England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Worcester /ˈwʊstər/ WUUSS-tər local pronunciation /ˈwᵻstə/ is a city and the county seat of Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the citys population was 181,045, Worcester is located approximately 40 miles west of Boston,50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the Heart of the Commonwealth, however, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the mass-produced Valentines Day card was invented in the city. S. Census Combined Statistical Area, or Greater Boston, the city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe, the native people called the region Quinsigamond and built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian praying town and identify a new location for an English settlement.
On July 13,1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people. In 1675, King Philips War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip, the English settlers completely abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was abandoned during Queen Annes War in 1702. Finally in 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14,1722, on April 2,1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams worked as a schoolteacher, in the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775, in 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester.
Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War, on July 14,1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence in front of the Worcester town hall. He would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812, during the turn of the 19th century Worcesters economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was officially chartered as a city on February 29,1848, immigrants moved into new triple-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcesters expanding streets and neighborhoods
John Joseph Farrell was an American professional golfer, best known for winning the U. S. Open in 1928. Over the course of his career, he won 22 PGA Tour events, born in White Plains, New York, Farrell started as a caddy and turned professional in 1922. Farrell was voted the 1927 and 1928 Best Golf Professional in the United States, after a streak of six consecutive tournaments. He played for the United States in the first three Ryder Cups,1927,1929, and 1931, Farrell was the head professional at the Quaker Ridge Golf Club in New York from 1919-1930. In 1931, Farrell played in his third Ryder Cup and met, in 1934, Farrell accepted the head professional job at Baltusrol Golf Club in Springfield, New Jersey. The Farrells had five children, Jimmy, Peggy, the Farrell family dedicated itself to golf, becoming Golf Family of the Year in 1966. Billy Farrell played professional golf, and is best known for being the first ever to hit the 630-yard par-5 17th hole at Baltusrols Lower Course in two shots, during the 1967 U. S.
Open. Farrell died in Boynton Beach, after a stroke at age 87. S, Open 1930 New York State Open, Pensacola Open Invitational 1931 Pensacola Open Invitational 1936 New Jersey Open Major championship is shown in bold. Note, This list may be incomplete
Macdonald Mac Smith was one of the top professional golfers in the world from about 1910 into the mid-1930s. He was a member of a famous Scottish golfing family, Smith is regarded, based on his results, as one of the best golfers of all time who never won a major championship. He won 24 official events on the PGA Tour, born in Carnoustie, the son of John D. Smith and Joann Smith, Smith learned his golf on the famous and very difficult Carnoustie Golf Links. He emigrated to the United States on March 8,1908 at age 17 to seek better golfing opportunities and he applied for, and was granted, American citizenship on July 31,1918 from the Superior Court of San Diego County, California. At the time, Smith was serving in the U. S. Army at Camp Kearny in San Diego during World War I. In December 1922, he was married to Louise A. Cahill, Smith was the club professional at the country club in Del Monte, where future two-time major champion Olin Dutra and his brother Mortie started as caddies. Two of Smiths older brothers won the U. S.
Open, Willie in 1899, brothers George and Jim played golf at a very high standard. Early in his career, Macdonald Smith was in a playoff at the U. S. Open in 1910 won by his brother Alex, John McDermott finished second. Smith won 24 times on the early PGA Tour, with his five wins in 1926 marking his peak season, but he never won a major championship, trailing only Harry Cooper for most wins without a major. His 24 Tour wins are the most by any player not inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame. Smith finished in the top ten at majors 17 times, including three second-place finishes, at the U. S. Open in 1930 and the British Open in 1930 and 1932, both in England. His runner-up finishes at both Opens in 1930 were to noted amateur Bobby Jones, the winner of the grand slam that year, gene Sarazen won the 1932 Open Championship. Smith scored five wins in significant U. S. tournaments. Smith suffered a heartbreaking near-miss in the British Open at Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland in 1925 and he shot a disappointing 82 in the final round and finished three strokes back, Jim Barnes won.
Crowd control broke down, with the spectators, many of whom had traveled to watch him, invading the playing areas, causing delays, chaotic conditions. His majors were primarily the two Opens, he never entered the PGA Championship, a play competition, and played in just one Masters. His final major was the U. S. Open in 1937, the previous year was his last top ten, in fourth place. Smith won the Western Open three times, in 1912,1925, and 1933, when it was a prestigious tournament rivaling the majors in stature
An iron is a type of club used in the sport of golf to propel the ball towards the hole. Irons are the most common type of club, a set of 14 golf clubs will usually contain between 7 and 11 irons, including wedges. Historically all irons were forged from a piece of metal. Modern investment casting processes enabled manufacturers to easily mass-produce clubs with consistent properties and this manufacturing process was first used by PING, and made it possible to take weight out of the back of the clubhead and distribute it around the perimeter. This design feature was used in the Wilson Ogg-mented irons, the forerunner of perimeter-weighted or cavity back irons, the resulting club is generally thought to have an improved feel due to the softer consistency of the forged metal as opposed to cast. Manufacturers sometimes try to combine the characteristics of both muscle and cavity backed irons, which has resulted in such as cut-muscle, or split-cavity to describe these designs. There are many clubs, so-called because they combine some of the characteristics of irons and woods.
