO, adelaide Hasse was the founder of the Superintendent of Documents classification system. GPO first used 100 percent recycled paper for the Congressional Record and Federal Register from 1991-1997, under Public Printers Robert Houk, GPO resumed using recycled paper in 2009.
In March 2011, GPO issued a new illustrated official history covering the agencys 150 years of Keeping America Informed, following signature of this legislation by President Barack Obama, the name change took place on December 17,2014. By law, the Public Printer heads the GPO, Public Printers, Almon M. Clapp John D. Defrees Sterling P. Rounds Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer, O. J. Tapella William J. United States Code United States Statutes at Large House Journal, the United States Department of State began issuing e-passports in 2006. GPO produces the blank e-Passport, while the Department of State receives and processes applications, GPO ceased production of legacy passports in May 2007, shifting production entirely to e-passports. In March 2008, the Washington Times published a story about the outsourcing of electronic passports to overseas companies. GPO designs, prints and personalizes Trusted Traveler Program cards for the Department of Homeland Security, cumulative Copyright Catalogs Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion Official Records of the American Civil War US Congressional Serial Set United States.
Military Information Division, p. Publications, Issues 33-34, Carl Reichmann, Adna Romanga Chaffee. Reports on military operations in South Africa and China, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Stephan LH. Slocum, Carl Reichmann, Adna Romanza Chaffee, United States, Reports on military operations in South Africa and China. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list United States, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, United States. Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries during the years, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list United States
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States. Santa Barbaras climate is described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the American Riviera. The population of the county in 2010 was 423,895. In 2004, the sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment. Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does Amtrak, U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located approximately 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area, portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name Santa Barbara to the channel, a land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited in 1769, and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town Laguna de la Concepcion. Cabrillos earlier name, however, is the one that has survived, the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other such as England and Russia. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio, the Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4,1786.
It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans and it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity. The Chumash laborers built a connection between the creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam. During the following decades, many of the natives died of such as smallpox