Bolton Wanderers F.C.
Bolton Wanderers Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bolton, Greater Manchester. The club currently competes in League One, the tier of the English football league system. The club was formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, founder members of the Football League in 1888, Bolton have spent the highest number of seasons of any club in the top flight without winning the title. The closest they have come to the title is third in the First Division on three occasions, as of 2015, the club has spent more seasons in the top division than any other club outside the current Premier League. Bolton were a successful cup side in the 1920s, winning the FA Cup three times, the club won the cup a fourth time in 1958. A leaner spell followed, reaching a nadir in 1987 when the club spent a season in the Fourth Division, the club regained top-flight status in 1995 after a 15-year absence. In a period of success, the club qualified for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06. The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895, on 9 March 1946, The Burnden Park disaster occurred, which was a human crush in which 33 Bolton fans lost their lives. In 1997 it moved out of town to the Reebok Stadium, the stadium was renamed the Macron Stadium in July 2014, to reflect the clubs new deal with Italian sportswear company Macron. The club was founded by the Reverend Joseph Farrall Wright, Perpetual curate of Christ Church Bolton and Thomas Ogden, the schoolmaster at the adjacent church school in 1874 as Christ Church F. C. It was initially run from the church of the name on Deane Road. The club left the following a dispute with the vicar. The name was chosen as the club initially had a lot of difficulty finding a permanent ground to play on, Bolton were one of the 12 founder members of the Football League, which formed in 1888. At the time Lancashire was one of the strongest footballing regions in the country, having remained in the Football League since its formation, Bolton have spent more time in the top flight than out of it. In 1894 Bolton reached the final of the FA Cup for the first time, a decade later they were runners-up a second time, losing 1–0 to local rivals Manchester City at Crystal Palace on 23 April 1904. In this period Bolton equalled their record finish of third twice, in 1920–21 and 1924–25, on 28 April 1923, Bolton won their first major trophy in their third final, beating West Ham United 2–0 in the first ever Wembley FA Cup final. The match, famously known as The White Horse Final was played in front of over 127,000 supporters, boltons centre-forward, David Jack scored the first ever goal at Wembley Stadium. Driven by long-term players Joe Smith in attack, Ted Vizard and Billy Butler on the wings, in 1928 the club faced financial difficulties and so was forced to sell David Jack to Arsenal to raise funds
Manchester City F.C.
Manchester City Football Club is a football club in Manchester, England. Founded in 1880 as St. Marks, they became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887, the club moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923. After losing the 1981 FA Cup Final, the club went through a period of decline, having regained their Premier League status in the early 2000s, the club was purchased in 2008 by Abu Dhabi United Group and has become one of the wealthiest in the world. Since 2011 the club have won five major honours, including the Premier League in 2012 and 2014, by 2014–15, Manchester City had the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €463.5 million. In 2016, Forbes magazine estimated they were the sixth most valuable football club. City gained their first honours by winning the Second Division in 1899, with it promotion to the highest level in English football. A fire at Hyde Road destroyed the main stand in 1920, in the 1930s, Manchester City reached two consecutive FA Cup finals, losing to Everton in 1933, before claiming the Cup by beating Portsmouth in 1934. The club won the First Division title for the first time in 1937, after relegation to the Second Division in 1963, the future looked bleak with a record low home attendance of 8,015 against Swindon Town in January 1965. In the summer of 1965, the management team of Joe Mercer, in the first season under Mercer, City won the Second Division title and made important signings in Mike Summerbee and Colin Bell. Further trophies followed, City won the FA Cup in 1969, before achieving European success by winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1970, beating Górnik Zabrze 2–1 in Vienna. City also won the League Cup that season, becoming the second English team to win a European trophy, the club continued to challenge for honours throughout the 1970s, finishing one point behind the league champions on two occasions and reaching the final of the 1974 League Cup. Former United player Denis Law scored with a backheel to give City a 1–0 win at Old Trafford, the final trophy of the clubs most successful period was won in 1976, when Newcastle United were beaten 2–1 in the League Cup final. A long period of decline followed the success of the 1960s and 1970s, Malcolm Allison rejoined the club to become manager for the second time in 1979, but squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings, such as Steve Daley. A succession of managers then followed – seven in the 1980s alone, under John Bond, City reached the 1981 FA Cup final but lost in a replay to Tottenham Hotspur. The club were relegated from the top flight in the 1980s. However, this was only a respite, and following Reids departure Manchester Citys fortunes continued to fade. City were co-founders of the Premier League upon its creation in 1992, after two seasons in Division One, City fell to the lowest point in their history, becoming the second ever European trophy winners to be relegated to their countrys third league tier, after 1. After relegation, the club underwent off-the-field upheaval, with new chairman David Bernstein introducing greater fiscal discipline, under manager Joe Royle, City were promoted at the first attempt, achieved in dramatic fashion in a play-off against Gillingham
Wembley Stadium (1923)
The Original Wembley Stadium was a football stadium located in Wembley Park, London. It stood on the now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium. The great Brazilian footballer Pelé once said of the stadium, Wembley is the cathedral of football and it is the capital of football and it is the heart of football in recognition of its status as the worlds best-known football stadium. It also hosted music events, including the 1985 Live Aid charity concert. The twin towers were an icon for England and Wembley, debris from the Original Wembley Stadium was used to make the award-winning Northala Fields in Northolt, Ealing. The stadiums first turf was cut by King George V, much of Humphrey Reptons original Wembley Park landscape was transformed in 1922–23 during preparations for the British Empire Exhibition of 1924–25. First known as the British Empire Exhibition Stadium or simply Empire Stadium, the stadium cost £750,000, and was constructed on the site of an earlier folly called Watkins Tower. The architects were Sir John Simpson and Maxwell Ayrton and the Head Engineer Sir Owen Williams, the stadium had gone into liquidation, after it was pronounced financially unviable. Elvin offered to buy the stadium for £127,000, using a £12,000 downpayment and they then immediately bought it back from Elvin, leaving him with a healthy profit. Instead of cash he received shares, which gave him the largest stake in Wembley Stadium, the electric scoreboard and the all-encircling roof, made from aluminium and translucent glass, were added in 1963. The stadiums distinctive Twin Towers became its trademark and nickname, also well known were the 39 steps needed to be climbed to reach the Royal box and collect a trophy. Wembley was the first pitch to be referred to as Hallowed Turf, in 1934, the Empire Pool was built nearby. The Wembley Stadium Collection is held by the National Football Museum, the stadium closed in October 2000, and demolition commenced in December 2002, completing in 2003 for redevelopment. The top of one of the towers was erected as a memorial in the park on the north side of Overton Close in the Saint Raphaels Estate. Wembley is best known for hosting football matches, having hosted the FA Cup Final annually as well as numerous England International fixtures, the Empire Stadium was built in exactly 300 days at the cost of £750,000. Described as the worlds greatest sporting arena, it was ready only 4 days before the White Horse Final in 1923, the FA had not considered admission by ticket, grossly underestimating the number of fans who arrived at the 104 gates on match day. However, after the game, every event, apart from the 1982 replay, was ticketed, the first event held at the stadium was the FA Cup Final on 28 April 1923 between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United. This is known as the White Horse Final, the crowds overflowed onto the pitch as there was no room on the terraces
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
1927 FA Cup Final