Indeed, many sets of clubs, especially those marketed for beginners, a muscle back is the more traditional design and consists of a solid metal head, typically made of forged iron. As such, these clubs are said to have a sweet spot, requiring greater skill. Novice golfers with less consistent swing fundamentals can easily mis-hit these clubs and this has the general effect of lowering the clubheads center of mass, placing it underneath that of the ball allowing for a higher launch angle for a given loft. The perimeter weighting increases the moment of inertia, making the more resistant to twisting on impact with the ball. The end result is a clubhead with a sweet spot that is more forgiving of slight mis-hits. Modern clubs generally borrow from both muscle-back and cavity-back design features, and fall into a gradient and this generally improves their final score as compared to a round played with harder-to-hit muscle-back designs causing more errant shots and thus more penalty strokes. However, these same forgiving characteristics can make game improvement irons harder for a golfer to use well.
This lack of ability to work the ball can frustrate a more skilled golfer attempting to place the more accurately on the fairway than a novice would normally be concerned with. This allows the golfer to work the ball while still giving some advantage based on the center of mass as compared to older designs. Investment casting, while allowing for a range of design options, produces a very stiff and inflexible head that can be difficult to adjust for a players desired lie. Forged irons, while they allow for easier and a range of adjustments are limited in the designs they may be achieved
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
Francis DeSales Ouimet was an American amateur golfer who is frequently referred to as the father of amateur golf in the United States. He won the U. S. Open in 1913 and was the first non-Briton elected Captain of the Royal and he was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974. Ouimet was born to Mary Ellen Burke and Arthur Ouimet in Brookline and his father was a French-Canadian immigrant, and his mother was originally from Ireland. When Francis was four years old, his family purchased a house on Clyde Street in Brookline, the Ouimet family grew up relatively poor and were near the bottom of the economic ladder, which was hardly the position of any American golfer at the time. Ouimet became interested in golf at an age and started caddying at The Country Club at the age of 11. Using clubs from his brother and balls he found around the course and his game soon caught the eye of many country club members and caddie master Dan MacNamara. It wasnt long before Ouimet was the best high school golfer in the state, when he was a junior in high school, his father insisted that he drop out and do something useful with his life.
Ouimet worked at a store before landing a job at a sporting goods store owned by future Baseball Hall of Famer George Wright. In 1913, Ouimet won his first significant title at age 20, the Massachusetts Amateur, an event he won five more times. He participated in the U. S. Amateur at the Garden City Golf Club in Long Island, New York in early September, losing in the quarterfinals to the eventual champion, Jerome Travers. Vardon had won the U. S. Open in 1900, Ray had won the Open Championship in 1912. The 1913 event was played at the course Ouimet knew best, The Country Club in Brookline, Ouimet originally declined to play, having just returned from an absence from work to play in the National Amateur. His participation in the Open was soon arranged, with the cooperation of his employer and it was Ouimets first appearance in the championship. Eddie Lowery was his ten year old caddie, after 72 holes of regulation play ended in a three-way tie, Ouimet and Ray engaged in an 18-hole playoff the next day in rainy conditions.
Ouimet won the playoff at one-under-par for the day, beating Vardon by 5 strokes and his victory was widely hailed as a stunning upset over the strongly favored British, who were regarded as the top two golfers in the world. He was the first amateur to win the U. S. Open, the biggest crowds ever seen in American golf followed the playoff, and his achievement was front-page news across the country. Ouimets U. S. Open success is credited for bringing golf into the American sporting mainstream, before his win over Vardon and Ray, golf was dominated by British players. In America, the sport was restricted to players with access to private facilities, there were very few public courses Ten years after his 1913 victory, the number of American players had tripled and many new courses had been built, including numerous public ones
United States Golf Association
The United States Golf Association is the United States national association of golf courses and facilities and the governing body of golf for the U. S. and Mexico. Together with The R&A, the USGA produces and interprets the rules of golf, the USGA provides a national handicap system for golfers, conducts 13 national championships, including the U. S. Open, U. S. Womens Open and U. S. Senior Open, and tests golf equipment for conformity with regulations, in addition, the USGA is a leader in turfgrass research through its Green Section and it provides hundreds of grants to grass-roots programs through its Foundation in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The USGA Foundation has provided more than $60 million in grants to programs for underprivileged youth and it is the largest contributor to The First Tee program. The USGA is currently led by Executive Director Mike Davis, and President Thomas J. OToole Jr. and is headquartered at Golf House in Far Hills, the Bob Jones Award is the highest honor given by the United States Golf Association in recognition of distinguished sportsmanship in golf.
