Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system.
University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William H
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
University of Montana
The University of Montana is a public research university in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the second largest of the Montana University System, second to Montana State University, the main campus is at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the hill bearing Missoulas most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter M. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among universities in producing Rhodes Scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars,14 Goldwater Scholars and 40 Udall Scholars to its name, the University of Montanas Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the most scenic campus in America and Outside magazine called it among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality, an act of Congress of February 18,1881 dedicated 72 sections in Montana Territory for the creation of the University. Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8,1889, the cities bids were supported by the rival Copper Kings, William A.
Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively. Missoula won the vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893. The University was formally opened in 1895, while plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School. The South Missoula Land Company, owned by A. B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, in June 1898 the cornerstone for A. J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became the University City, the University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools, College of Humanities & Sciences, Phyllis J. The Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments, in 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association. For the fall 2014 term, University of Montana offered admission to 4,956 freshmen out of 5,345 applicants, the first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895.
Since that time, various plans and architectural styles have been used. Today the campus consists of 220 acres and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel, landmarks include, The Oval A3 acres swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting paths, though originally the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, the original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this proved difficult. On the western extreme of the Oval is a grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist
Pullman is the largest city in Whitman County, located in southeastern Washington state within the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest. The population was 29,799 at the 2010 census, estimated to have reached 31,682 in 2014, originally incorporated as Three Forks, the city was renamed after industrialist George Pullman. Pullman is noted as a fertile agricultural area known for its many miles of rolling hills. It is best known as the home to Washington State University, Pullman is located eight miles from Moscow, home to the University of Idaho, and is served by the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport. In 2011 Bloomberg Businessweek selected Pullman as the Best Place to Raise Kids in Washington, factors included affordability, safety, a family-friendly lifestyle, the quality of Pullman High School, the presence of Washington State University, and the natural beauty of the area. Within the year, Dan McKenzie and William Ellsworth arrived to stake claims for adjoining land and they named the first post office located here as Three Forks.
In the spring of 1881, Orville Stewart opened a general store, Pullman was incorporated 131 years ago in 1886 with a population of about 200 people. It was originally named Three Forks, after the three rivers that converge there, Missouri Flat Creek, Dry Fork, and the South Fork of the Palouse River. In 1884, Dan McKenzie and Charles Moore replatted the site, on March 28,1890, the Washington State Legislature established the states land grant college, but did not designate a location. Pullman leaders were determined to secure the new college and offered 160 acres of land for its campus, Idaho Territory had established its land grant college in 1889, the University of Idaho was to be located in neighboring Moscow. On April 18,1891, the site selection commission appointed by Washingtons governor chose Pullman, on January 13,1892, the institution opened with 59 students under the name Washington Agricultural College and School of Science. It was renamed the State College of Washington in 1905, more known as Washington State College.
In 1961, Pullman became a code city under the Mayor-Council form of government. The city has a mayor with an elected seven-member council and an appointed administrative officer. The WSU campus is located on College Hill, and part of the area is a district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The historic character of College Hill is manifest in its many early-twentieth century craftsman-style bungalows, see Red Brick Roads of Pullman, Washington. Companies associated with an expanding high-tech industry are located at the end of the city. The lab company was founded by Edmund Schweitzer, a Ph. D. graduate of WSU, SEL and other firms are located within the 107-acre Pullman Industrial Park, run by the Port of Whitman County
University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band
The University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band is the school band of the University of Montana. As of 2015, the band had about 140 members, the band was started in the late 1800s. It largely specializes in contemporary corps-style outdoor marching, playing at home game. The group travels to several games in the Northwest and has accompanied the football team to four Division I-AA National Championships. In addition to the entertainment, it makes several appearances in the community each season. University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band website Videos of Grizzly Marching Band in 2008 season
Pacific Coast Conference
The Pacific Coast Conference was a college athletic conference in the United States which existed from 1915 to 1959. The name Pacific Coast Conference is now used by a San Diego area community college established in 1982. Established on December 2,1915, its four members were the University of California, the University of Washington, the University of Oregon. Among other complaints, he disdained the quality of education in the Oregon schools, pauley felt that University of California campuses deserved to play against colleges with comparably high academic standards. The PCC had a commissioner, an elaborate constitution, a formal code of conduct. Following the submission of his report, Atherton was promptly hired as commissioner in 1940, the conference was wracked by scandal in 1951. Charges were made and confirmed that University of Oregon football coach Jim Aiken had violated the code for financial aid. After Aiken was compelled to resign, Oregon urged the PCC to look at similar abuses by UCLA football coach Red Sanders, the conference spent five years attempting to reform itself.