The 1927 FA Cup Final was an association football match between Cardiff City and Arsenal on 23 April 1927 at the original Wembley Stadium. The showpiece match of English footballs primary cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, each team had progressed through five rounds to reach the final, having each entered in the third round. Both teams required a replay in different rounds to progress. In the fifth round, Cardiff knocked the reigning champions, Bolton Wanderers out of the cup, both teams had a mixture of home and away games on their route to the final, but Arsenal were not required to play outside of London after the initial fourth round match. By the quarter-finals, the two teams were the only Football League Division One teams left in the competition, Arsenal had injury problems with Horace Cope ruled out. Additional trains were put on to get Cardiffs fans to Wembley, a concert was held prior to the game, which included the first rendition of Abide with Me, which has since become a cup final tradition. It was the first FA Cup Final broadcast on the radio, the match was watched by 91,206 in the stadium, and a further 15,000 fans listened in Cardiffs Cathays Park to the radio broadcast. Afterwards, he blamed his new wool jersey, saying that it was greasy and this resulted in the Arsenal tradition of washing goalkeeper jerseys before every match. Following the match, the press called it the Singing Final, in the following years, Cardiff suffered a decline in their fortunes and didnt reach the FA Cup final again until 2008. Arsenal won the trophy in 1930 and went on to become the most successful team in the history of the tournament, Cardiff City began their campaign for the 1926–27 FA Cup with a home game at Ninian Park in front of around 30,000 fans against Aston Villa. After a goalless first half, Cardiff scored twice via a header by Len Davies, Aston Villa attempted to save the match, but were unable to score until goalkeeper Tom Farquharson scored an own goal after turning in a shot by Villa forward Arthur Dorrell. In the fourth round, Cardiff played Darlington away, newspaper reports indicated that they were the better team, but had it not been for the success of Darlingtons defence then they would have won by greater than the two goal margin they achieved. Goals came from George McLachlan and Hughie Ferguson, in the fifth round, Cardiff were drawn away against Bolton Wanderers, the reigning FA Cup champions. In front of a crowd of 49,465 in Bolton, following this round, alongside Arsenal, they were one of only two teams from the Football League First Division who remained in the competition. After an initial goalless draw in the round against Chelsea. Sam Irving put the Welsh team ahead after nine minutes, before Davies made it two on 21 minutes, Chelsea received a penalty, but the shot by Andrew Wilson was saved by Farquharson. Albert Thain scored for Chelsea a minute before half time, bob Turnbull equalised for Chelsea, four minutes into the second half. A further penalty was given, this time to Cardiff after Harry Wilding handled the ball and this time, Ferguson scored, putting Cardiff ahead once more and winning them the match
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors
AFC Bournemouth /ˈbɔːrnməθ/ is a professional association football club based in Bournemouth, Dorset, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of the English football league system. Formed in 1890 as Boscombe St. Johns Institute F. C. the club was reformed in 1899 as Boscombe F. C and they changed to Bournemouth and Boscombe Athletic F. C. in 1923, before settling on their current name in 1972. Nicknamed The Cherries, since 1910 Bournemouth have played their games at Dean Court. Their home colours are red and black striped shirts, with black shorts, AFC Bournemouth have won the second and third tiers of English football, and were twice runners up of the fourth tier. They have also won the Football League Trophy, and the Football League Third Division South Cup, currently managed by Eddie Howe, the 2015–16 season was AFC Bournemouths first ever in Englands top division. Although the exact date of the foundation is not known. The club was known as Boscombe F. C. The first president was Mr. J. C, in their first season, 1899–1900, Boscombe F. C. competed in the Bournemouth and District Junior League. They also played in the Hants Junior Cup, during the first two seasons, they played on a football pitch in Castlemain Avenue, Pokesdown. From their third season, the played on a pitch in Kings Park. In the 1905–06 season, Boscombe F. C. graduated to senior amateur football, in 1910, the club was granted a long lease upon some wasteland next to Kings Park as the clubs football ground by President J. E. Cooper-Dean. With their own ground, named Dean Court after the benefactor, also in 1910, the club signed their first professional football player B. Around about this time, the club obtained their nickname The Cherries, for the first time, during the 1913–14 season, the club competed in the FA Cup. The clubs progress, however, was halted in 1914 with the outbreak of World War I, in 1920, the Third Division was formed and Boscombe were promoted to the Southern League, finding moderate success. To make the more representative of the district, the name was changed to Bournemouth. During the same year, the club was elected to the Football League to fill the left by Stalybridge Celtics resignation. The first league match was at Swindon Town on 25 August 1923, the first league game at Dean Court was also against Swindon, where Bournemouth gained their first league point after a 0–0 draw. Initially, Bournemouth struggled in the Football League but eventually established themselves as a Third Division club, Bournemouth and Boscombe Athletic Football Club remain on the records as the longest continuous members of the Third Division
Nottingham Forest F.C.
Nottingham Forest Football Club is a professional association football club based in Nottinghamshire, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. The club, often referred to as Forest, have played matches at the City Ground since 1898. Founded in 1865, Forest were founder members of the Football Alliance in 1889, since then, they have mostly competed in the top two League tiers, bar five seasons in the third tier. Forest won the FA Cup in 1898 and 1959, Forest were founded in 1865 as Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club by a group of shinty players shortly after their neighbours Notts County, in 1862. They joined the Football Alliance in 1889, and won the competition in 1892, in their early years Forest were a multi-sports club, as well as their roots in bandy and shinty, the baseball club Forest deployed were British champions in 1899. Forests charitable approach to the sport helped teams like Liverpool, Arsenal, in 1886, Forest donated a set of football kits to help Arsenal establish themselves – the North London team still wear red. Forest also donated shirts to Everton and helped secure a site to play on for Brighton, Forest claimed their first major honour when they won the 1898 FA Cup, beating Derby County 3–1 at Crystal Palace. However, for much of the first half of the 20th century the club spent life in the Second Division and had to seek re-election in 1914 after finishing bottom. In 1949 the club were relegated to the Third Division, but were promoted back two years later as champions having scored a record 110 goals in the 1950–51 season. They therefore became the first team to defeat the Wembley hoodoo, by this time Forest had replaced Notts County as the biggest club in Nottingham and went on to become runners-up in the First Division and FA Cup semi-finalists in 1967. However, after a successful period for the club, Forest were relegated from the First Division in 1972. Clough became the most successful manager in the history of Nottingham Forest, cloughs first game in charge was the third round FA Cup replay against Tottenham Hotspur, a 1–0 victory thanks to a goal by Scottish centre-forward Neil Martin. Nottingham Forest became one of the few teams to win the First Division Championship a year after winning promotion from the Second Division and they also won the European Super Cup and two League Cups. The club reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 but were knocked out by Anderlecht in controversial but uncertain circumstances. The case was dismissed and Anderlecht was acquitted from all charges Nottingham Forests next major trophies came in 1989 when they won the Football League Cup. Cloughs side retained the League Cup in 1990 when they beat Oldham Athletic 1–0, in Forests team that day was young Irish midfielder Roy Keane, who had joined the club the previous summer. In the summer of 1991, Brian Clough broke Forests transfer record fee by signing the top scorer, Millwall striker Teddy Sheringham
Old Trafford is a football stadium in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, and the home of Manchester United. It is about 0.5 miles from Old Trafford Cricket Ground, future expansion is likely to involve the addition of a second tier to the South Stand, which would raise the capacity to around 95,000. The stadiums record attendance was recorded in 1939, when 76,962 spectators watched the FA Cup semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Grimsby Town and it also hosted football matches at the 2012 Summer Olympics, including womens international football for the first time in its history. Before 1902, Manchester United were known as Newton Heath, during time they first played their football matches at North Road. However, both grounds were blighted by wretched conditions, the pitches ranging from gravel to marsh, while Bank Street suffered from clouds of fumes from its neighbouring factories. Including the purchase of the land, the construction of the stadium was originally to have cost £60,000 all told. The subsidy would have come to the sum of £10,000, however, despite guarantees for the loan coming from the club itself and two local breweries, both chaired by club chairman John Henry Davies, the Cheshire Lines Committee turned the proposal down. The CLC had planned to build a new station adjacent to the new stadium, the station – Trafford Park – was eventually built, but further down the line than originally planned. The CLC later constructed a modest station with one timber-built platform immediately adjacent to the stadium and it was initially named United Football Ground, but was renamed Old Trafford Football Ground in early 1936. It was served on match days only by a service of steam trains from Manchester Central railway station. It is currently known as Manchester United Football Ground, construction was carried out by Messrs Brameld and Smith of Manchester and development was completed in late 1909. The stadium hosted its game on 19 February 1910, with United playing host to Liverpool. However, the side were unable to provide their fans with a win to mark the occasion. A journalist at the game reported the stadium as the most handsomest, the most spacious, as a football ground it is unrivalled in the world, it is an honour to Manchester and the home of a team who can do wonders when they are so disposed. Before the construction of Wembley Stadium in 1923, the FA Cup Final was hosted by a number of different grounds around England including Old Trafford. The first of these was the 1911 FA Cup Final replay between Bradford City and Newcastle United, after the tie at Crystal Palace finished as a no-score draw after extra time. Bradford won 1–0, the goal scored by Jimmy Speirs, in a match watched by 58,000 people, the grounds second FA Cup Final was the 1915 final between Sheffield United and Chelsea. Sheffield United won the match 3–0 in front of nearly 50,000 spectators, most of whom were in the military, leading to the final being nicknamed the Khaki Cup Final
Swansea City A.F.C.