The inaugural award was given in 1955, the USGA was originally formed in 1894 to resolve the question of a national amateur championship. Earlier that year, the Newport Country Club and Saint Andrews Golf Club, New York and that autumn, delegates from Newport, St. On December 22,1894, the Amateur Golf Association of the United States was officially formed, theodore Havemeyer was the first president, and the U. S. Amateur trophy is named in his honor. The first U. S. Amateur was held in 1895 at the Newport Country Club, the first U. S. Open was held the following day, almost as an afterthought. It was not until 1898 that the two events were held at separate clubs, the USGA administers 13 separate national championships, ten of which are expressly for amateurs. The USGA gradually expanded its membership from the five clubs. There were 267 club members in 1910, and 1,138 clubs by 1932, membership fell off during the Great Depression and World War II, but recovered by 1947. By 1980 there were over 5,000 clubs, and today membership exceeds 9,700.
On September 17,1956, Ann Gregory began competing in the U. S. Womens Amateur Championship, the USGA organizes or co-organizes the following competitions, An open golf championship is one which both professionals and amateurs may enter. In practice, such events are won by professionals nowadays. The two leading opens in the U. S. are, U. S. Open – no age or gender restrictions, established in 1895, it is the second-oldest of the four major championships. U. S. Womens Open – females, no age restrictions, established in 1946 and administered by the USGA since 1953, it is the oldest of the five womens majors. The last win by an amateur at the U. S. Open was 84 years ago in 1933, the USGA conducts the U. S
Alex Smith (golfer)
Alexander Smith was a Scottish-American professional golfer who played in the late 19th and early 20th century. He was a member of a famous Scottish golfing family and his brother Willie won the U. S. Open in 1899, and Alex won it in both 1906 and 1910. Like many British professionals of his era he spent much of his life working as a club professional in the United States. Smith was born in Carnoustie, Scotland, on 28 January 1874, on 18 January 1895 he was married to Jessie Maiden—sister of James Maiden—and they had two daughters and Margaret, born in 1896 and 1899, respectively. Smith was sometimes referred to as Alec Smith, especially early in his career and he was the head professional at Nassau Country Club in Glen Cove, New York, from 1901 through 1909. James Maiden, who would forge a successful career of his own. In 1901, Smith lost to Willie Anderson in a playoff for the U. S. Open title, smiths 1906 U. S. Open victory came at the Onwentsia Club in Lake Forest, Illinois. His 72-hole score of 295 was the lowest at either the U. S.
Open or the British Open up to that time, the 1910 U. S. Open was played over the St. Martins course at the Philadelphia Cricket Club. Smith won a playoff against American John McDermott and another of his own brothers. Alex Smith played in eighteen U. S, opens in total and accumulated eleven top ten placings. Smith, who partnered with C. A, a playoff wasnt held due to the fact that Smith was competing in the medal competition which he won from Willie Anderson. Smith won the Western Open twice and the Metropolitan Open four times, in 1910, Smith was a widower and lived with his two young daughters and sister-in-law, Allison Barry, in New Rochelle, New York. He was the professional at the Westchester Country Club in Rye. Smith died on 21 April 1930 at a sanatorium in Baltimore and he is best known for winning the U. S. Open twice, in 1906 and again in 1910. Smith died before the Masters Tournament was founded, NYF = Tournament not yet founded NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew T indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins. S
Abel Ruben Al Espinosa was an American professional golfer. Espinosa won nine times on the PGA Tour in the 1920s and 1930s and he was on the Ryder Cup teams in 1927,1929, and 1931, although he did not play in 1927. He lost to Leo Diegel in the PGA Championship finals in 1928 and he tied with Bobby Jones in the U. S. Open in 1929 at Winged Foot, but lost by 23 strokes in the 36-hole playoff. He won the Mexican Open four times and his older brother Abe won on the PGA Tour. Born in Monterey, Espinosa was of Mexican American descent and he died of cancer at age 65 in 1957 in San Francisco, and is buried at San Carlos Cemetery in Monterey
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days