Swansea City Association Football Club is a Welsh professional football club based in Swansea, Wales, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Swansea City represent England when playing in European competitions, although they have represented Wales in the past, the club was founded in 1912 as Swansea Town and joined the Football League in 1921. The club changed their name in 1969, when adopted the name Swansea City to reflect Swanseas new status as a city. Swansea have played their matches at the Liberty Stadium since 2005. In 1981, the club was promoted to the original Football League First Division and it was during the following season they came close to winning the league title, but a decline then set near the seasons end before finishing sixth, although a club record. The clubs subsequent climb from the division of English football to the top division is chronicled in the 2014 film. In 2011, Swansea were promoted to the Premier League, following the lead of many other South Wales sides, joined the second division of the Southern League for the following season. J. W. Thorpe was the clubs first chairman, a site owned by Swansea Gaslight Co. called Vetch Field due to the vegetables that grew there, was rented to be the clubs ground. The clubs first professional match was a 1–1 draw at the Vetch Field against Cardiff City on 7 September 1912. During that first season the Welsh Cup was won for the first time, before the game Bradshaw had scored with thirty-six consecutive spot kicks. Remarkably, the Swans played most of the half with ten men. The Swans drew at another First Division side, Newcastle United, in the next round, following the First World War the Southern League dropped its second division, and with many clubs dropping out due to financial difficulties, the Swans were placed in the first division. After just four seasons in the Southern League, Swansea Town became founder members of the new Third Division of The Football League in 1920, the side had remained unbeaten at home in the league all season – something the next promotion team would emulate over twenty years later. Sadly for the Swans, an experienced Bolton side won the game 3–0, Swans record their highest average attendance during the season of 16,118 for pre-war league games. During the 1926–27 season they beat Real Madrid 3–0 on tour, during the 1931–32 season they finished 1st and went out in the 3rd round of the FA Cup. However they won the Welsh Cup after beating Wrexham 2–0 away after a replay and it was not until the 1933–34 season that Wilfred Milne scored his first goal for Swansea at Lincoln City after 501 appearances without a goal. After just one back from wartime football, the Swans finished 21st in the Second Division. The following season was one of consolidation, however in 1948–1949 the Swans stormed their way to winning the division for the second time
White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane is the home of Tottenham Hotspur Football Club in the Premier League and has a capacity of 36,284. The stadium is located in the Tottenham area in north London, along with housing Tottenham, the stadium, which is known amongst Spurs fans as the Lane, has also been selected for England national football matches and England under-21 football matches. The record attendance remains an FA Cup tie on 5 March 1938 against Sunderland with the attendance being recorded at 75,038, the new stadium has been designed by Populous, which also designed derby rival Arsenals home, the Emirates Stadium. Initial designs were created by KSS Design Group back in 2008, Spurs moved to White Hart Lane in 1899. The club leased and later bought a disused nursery owned by the brewery chain Charringtons to the east of Tottenhams High Road, a local groundsman, John Over, turned the land into a substantial football pitch. The first game at the Lane resulted in a 4–1 home win against Notts County with around 5,000 supporters attending, although normally referred to at the time as the High Road ground in time it became popularly known as White Hart Lane. Redevelopments continued in the 1910s, with the eastern stand replaced with an enlarged concrete stadium. The ground continued to be renovated and in 1925, thanks to the FA Cup win in 1921, the pitch was overlooked by a bronze fighting cock that still keeps an eye on proceedings from the roof of the touchline stands. The venue hosted some of the preliminaries for the 1948 Summer Olympics. 1953 saw the introduction of floodlights with their first use being a friendly against Racing Club de Paris in September of that year and these were renovated again in the 1970s and steadily replaced with new technology since. By this stage, Tottenham were firmly established as one of Englands best clubs which attracted some of the highest attendances in the country on a regular basis. Between the late 1920s and 1972, White Hart Lane was one of very few British football grounds that no advertising hoardings at all. The West Stand was replaced in the early 1980s, however the project took over 15 months to complete with cost overruns causing severe financial implications. This West Stand is parallel with Tottenham High Road and is connected to it by Bill Nicholson Way, the early 1990s saw the completion of the South Stand and the introduction of the first Jumbotron video screen, of which there are now two, one above each penalty area. The renovation of the Members Stand which is reached via Paxton Road was completed in 1998, at the turn of the millennium, after falling behind in stadium capacity, talks began over the future of White Hart Lane and Tottenham Hotspurs home. Over the years, many designs and ideas were rumoured in the media. A move to Wembley Stadium was ruled out by the club, however Spurs bid for the stadium was rejected on 11 February 2011. During the construction of the new Wembley Stadium, White Hart Lane hosted full England international matches, since the opening of the rebuilt Wembley, the Lane has been occasionally used to host England Under-21s international matches years, most notably a 1–1 draw against France Under-21s
Joe Smith (football forward, born 1889)
Joseph Smith was an English professional football player and manager. He is tenth in the list of Englands top-flight goal scorers with 243 league goals to his name and he was manager of Blackpool for 23 years and guided them to victory in the 1953 FA Cup Final, the only time they have won the competition since their 1887 inception. A forward, he began his career at Crewe Alexandra, and he instead made his name at Bolton Wanderers, where with 277 league and cup goals between 1908 and 1927, he is the clubs second highest goalscorer, only eight behind Nat Lofthouse. He won the Second Division title with Bolton 1908–09, and played in FA Cup final victories in 1923 and 1926 and he later hit 61 goals in 70 league games for Stockport County, before being appointed player-manager at Darwen in 1929. Two years later he was appointed manager of Reading, and narrowly missed out on promotion during his four seasons in charge and he became Blackpool manager in August 1935, and remained in this position until April 1958. Wanderers won the Second Division title in 1908–09, but were relegated out of the First Division in 1909–10. They regained their status after securing a second-place finish in the Second Division in 1910–11. Smith then became the clubs top-scorer in 1911–12 with 24 goals, as Bolton posted a fourth-place finish and he scored 22 goals in 1912–13, as Bolton dropped to eighth position. George Lillycrop then became the leading scorer in 1913–14, before Smith finished as the clubs top-scorer for the third time in four seasons with 36 goals in 1914–15. During World War I he guested for Chelsea and Port Vale, after the war, Bolton finished sixth in 1919–20. However Bolton dropped to sixth position again in 1921–22, Smith recorded 19 goals in 1922–23 to become the clubs top-scorer for the fifth time. His goals helped Bolton to reach the 1923 FA Cup Final – the first FA Cup final to be held at Wembley, Smith captained Bolton to a 2–0 victory over West Ham United. David Jack then took the mantle as the main source of goals in 1923–24 and 1924–25. Smith scored 21 goals in 1925–26 to finish as the clubs top-scorer for the sixth and he also captained the club to another FA Cup final victory, as a goal from namesake Jack Smith was enough to beat Manchester City 1–0. The 1926–27 season was then his last at the club, as he led Bolton to fourth in the league, in his nineteen years with Bolton, Smith scored 277 goals in 492 games. Upon leaving Wanderers in 1927, Smith signed for Stockport County, with 38 Third Division North goals in 1927–28, he was the divisions top-scorer that season, though the Hatters could only manage a third-place finish. County then finished second in 1928–29, just one point behind champions Bradford City, Smith went on to play for Darwen and Manchester Central, before finishing his playing career with Hyde United. The first of Smiths five England caps came on 15 February 1913 and he then scored the opening goal of a 2–0 win over Wales at Ninian Park on 16 March 1914
Corinthian Football Club was an English amateur football club based in London between 1882 and 1939. The club was founded on 28 September 1882 by N. Lane Jackson, within twenty years the Corinthians were to become the greatest and most attractive team that football had then known. With an intelligent nonchalance and in their shirts and well-cut shorts that brought a quality. Corinthian FC were famed, above all, for their ethos of “sportsmanship, fair play, ‘Corinthian Spirit’, understood as the highest standard of sportsmanship, is often associated with the side. This spirit was famously summed up in their attitude to penalties, “As far as they were concerned, so, if a penalty was awarded against the Corinthians, their goalkeeper would stand aside, lean languidly on the goalpost and watch the ball being kicked into his own net. If the Corinthians themselves won a penalty, their captain took a short run-up and gave the ball a good whack. The club played at venues including the Queens Club, The Oval. On 12 April 1939, the Corinthians played their last match and they merged with Casuals F. C. to form a new club, Corinthian-Casuals F. C. Given that the constitution declared that it should “not compete for any challenge cup or any prize of any description” the team originally only played friendly matches. An exception was made for the Sheriff of London’s Charity Shield. The club might have won the FA Cup many times had they competed — shortly after Blackburn Rovers beat Queens Park in the 1884 final, similarly, against the Bury side that beat Derby County 6–0 in the 1903 final, Corinthian won 10–3. In 1904, Corinthian beat Manchester United 11–3 which remains Uniteds biggest ever defeat, Corinthian did, however, supply large numbers of players to the England football team. Among others, Real Madrid were inspired to adopt Corinthians strip while Sport Club Corinthians Paulista in Brazil, after a visit to Sweden in 1904, a Swedish tournament called the Corinthian Bowl was set up in commemoration. Their tours included South Africa, Canada, the United States, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Denmark, Holland, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Brazil, Ireland, Jamaica and Germany. In all, Corinthian FC had 86 England Internationals,12 Welsh Internationals,8 Scottish Internationals and 2 Irish Internationals, Corinthians famous players include many sporting polymaths, including Max Woosnam and C. B. Danish international Nils Middelboe played for Corinthian after finishing his career with Chelsea, many players played for Corinthian as a secondary club while playing for another primary club. The 17 players listed below are those that had Corinthian FC as their principal club, fry Kenneth Hegan Arthur Henfrey Cecil Holden-White Anthony Hossack Vaughan Lodge Bernard Middleditch William Oakley Basil Patchitt G. O. Smith Geoffrey Plumpton Wilson Morris, Terry. In A Class of Their Own, A History of English Amateur Football, on The Corinthian Spirit, The Decline of Amateurism in Sport
Huddersfield Town A.F.C.
F. C. Halifax Town is a semi-professional association football club based in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. The club participates in the National League North, the tier of English football. They replaced Halifax Town A. F. C. which went into administration in the 2007–08 season, huge tax debts buried Halifax Town A. F. C. after almost 100 years as a football club. New figures put to a creditors meeting in May 2008 showed the cash-strapped Shaymen owed over £800,000 to Her Majestys Revenue. The Revenue refused any deal and that finished the club – already over £2 million in the red. It was originally thought the club owed the taxman around £500,000, but the news that it owed £814,000 meant that even if all the other creditors had accepted the 2. 5p-in-the-pound offer originally on the table it would not have been enough. Halifax appealed against the decision to them from the Football Conference. Though the appeal was rejected on 11 June, the hope was that Halifax could play in the NPL Premier Division. This did not materialise, and eventually Halifax Town were accepted to play in the Northern Premier League Division One North in the new season under the new name FC Halifax Town. The clubs first game under the new name FC Halifax Town was a friendly away against Tamworth on 19 July 2008, there was to be no fairytale ending however, and the game ended in a 2–0 defeat. The clubs first ever victory was against Alsager Town on 26 July 2008 by a 2–0 scoreline, colin Hunter scored the new clubs first ever goal after six minutes. Their first competitive Northern League Division One North match was at The Shay against Bamber Bridge on 16 August 2008, the club got off to a poor start, despite recording their first competitive victory in the next match. However, a 7–1 home win against Salford City in late September seemed to turn the tide for Town and they went on an 8-game unbeaten run,7 of those being victories, and shot to the top of the league table. The run eventually came to an end against Rossendale United, who ended up doing the double over Halifax. Despite the loss, Halifax remained top and more results, including 5–1 and 4–1 victories against Garforth Town and Wakefield respectively. After the Wakefield match however, Halifax won just 2 of their final 14 league games and this poor run led to the sacking of manager Jim Vince, and senior player Nigel Jemson stepped up to the managers position for the remainder of the season. They could only manage 2 draws and so a poor ending to the season cost them dearly, with new manager Neil Aspin taking the helm near the start of close season, Halifax Town got off to a much better start. Promising results in friendlies were consolidated after beating Colwyn Bay 3–0 on their own turf in the first league match of the season
Crystal Palace F.C.
Crystal Palace Football Club is a professional football club based in South Norwood, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club was founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building by the owners of the FA Cup Final stadium which was situated inside the historic Palace grounds. The club played their games at the Cup Final venue until 1915, but then the First World War forced them to move out and play at Herne Hill Velodrome. In 1924, the moved to their current home at Selhurst Park. Palace have been FA Cup finalists twice, in 1990 and 2016, the club were denied a place in Europe at the end of that season due to the partial UEFA ban on English clubs caused by the Heysel Stadium disaster. Palace were one of the founding members of the Premier League. The club were winners of the Full Members Cup in 1991 when they beat Everton in the Wembley final, Palace have been second tier champions twice and hold the record for the most play-off wins for promotion to the top flight, winning the final four times. In 1973, the changed its original nickname from The Glaziers to The Eagles. The club had played in claret and blue colours. Palace have rivalries with Brighton & Hove Albion, with whom they contest the M23 derby, in 1895, the Football Association had found a new permanent home for the FA Cup Final at the site of the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building. There had been an amateur Crystal Palace team as early as 1861, the owners of the venue wanted a professional club to play there and tap into the vast crowd potential of the area. Crystal Palace Football Club, originally nicknamed The Glaziers, was formed on 10 September 1905 under the guidance of Aston Villa assistant secretary Edmund Goodman, the club applied to enter the Football League alongside Chelsea and Southampton, but was the only unsuccessful team of the three. The club instead found itself in the Southern League Second Division for the 1905–06 season, the club was successful in its inaugural season and was promoted to the First Division, crowned as champions. Palace remained in the Southern League up until 1914, their one highlight the 1907 shock First Round victory over Newcastle United in the FA Cup. The outbreak of the First World War led to the Admiralty requisitioning the Crystal Palace, Three years later the club moved again to the Nest due to the folding of Croydon Common F. C. The club joined the Football League Third Division in the 1920–21 season, finishing as champions, during this period, Palace also won the London Challenge Cup three times in 1913,1914, and 1921. Palace moved to the purpose-built stadium Selhurst Park in 1924, the ground the club plays at today, the opening fixture at Selhurst Park was against Sheffield Wednesday, Palace losing 0–1 in front of a crowd of 25,000. Finishing in twenty-first position, the club was relegated to the Third Division South, before the Second World War Palace made good efforts at promotion, never finishing outside the top half of the table and finishing second on three occasions
Leyton Orient F.C.
Leyton Orient Football Club /ˌleɪtən ˈɔəriənt/ is a professional football club in Leyton, London, England. They play in League Two, the tier of the English football league system. The clubs home colours are all red, Leyton Orient have spent one season in the top flight of English football, in 1962–63. In 1978, they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup for the time in their history. Between October 1993 and September 1995, Orient did not win an away game in the league. Leyton Orients home ground Brisbane Road is officially known as the Matchroom Stadium after former club chairman Barry Hearns sports promotion company, in 2014, Hearn sold the club to Italian businessman Francesco Becchetti. Leyton Orient finished seventh, one away from the playoff positions. In the 2013–14 season, Orient lost the League One Play-Off final at Wembley to Rotherham United, the team has had several name changes since, first as Eagle Cricket Club in 1886 then as Orient Football Club in 1888. Indeed, the nickname the Savage Cuts came from a particularly gruesome incident during training in the 19th Century when the goalkeeper suffered a laceration to the arm. A cry was heard across the pitch, the goalkeeper is cut, its a deep and savage cut. The other players believing this to be a lampoon, mockingly repeated, we have savage cuts, the Os are the second-oldest league club in London behind Fulham and are the 24th oldest club currently playing in the Football League. Following Fulhams promotion to the Premier League they became the oldest London club playing in the Football League and they played in the Second Division of the Southern Federations League in 1904, joined the Football League in 1905. By this time such as part-time outside right, Herbert Kingaby could earn £2 4s per week – payment being somewhat sporadic. The twelve History books written on the club by its historian Neilson N. C, the name Leyton Orient was adopted following the conclusion of the Second World War. The club had moved to Leyton in 1937, though there was another team called Leyton F. C. A further rename back to simply Orient took place in 1966 after the Borough of Leyton was absorbed into the London Borough of Waltham Forest, the 1914–15 season was the last football season before the League was suspended due to the outbreak of the First World War. Forty one members of the Clapton Orient team and staff joined up into the 17th Battalion Middlesex Regiment, the highest of any team in the country. At the final game of the season – Clapton Orient vs Leicester Fosse,20,000 people came out to support the team, a farewell parade was also hosted, but not before the Os had won 2–0
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Bramall Lane is a football stadium in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is the home of Sheffield United and it was also used by Sheffield Wednesday and Sheffield F. C. for major matches. This is because Sheffield Wednesday are a club and used to own this ground. It has been the home of Sheffield United since the establishment in 1889. It is the oldest major stadium in the still to be hosting professional association football matches. The stadium was built on a Sheffield road named after the Bramall family, the Bramalls owned The Old White House on the corner of Bramall Lane and Cherry Street, and subsequently built the Sheaf House, now a public house that still stands at the top of Bramall Lane. The stadium was opened as a cricket ground. It was also used for games in the 19th century by Sheffield F. C. and Sheffield Wednesday. Bramall Lane is one of two grounds which has hosted England football internationals, an England cricket test match and an FA Cup Final. It also regularly hosted FA Cup Semi Finals and replays between 1889 and 1938, the ground has also hosted rugby league games for the Sheffield Eagles, a Billy Graham Evangelist meeting in 1985 and a pair of rock concerts by Bruce Springsteen in 1988. The record attendance for the ground is 68,287, set at an FA Cup 5th Round tie between Sheffield United and Leeds United on 15 February 1936. Bramall Lane opened as a ground in 1855, having been leased by Michael Ellison from the Duke of Norfolk at an annual rent of £70. The site was then away from the industrial area. It was built to host the matches of cricket clubs and originally had six clubs playing there, one of whom was the Wednesday Cricket Club. Bramall Lane opened on 30 April 1855 as a ground with a match between The Eleven and The Twenty Two, The Eleven, despite being the senior team. A team representing Yorkshire played the first county match at the ground on 27 August 1855, against Sussex, although the first county game had been played eight years earlier, the official Yorkshire County Cricket Club was not formed until 1863. The idea came from Ellison, who was using his own finances to support the club and it was the clubs headquarters until 1893, when they moved to Headingley in Leeds. In 1897, Jack Brown and John Tunnicliffe recorded a first wicket score of 378 against Sussex—a ground record that has never been beaten, browns score of 311 and Yorkshires innings of 681 for 5 declared were also records when the cricket ground closed
Crystal Palace National Sports Centre
The National Sports Centre at Crystal Palace in south London, England is a large sports centre and athletics stadium. The sports centre building was designed by the LCC Architects Department under Sir Leslie Martin between 1953–54 and is a Grade II* listed building, the athletics stadium has a capacity of 15,500, which can be increased to 24,000 with temporary seating. The current 15,500 seater athletics stadium was built on the site of the ground by M J Gleeson. From 1999 to 2012 it hosted the London Grand Prix, the stadium can be expanded to 24,000 with temporary seating if required. With the opening of the London Olympic Stadium in 2012, its future as a stadium hosting athletics events is in doubt. Crystal Palace F. C. has submitted plans to rebuild the stadium as a 40,000 seater football stadium without a running track, but with a new indoor aquatic and sports centre as part of the complex. The current athletics stadium is on the land as a previous football ground. In 1905, the owners wanted their own club to play at the venue. They were forced to leave by the military, in 1915, the largest domestic attendance ever at the stadium was in the 1913 Cup final between Aston Villa and Sunderland, when 121,919 spectators squeezed into the stands. The previous world record had been the 1901 Cup Final, when 114,815 amassed to watch Tottenham Hotspur, Tottenham Hotspur F. C. However, Spurs plans were cancelled due to their failure to obtain the Olympic Stadium. AC London used the stadium during the 2015–16 season, four more teams won the FA Cup during this time, after replays at other grounds. All but two of the finalists from that era a century ago are still playing in either the Premier League or the Football League Championship, the exceptions being Bradford City, and Bury. Newcastle United appeared in the most finals at the ground, five, results of finals at Crystal Palace FA Cup Wins at Crystal Palace Crystal Palace FA Cup Final appearances Goals Scored in FA Cup Finals at Crystal Palace Goals Conceded in F. A. Cup Finals at Crystal Palace On 2 December 1905, the ground held the first England Rugby Union international match against New Zealand in England. On Wednesday 18 August 1965, the ground was the venue of the Rugby league match in which the Commonwealth XIII rugby league team were defeated 7–15 by New Zealand. It also played host to Fulham Rugby League in the mid-1980s for a couple of seasons, London County Cricket Club was a short-lived cricket club founded by the Crystal Palace Company. In 1898 they invited W. G. Grace to help form a first-class cricket club. Grace accepted the offer and became the secretary, manager
Benjamin Howard Baker
Benjamin Howard Baker was an English athlete who excelled in a wide range of sports, mostly in association football and high jump. In team sports, Baker was goalkeeper for England, Liverpool, Everton and Chelsea football clubs, having played for the renowned amateur team. He played for the Amateurs in the 1929 FA Charity Shield and he was also an international-level water polo goalkeeper. Baker initially played as a defender, and took the position after his ankle was damaged in a naval mine sweeping operation during World War I. Individually, Baker held British records in the jump and triple jump. He competed in events at the 1912 and 1920 Olympic Games. At the Northern Counties Championships he won the jump,120 yd hurdles and discus throw. After retiring from sports Baker joined the firm producing soap and chemicals. Benjamin Howard Baker England profile at Englandstats England profile Everton Football Club profile Chelsea Football Club profile
Tommy Johnson (footballer, born 1900)
Thomas Clark Fisher Tommy Johnson was an English football player who played as either a centre forward or an inside forward. He started his career at Manchester City in 1919. Known for his left foot shot, Johnson holds the record for the most goals scored by a Manchester City player in a single season. He played for Manchester City in the 1926 FA Cup Final, Johnson signed for Everton in 1930, acting as a foil for the prolific centre-forward Dixie Dean. In four seasons at Everton Johnson won the Second Division, the First Division, born in Dalton-in-Furness, Lancashire, Johnson became an apprentice at the local shipyard. He made a debut in a war league match against Blackburn Rovers on 22 February 1919. League football returned in August 1919, but Johnson did not play for the first team until later in the season. He made his debut against Middlesbrough on 18 February 1920 scoring both goals in a 2–0 win, playing in the position previously occupied by Tommy Browell. He kept his place for a six matches, scoring one more goal. Over the next two seasons Johnson featured intermittently in the first team and he scored five goals in 12 appearances for the first team in 1920–21, playing more regularly for the reserves, for whom he was the leading goalscorer with 18 goals. He became a regular first team selection in 1922–23, playing 35 matches, in 1923 Manchester City moved from Hyde Road to a new stadium, Maine Road, in the Moss Side area of the city. Johnson scored in the first match at the new stadium, against Sheffield United, while Johnson was a regular goalscorer at this point in his career, he did not score as frequently as team-mates Frank Roberts and Horace Barnes. Firmly established in the first team, he missed one match in the 1924–25 season. In the 1925–26 season Johnson reached the 20 goal mark for the first time, though the team endured a difficult league season, some of their wins were high scoring, including a record 6–1 Manchester derby win in which Johnson made a goalscoring appearance. The FA Cup proved a fruitful competition for the club season, as they reached the final. Johnson played in every cup match, scoring his first competitive hat-trick in the quarter-final, however, Johnsons appearance at Wembley was not a happy one, his Manchester City team losing the final 1–0 to Bolton Wanderers. To compound the disappointment, City lost their league game and were relegated to the Second Division. Three weeks after the end of the season Johnson made his debut for England, Johnson played 5 times for England and scored five goals
Thomas Tommy Browell was an English footballer who played as a forward for Hull City, Everton, Manchester City and Blackpool. He is the seventh-highest Manchester City goalscorer of all time with 139 goals for the club, Browell was born in Walbottle, Northumberland, in 1892. He started his career with Hull City, who were then in the Football League Second Division, at Hull he gained the nickname Boy following a hat-trick against Stockport County as an 18-year-old in 1910. A newspaper report of the match carried the headline £10 men and a boy beat Stockport, a year later, after making 48 appearances and scoring 32 goals, he was signed by First Division Everton for a fee of £1,650. Despite only playing half the season for the club, Browell finished as Evertons top goalscorer in the 1911–12 season, in two years at Everton he scored 36 goals in 60 appearances, including two FA Cup hat-tricks. In October 1913, Manchester City signed Browell for £1,780 and he scored on his City debut against The Wednesday, though City lost the match 2–1. Two seasons into his time in Manchester, the outbreak of World War I suspended football for a four-year period, when matches resumed in 1919, Browell formed a prolific goalscoring partnership with Horace Barnes. In the 1920–21 season Manchester City finished runners-up in the league, however, victory eluded the team in the final, which was won 1–0 by Bolton. To compound the misfortune, City were also relegated to the Second Division on the day of the season. Relegation resulted in changes of personnel, and the following season Browell was transferred for £1,100 to Blackpool, in total, he made 247 appearances for Manchester City, scoring 139 goals. At Blackpool, under the guidance of Major Frank Buckley, Browell scored 14 goals in his first season to become the clubs second-highest scorer and those goals included a hat-trick in a 5–0 home win over Notts County on 7 May 1927, in the final game of the season. For the 1927–28 season, Browell switched to the side and teamed up with new arrival. Browell scored another hat-trick that season, on 24 September 1927, eventually, age got the better of Browell, and with the emergence of Jack Oxberry, Browell was released at the age of 38. He remained in the Fylde Coast area, joining Lytham as player-coach and he also went on to coach Morecambe. Upon retiring from football, Browell became a driver in Blackpool. After his death in 1955, at the age of 62, Tommy Browell Close is located to the west of Manchester Citys old home, Maine Road, and is part of an estate built in the 1970s
A hat-trick or hat trick in sports is the achievement of a positive feat three times in a game, or another achievement based on the number three in some sports. In association and rugby football, the scoring of two goals or tries by one individual in a match is referred to as a brace. The term first appeared in 1858 in cricket, to describe H. H. Stephensons taking three wickets with three consecutive deliveries, fans held a collection for Stephenson, and presented him with a hat bought with the proceeds. The term was used in print for the first time in 1865, the term was eventually adopted by many other sports including hockey, association football, water polo and team handball. A hat-trick occurs in association football when a player scores three goals in a game, whereas scoring two goals constitutes a brace. In common with other official record-keeping rules, goals in a penalty shootout are excluded from the tally, the extra time in a knockout cup match may also be calculated towards a players potential hat-trick. The fastest recorded time to score a hat-trick is 70 seconds, the previous Guinness world record of 90 seconds was held by Tommy Ross playing for Ross County against Nairn County on 28 November 1964. The first hat-trick in a game was by Scottish player John McDougall. American player Bert Patenaude scored the first hat-trick in the FIFA World Cup, two hat-tricks have been scored in a final, by Geoff Hurst for England in the 1966 final during extra time against West Germany, and Carli Lloyd against Japan in the 2015 Womens World Cup final. Football has also extended the term to include the phrase perfect hat-trick, achieved when a player scores one right-footed goal, one left-footed goal and one headed goal within one match. In Germany, the term Hattrick refers to when a player scores three goals in a row in one half without the break or a goal scored by another player interfering the performance. In recent years, hat trick has been often used to describe when a player hits three home runs in a game. This new usage appears be the transposition of the term, by Canadian baseball fans, from ice hockey. For example, on 29 August 2015, Toronto Blue Jays fans celebrated Edwin Encarnacións third home run of the game by throwing hats onto the field, a hat-trick occurs in cricket when a bowler dismisses three batsmen with consecutive deliveries. Only wickets attributed to the count towards a hat-trick, run outs do not count. Hat-tricks are rare, and as such are treasured by bowlers, in Test cricket history there have been just 42 hat-tricks, the first achieved by Fred Spofforth for Australia against England in 1879. In 1912, Australian Jimmy Matthews achieved the feat twice in one game against South Africa, lasith Malinga achieved a hat-trick while playing for Sri Lanka against Australia on 22 August 2011 in the last match of the five-ODI series in Colombo. He is the bowler to take three hat-tricks in any form of international cricket
The Manchester derby refers to football matches between Manchester City and Manchester United, first contested in 1881. Manchester City play at the City of Manchester Stadium, while Manchester United play at Old Trafford, the teams have played 173 matches in all competitions, United winning 72, City 50, and the remaining 51 having been drawn. The first meeting between the two occurred on 12 November 1881, when St. Marks – who would later become Manchester City – hosted Newton Heath – who would later become Manchester United, the game finished 3–0 in favour of Newton Heath and was described by the Ashton Reporter as a pleasant game. At this time, the clubs were just two of many fledgling sides in the Manchester area, and the fixture had no special significance. The pair became the dominant teams in the Manchester area, the winner of the Manchester Cup was either Newton Heath or Ardwick every year between 1888 and 1893, both teams joined the Football Alliance, a short-lived rival to the Football League. During this period both clubs made unsuccessful attempts to gain election to the League, admission to the Football League finally came in 1892. Newton Heath joined the First Division, and Ardwick the new Second Division, the first Football League meeting between the teams came in the 1894–95 season, Newton Heath beating Manchester City 5–2 at Hyde Road. At this time City were suffering the after-effects of a scandal in which the club were found guilty of making off-balance sheet payments to players. As a result, seventeen players were suspended and banned from representing the club again. When the suspensions ended in January 1907, four players joined United, in contrast to modern antipathy, the transfers were generally welcomed for helping a fellow Manchester club. The following season Turnbull became the first player to be sent off in a derby, before the Second World War, many football supporters in Manchester watched City one week and United the next. After the war, a rivalry developed and following both teams became uncommon. The first floodlit Manchester derby was played on 26 February 1889 at the Belle Vue Athletic Ground, wells electric lights were placed around the ground and a crowd of 10,000 watched Newton Heath defeat Ardwick 3–2. The match was played in aid of the Hyde Coal Mine disaster, the first competitive floodlit derby was the Charity Shield match played in October 1956, as Manchester United were defending league champions and Manchester City were FA Cup holders. Manchester derbies in the 1970s were frequently bad tempered, in the December 1970 derby, a tackle by Uniteds George Best broke the leg of Citys Glyn Pardoe, the severity of the injury almost resulted in the City defender losing his leg. The following season, an entertaining 3–3 draw saw Francis Lee accuse George Best of diving, the first derby of the 1973–74 season saw Mike Doyle and Lou Macari each receive a red card in a dour contest which finished 0–0 at Maine Road. Both players refused to leave the pitch, leading the referee to take both teams back to the room until the two players accepted their dismissals
Frank Barson was an English footballer from Grimesthorpe who played for several English football clubs including Barnsley, Manchester United, Aston Villa and Watford. He had a reputation for play, and is regarded as one of the hard men of English football. He transferred to Aston Villa in 1919, with whom he won the FA Cup in 1920, on one occasion Barsons hard tackling resulted in a seven-month ban, after a game, he often needed a police escort to protect him from angry opposition fans. In 1909 Barson signed for Cammell Laird FC, two later in July 1911 he began his professional career with Barnsley. It was whilst at Oakwell that his notorious temper first became evident, before he could start his first game for the Tykes he had to serve a two-month suspension following an ugly brawl with some Birmingham City players in a pre-season friendly. On one occasion Barson had to be smuggled out of Goodison Park to avoid a large crowd who had gathered outside the ground to discuss with him his behaviour in an FA Cup tie with Everton. After a very public fall out with the Barnsley directors over travelling expenses, in October 1919, he made his debut in a 4–1 win at Middlesbrough. Barson played a part in the Villa team during his three seasons at the club, but it is his run-ins with authority for which he is best known. He maintained a business in Sheffield and refused to move to Birmingham despite Villas insistence that he should do so. His living arrangements caused further controversy on the day of the 1920–21 season and he was suspended by the Villa board for fourteen days. In fact, he was appointed captain in succession to Andy Ducat, although it is not known whether he merely decided he wanted the job and he celebrated his first game as captain by scoring a header from thirty yards out against Sheffield United. One story about Frank Barson concerned the 1920 FA Cup Final, the first wrong move you make Barson, off you go he was told. Villa went on to win the FA Cup, Barsons only club honour in his career and his FA Cup winners medal has been sold twice and fetched £6,000. He also went on to win one cap for England at his time with the club, the beginning of the end to his time at Villa came following a match against Liverpool. With Tommy Ball proving an adequate replacement, the agreed to his request. During his time with Villa, Barson made 108 appearances, scoring 10 goals and he was later Youth team coach and First team coach for Aston Villa. In 1922, he was transferred to Manchester United for a fee of £5,000 and he spent an injury-plagued six years at Old Trafford, making 140 League appearances and scoring four goals for the club. For gaining promotion he was given a pub in Manchester, at the time he was regarded as a hero, but Barson was so sick of such attention that on the opening night of his pub he gave the business to his head waiter
Samuel Cowan was an English football player and manager. A relative latecomer to the sport, Cowan did not play football until he was 17 and was 22 by the time he turned professional and he made his league debut for Doncaster Rovers in 1923, and signed for First Division Manchester City the following season. Cowan played centre half for Manchester City for 11 seasons, captaining the team in the early to mid-1930s and he is the only player to have represented Manchester City in three FA Cup finals, as a runner-up in 1926 and 1933, and as a winner in 1934. Internationally, he gained three England caps between 1926 and 1931, in total he played 407 times for Manchester City, putting him 12th in terms of all-time appearances. In 1935, he transferred to Bradford City, and subsequently moved to Mossley as player-manager, in 1938, Cowan joined Brighton & Hove Albion as a coach, and set up a physiotherapy business. He returned to Manchester City as manager in 1946, winning the Second Division in his season in charge. He continued to work in sports and physiotherapy until his death in 1964, Cowan was born on 10 May 1901 in Chesterfield, but moved further north in his early years and was raised in Adwick le Street near Doncaster. He did not play football as a child, only gaining an interest in the sport when he took part in a game at a local park aged 17. He then started to play for teams, including Adwick Juniors, Bullcroft Main Colliery. In 1923, Cowan gained his first professional contract following a trial at his local league club. Despite playing as a defender, during his time at Doncaster he scored regularly and his performances gained the attention of bigger clubs, and in December 1924 he joined Manchester City, who sought a successor to the likes of Mick Hamill and Max Woosnam. Cowan made his Manchester City debut in a 2–2 draw against Birmingham City on 20 December 1924 and he played in all but one of the remaining league matches that season,21 in total. Starting all but four of Manchester Citys matches in the 1925–26 season, Cowan was a key part of the team reached the 1926 FA Cup Final. However, in the final City were beaten 1–0 by Bolton Wanderers, further disappointment followed in the league, when after a campaign characterised by erratic form, City were relegated on the final day of the season. By this time Cowans reputation as a competent centre-back had grown and he made his England debut on 24 May 1926 playing an unfamiliar left-half role in a 5–3 win against Belgium. By 1931, he had earned three caps, the others gained in matches against France and Austria. He also made appearances for the Football League team, including a match against England in 1931. In the 1926–27 season, Cowan made 27 appearances as his club sought a return to the top division
1904 FA Cup Final
The 1904 FA Cup Final was a football match between Bolton Wanderers and Manchester City on 23 April 1904 at Crystal Palace in London. The showpiece match of English footballs primary cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, it was the 32nd Cup final, each team progressed through four rounds to reach the final. Manchester City were a First Division team chasing a league and cup double, consequently, most observers anticipated a Manchester City win. In a close match featuring strong defensive play, Manchester City won 1–0, the goal, scored by Billy Meredith, was disputed by those with Bolton sympathies, who believed Meredith to be offside. The victory gave Manchester City their first major honour, the final was held at Crystal Palace, the tenth final played at the venue. Neither club had won the competition. Bolton reached the final in 1894, but were beaten comfortably by Notts County, in their passage to the final Manchester City faced opposition from the top division in all but one round. Second Division Woolwich Arsenal, Citys opponents in the round, were the exception. Sunderland were defeated 3–2 at Hyde Road in the first round, two goals from Turnbull and one from Meredith gave City a 3–0 win at Goodison Park. Boltons cup run started slowly, with a required to overcome non-league Reading. A 4–1 victory over Southampton secured a berth at Sheffield United. As a Second Division team with a poor record, Wanderers were clear underdogs in the quarter-final. Nevertheless, Bolton prevailed 2–0 courtesy of goals by Sam Marsh, at this point Marsh had scored in every round of the competition. A 1–0 defeat of Derby County in the semi-final took Bolton to the final,30,000 supporters from the region travelled to London, sparking press reports of records for North-South rail travel. Lacking alternative accommodation, several thousand slept on the platforms at Euston, a jovial atmosphere built up, with the Manchester Industrial Boys Band playing Hiawatha. However, in London itself, the match received less attention than a final featuring a team would have done. Tickets in an uncovered stand cost 5s, prior to the match the teams both stayed in the suburb of West Norwood, within walking distance of Crystal Palace. Manchester City arrived on 21 April, and were joined the day by the Bolton Wanderers
William Henry Meredith was a Welsh professional footballer. He was considered one of the superstars of football due to his performances, notably for Manchester City. He won each domestic trophy in the English football league and gained 48 caps for Wales, for whom he scored 11 goals and his favoured position was outside right, and his key skills were dribbling, passing, crossing and shooting. A dedicated and extremely fit professional, his habit of chewing on a toothpick during games made him instantly recognisable, in 27 seasons in the Football League from 1892 to 1924, he scored 176 goals in 740 league and cup appearances. He played for Chirk, before joining Northwich Victoria in 1892 and his career took off when he signed with Manchester City in 1894 and turned professional in January 1895. He captained the team to the clubs first major honour, a 1–0 victory over Bolton Wanderers in the 1904 FA Cup Final and he moved to Manchester United in May 1906 after being banned for bribing Aston Villa half-back Alex Leake £10 to lose a match. There he won the title in 1907–08 and 1910–11, the FA Cup in 1909. He also helped to set up the Players Union, which was a fore-runner of the Professional Footballers Association. He returned to Manchester City in 1921 at the age of 47 and played a further 32 games before retiring in 1924, making him the oldest ever player for City, United and he later ran the Stretford Road Hotel and helped to coach the short-lived Manchester Central. Meredith was born in 1874 in Chirk, a mining town in Denbighshire, Wales. He started work at Black Park Colliery as a pit pony driver at the age of 12 and his family were Primitive Methodists, and Meredith himself remained a lifelong teetotaller. An interest in football was kindled by his elder brothers, elias, the eldest, was a train driver for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. His work allowed him to take Meredith to watch professional teams such as Everton, all the Meredith brothers played football, but Sam, two years older than Billy, was the first to make an impression. He left Chirk to attempt a career, and went on to play for Stoke City as a full-back. Meredith made his debut for the Chirk first team in September 1892, the club played in The Combination, a league which contained a mixture of town clubs and reserve teams of clubs from big cities. At the end of his first season Meredith played in the 1893 Welsh Cup final, Meredith formed a solid understanding with inside-right William Owen, a former Wales international. Chirk withdrew from The Combination and entered only the Welsh league in 1893 due to low attendances caused by the miners strike. Northwich were a side, who withdrew from the Football League at the end of the 1893–94 season after finishing bottom of the Second Division
1923 FA Cup Final
The 1923 FA Cup Final was an association football match between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United on 28 April 1923 at the original Wembley Stadium in London. The showpiece match of English footballs primary cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, King George V was in attendance to present the trophy to the winning team. Each team had progressed through five rounds to reach the final, Bolton Wanderers won 1–0 in every round from the third onwards, and David Jack scored the lone goal each time. West Ham United faced opposition from the Second Division or lower in each round, West Ham took three attempts to defeat Southampton in the fourth round but then easily defeated Derby County in the semi-final, scoring five goals. The final was preceded by chaotic scenes as vast crowds surged into the stadium, far exceeding its official capacity of approximately 125,000. A crowd estimated at up to 300,000 gained entrance, mounted policemen, including one on a light-coloured horse which became the defining image of the day, had to be brought in to clear the crowds from the pitch and allow the match to take place. The match began 45 minutes late as crowds stood around the perimeter of the pitch, although West Ham started strongly, Bolton proved the dominant team for most of the match and won 2–0. David Jack scored a two minutes after the start of the match and Jack Smith added a controversial second goal during the second half. The pre-match events prompted discussion in the House of Commons and led to the introduction of safety measures for future finals, the match is often referred to as the White Horse Final and is commemorated by the White Horse Bridge at the new Wembley Stadium. Bolton had appeared in the final twice before, in 1894 and 1904, but West Ham, after a home win over Leeds United in the second round, Bolton faced one of the First Divisions top teams, Huddersfield Town, in the third round. The initial match at Huddersfields Leeds Road ground ended in a draw, in the fourth round Bolton defeated Charlton Athletic by a single goal, and in the semi-final beat Sheffield United by the same score in a match played at Old Trafford, home of Manchester United. Although ticket prices were considered to be high, a crowd of 72,000 attended the match. In every match from the third onwards, Boltons single goal was scored by David Jack. In contrast to Boltons defensive style, West Hams cup run was characterised by fast-moving, attacking play, the London-based club began the competition away to fellow Second Division team Hull City and won 3–2. In the second round they were held to a draw by Brighton & Hove Albion of the Third Division South, the Hammers defeated another Third Division South team, Plymouth Argyle, in the third round, but found the fourth round tough going against Southampton. The first match at West Hams home, the Boleyn Ground, ended in a 1–1 draw, a second replay was held at Villa Park in Birmingham, home of Aston Villa, and finally produced a winner, as West Ham won 1–0 with a goal from Billy Brown. The goal came in the 70th minute, with a free kick past the startled Herbert Lock in the Saints goal. In the semi-finals, West Ham took on Derby County at Stamford Bridge, home of Chelsea, Brown scored two more goals and Billy Moore also scored twice
Offside (association football)
Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that players in a position, when the ball is touched or played by a teammate. When the offside offence occurs, the referee stops play and awards a free kick to the defending team from the position of the offending player. The offside offence is neither a foul nor a misconduct, players are never booked or sent off for offside, like fouls, however, any play that occurs after an offence has taken place but before the referee is able to stop the play is nullified. Players that continue such play may be booked based on the assessment of how significant or intentional the play was. One of the duties of the assistant referees is to assist the referee in adjudicating offside — their position on the sidelines giving a more useful view sideways across the pitch. Assistant referees communicate that an offence has occurred by raising a signal flag. However, as with all officiating decisions in the game, adjudicating offside is ultimately up to the referee, the application of the offside rule may be considered in three steps, offside position, offside offence and offside sanction. A player is in a position if he is in the opposing teams half of the field and is also nearer to his opponents goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent. By the 2014/2015 Laws, the interpretation included the proviso that The arms are not included in this definition, in other words, a player is in an offside position if three conditions are met, The player is in the opposing teams half of the field. The player is closer to the goal line than the ball is. There are one or zero opposing players between the player and the goal line. Regardless of position, there is no offside offence if a player receives the ball directly from a goal kick, however, an offside offence may occur if a player receives the ball directly from either a direct free kick or an indirect free kick. Determining whether a player is in play can be complex. The quote, If youre not interfering with play, what are you doing on the pitch, has been attributed to Brian Clough and Danny Blanchflower. FIFA issued new guidelines for interpreting the law in 2003. This was further clarified by FIFA in 2015, the restart for an offside sanction is an indirect free kick for the opponent at the place where the offence occurred, even including if it is in the player’s own half of the field of play. The difficulty of offside officiating is often underestimated by spectators, some researchers believe that offside officiating errors are optically inevitable
Burnden Park was the home of English football club Bolton Wanderers who played home games there between 1895 and 1997. As well as hosting the 1901 FA Cup Final replay, it was the scene in 1946 of one of the greatest disasters in English football, and the subject of an L. S. Lowry painting. Situated on Manchester Road in the Burnden area of Bolton – less than a mile from the town centre – the ground served as the home of the football team for 102 years. It also hosted the replay of the 1901 FA Cup Final, Bolton Wanderers was formed in 1874 as Christ Church FC, with the vicar as club president. After disagreements about the use of premises, the club broke away. At this time Bolton played at Pikes Lane but needed a purpose built ground to play home matches. As a result, Bolton Wanderers Football and Athletic Club, one of the 12 founder members of the Football League, became a Limited Company in 1894, land at Burnden was leased at £130 per annum and £4,000 raised to build the stadium. Burnden Park was completed in August 1895, the opening match was a benefit match against Preston and the first League match was against Everton in front of a 15,000 crowd. A section of the embankment was sold off in 1986 to make way for a new Normid superstore, the clubs directors had decided by 1992 that it would be difficult to convert Burnden Park into an all-seater stadium for a club of Boltons ambition. They were members of the new Division Two but the club wanted to build a stadium to meet requirements in the event of promotion to Division One. The last ever Wanderers game played at the ground was against Charlton Athletic in April 1997. Bolton, who were already Division One champions, defeated Charlton 4–1 after being 1–0 down at half time, whites legend John McGinlay scored the final goal shortly before Bolton received their trophy and the crowd united in singing Auld Lang Syne. It was decided to build a new multimillion-pound 25, 000-seater stadium – the Reebok Stadium –6 miles away at the Middlebrook development, the move took place in 1997, bringing an end to 102 years of football at Burnden Park. On 9 March 1946, the home was the scene of the Burnden Park disaster. 33 Bolton Wanderers fans were crushed to death, and another 400 injured, there was an estimated 85,000 strong crowd crammed in for the game, at least 15,000 over-capacity. The disaster led to Moelwyn Hughess official report, which recommended more rigorous control of crowd sizes, the railway embankment of Burnden Park was seen in the 1962 film A Kind of Loving, starring Alan Bates and June Ritchie. Part of the Arthur Askey film The Love Match was also filmed at Burnden Park in the early 1950s. A painting of Burnden Park in 1953 by L. S. Lowry, for some years, the site suffered
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Highbury, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 League titles,12 FA Cups, Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893. They entered the First Division in 1904, and have accumulated the second most points. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, in the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, and another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970–71, they won their first League and FA Cup Double, between 1989 and 2005, they won five League titles and five FA Cups, including two more Doubles. They completed the 20th century with the highest average league position, Herbert Chapman won Arsenals first national trophies, but died prematurely. He helped introduce the WM formation, floodlights, and shirt numbers, Arsène Wenger has been the longest-serving manager and has won the most trophies. His teams set several English records, the longest win streak, the longest unbeaten run, in 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. They became Tottenham Hotspurs nearest club, commencing the North London derby, in 2006, they moved down the road to the Emirates Stadium. Arsenal earned €435. 5m in 2014–15, with the Emirates Stadium generating the highest revenue in world football, based on social media activity from 2014–15, Arsenals fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2016, Forbes estimated the club was the second most valuable in England, on 1 December 1886, munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with David Danskin as their first captain. Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C. s first home was Plumstead Common, though spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead. Royal Arsenal won Arsenals first trophies in 1890 and 1891, Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893. They registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended later that year, Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers, businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall took the club over, and sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury and this saw their third change of name, the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to simply The Arsenal
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in the United Kingdom, Australia, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries. The word shilling comes from scilling, a term that dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, and from there back to Old Norse. Slang terms for the old shilling coins include bob and hog, while the derivation of bob is uncertain, John Camden Hotten in his 1864 Slang Dictionary says the original version was bobstick and wonders if it is connected with Sir Robert Walpole. One abbreviation for shilling is s, often it was represented by a solidus symbol, which may have originally stood for a long s or ſ, thus 1/9 would be one shilling and ninepence. A price with no pence was sometimes written with a slash, the solidus symbol is still used for the shilling currency unit in former British East Africa, rather than sh. During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound of silver into 66 shillings. This set the weight of the shilling, and its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 until 1990, in the past, the English world has had various myths about the shilling. One myth was that it was deemed to be the value of a cow in Kent or a sheep elsewhere, a shilling was a coin used in England from the reign of Henry VII. The term shilling was in use in Scotland from early medieval times, the common currency created in 1707 by Article 16 of the Articles of Union continued in use until decimalisation in 1971. In the traditional pounds, shillings and pence system, there were 20 shillings per pound and 12 pence per shilling, three coins denominated in multiple shillings were also in circulation at this time. In the Irish Free State and Republic of Ireland the shilling was issued as scilling in Irish and it was worth 1/20th of an Irish pound, and was interchangeable at the same value to the British coin, which continued to be used in Northern Ireland. The coin featured a bull on the reverse side, the first minting, from 1928 until 1941, contained 75% silver, more than the equivalent British coin. The original Irish shilling coin ) was withdrawn from circulation on 1 January 1993, Australian shillings, twenty of which made up one Australian pound, were first issued in 1910, with the Australian coat of arms on the reverse and King Edward VII on the face. The coat of arms design was retained through the reign of King George V until a new head design was introduced for the coins of King George VI. This design continued until the last year of issue in 1963, in 1966, Australias currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin, where 10 shillings made up one Australian dollar. The slang term for a coin in Australia was deener. The slang term for a shilling as currency unit was bob, after 1966, shillings continued to circulate, as they were replaced by 10-cent coins of the same size and weight. New Zealand shillings, twenty of which made up one New Zealand pound, were first issued in 1933, in 1967, New Zealands currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin of the same size and weight
The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814. From 1717 to 1816, its value was fixed at twenty-one shillings. Then, Britain adopted the standard and guinea became a colloquial or specialised term. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the used to make the coins originated. The name also forms the basis for the Arabic word for the Egyptian pound الجنيه el-Genēh / el-Geni, the first guinea was produced on 6 February 1663, a proclamation of 27 March 1663 made the coins legal currency. One troy pound of 11/12 fine gold would make 44½ guineas, the denomination was originally worth one pound, or twenty shillings, but an increase in the price of gold during the reign of King Charles II led to the market trading it at a premium. The price of gold continued to increase, especially in times of trouble, and by the 1680s, indeed, in his diary entries for 13 June 1667, Samuel Pepys records that the price was 24 to 25 shillings. The diameter of the coin was 1 inch throughout Charles IIs reign, Guinea was not an official name for the coin, but much of the gold used to produce the early coins came from Guinea in Africa. The coin was produced each year between 1663 and 1684, with the elephant appearing on some coins each year from 1663 to 1665 and 1668, and the elephant and castle on some coins from 1674 onward. The elephant, with or without the castle, symbolises the Royal African Company, the obverse and reverse of this coin were designed by John Roettier. The edge was milled to deter clipping or filing, and to distinguish it from the silver half-crown which had edge lettering, until 1669 the milling was perpendicular to the edge, giving vertical grooves, while from 1670 the milling was diagonal to the edge. John Roettier continued to design the dies for this denomination in the reign of King James II. In this reign, the coins weighed 8.5 g with a diameter of 25–26 mm, Coins of each year were issued both with and without the elephant and castle mark. The edge of the coins are milled diagonally, with the removal of James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, his daughter Mary, and her husband Prince William of Orange ruled jointly by agreement as co-monarchs. Their heads appear conjoined on the piece in Roman style, with Williams head uppermost. By the early part of this reign the value of the guinea had increased to thirty shillings. The guineas of this reign weighed 8, following the death of Queen Mary from smallpox in 1694, William continued to reign as William III. The coins of William IIIs reign weighed 8.4 g with a gold purity of 0.9123
London, Midland and Scottish Railway
The London, Midland and Scottish Railway was a British railway company. It was formed on 1 January 1923 under the Railways Act of 1921, the resulting company was an unwieldy construction, with numerous interests other than railway operation. Besides being the worlds largest transport organisation, it was also the largest commercial enterprise in the British Empire, the LMS also claimed to be the largest joint stock organisation in the world. In 1938, the LMS operated 6,870 miles of railway, under the Transport Act 1947, along with the other members of the Big Four British railway companies, the LMS was nationalised on 1 January 1948, becoming part of the state-owned British Railways. The LMS was the largest of the Big Four railway companies serving routes in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, the LMS operated services in and around London, the Midlands, the North West of England, Mid/North Wales and Scotland. The company also operated a network of lines in Northern Ireland. The LMS operated a number of lines jointly with the main railway companies. Most of these were situated at or near the boundaries between two or more of the companies, but there were notable examples which extended beyond this hinterland zone. Together with the London and North Eastern Railway, the LMS ran the former Midland, exceeding 183 miles, this was the largest jointly-operated network in Great Britain in terms of route mileage, and extended from Peterborough to the East Anglian coast. The M&GN was wholly incorporated into the LNER in 1936, the LMS also operated a significant joint network with the Southern Railway, in the shape of the former Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. This network connected Bath and Bournemouth, and wound its way through territory nominally allocated to a railway company. Through the former Midland Railway holdings, the LMS, together with the Great Northern Railway, the SR and the LMS were mainly overlapping on the West London Line. The London to Birmingham corridor was fiercely contested with the LMS running expresses over its West Coast Main Line via Rugby, the LMS was also the only one of the Big Four companies to operate rail services in Northern Ireland, serving most major settlements in the region. On 1 July 1903, the Midland Railway took over the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway, in 1912, the Midland Railway purchased the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway which operated between London Fenchurch Street and Shoeburyness, with a loop serving Tilbury. This part of the later came under the control of the LNER, although this particular route. This arrangement did however provide a choice for residents of Southend, the LMS was the minority partner in the Cheshire Lines Committee. In Ireland there were three railways, Dundalk, Newry and Greenore Railway 26.5 miles Northern Counties Committee 265, for all railways see List of constituents of the LMS. Generally, the Midland prevailed, with the adoption of many Midland practices such as the livery of Crimson Lake for passenger locomotives, notable was the continuation of the Midland Railways small-engine policy