In 1956, the scandal became public, the scandal first broke in Washington, when in January 1956, several discontented players staged a mutiny against their coach, John Cherberg. After the coach was fired, the PCC followed up on charges of a slush fund, the PCC found evidence of the prohibited activities of the Greater Washington Advertising Fund run by Roscoe C. Torchy Torrance, and in May imposed sanctions, in March, allegations of prohibited payments made by two booster clubs associated with UCLA, the Bruin Bench and the Young Mens Club of Westwood, were published in Los Angeles newspapers. UCLA refused for ten weeks to allow PCC officials to proceed in their investigation and this same alumnus blew the whistle on Cals phony work program for athletes known as the San Francisco Gridiron Club, with an extension in the Los Angeles area known as the South Seas Fund. The first major reaction came from the University of California system, for Sproul the PCC dispute was not just about athletics, at stake was the ideal of a unified University of California that enjoyed statewide support.
This ideal collided with aspirations of UCLA alumni who believed that Sprouls vision would always favor the Berkeley campus at the expense of the younger UCLA campus. Oregon State College president August Leroy Strand wrote, The reasons for California and UCLA dropping out are as different as night, the significance of the whole affair was the union of Berkeley and UCLA. Admissions and scholarship had nothing to do with the withdrawals, the PCC was falling apart, leading to the decision to dissolve after the 1958-59 season. Soon after the PCC was dissolved, five of its nine members created the Athletic Association of Western Universities for the 1959 season, after initially being blocked from admission, three of the four remaining schools would eventually join, but members were not required to play other members. Tensions were high between UCLA and Stanford, as Stanford had voted for UCLAs expulsion from the PCC, Idaho was not involved in the scandals but had become noncompetitive in the PCC
Montana Grizzlies football
The Montana Grizzlies football program represents the University of Montana in the Division I Football Championship Subdivision of college football. The Grizzlies have competed in the Big Sky Conference, where it is a founding member and they play their home games on campus in Missoula at Washington-Grizzly Stadium, where they had an average attendance of 24,380 in 2013. The Grizzlies had a season from 1986–2011. In Washington-Grizzly Stadium they have a percentage of.890 including playoffs. They hold the records for most playoff appearances in a row, Big Sky Conference titles in a row and their success made them the most successful program in all college football in the 2000s and third most successful team in FCS in the 1990s. The University of Montanas first football season was in 1897 where they won a game against future rival Montana State. The team played only schools from Montana until it helped found the Northwest Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1902, in addition to Montana, this original Northwest Conference included Washington, Washington State, Oregon State and Whitman College.
Despite the associations stated goal of increasing intercollegiate athletics, Montana continued to only the nearest teams. More unfortunate for the team, it would not win a game against a conference opponent until a 10-0 win over Washington State in 1914, Montana joined the conference in 1924 and remained through the 1949 season. Montana won only nine games, and never played a home game against a team from the state of California. No team was organized in 1918, due to World War I, Record, vs. CatsDoug Fessenden was the first Montana coach to last more than five years and was the first to end his career with a winning record that coached more than two years. The program was on hiatus for the 1943 and 1944 seasons, of the six teams in the northern division of the PCC, only Washington continued through the war. In 1948, the Montana board of education announced that it was de-emphasizing athletics at the state university, the conference was only preferable to having no conference affiliation. In 1951, Montana joined the Mountain States Conference, popularly known as the Skyline Conference and it would compete here until the conference dissolved in 1962, never having a winning season and not winning more than three games until 1960.
In 1963, Montana joined Gonzaga, Idaho State, Weber State, following a 1–9 season in 1966, University of Montana president Robert T. Pantzer announced in December the hiring of Jack Swarthout, a former quarterback/halfback/end from Montana. Swarthout brought on Jack Elway as an assistant and they improved the team immediately to 7–3 in their first season, within two years, Swarthout guided the team to back-to-back undefeated regular seasons in 1969 and 1970 and Montanas first Big Sky Conference titles. Continued success was expected, but a season in 1971 was followed by a work-study scandal that eventually led to Swarthouts resignation. Though Swarthout was found innocent, the charges hurt recruiting and the government decided to withdraw financial support for athletic programs
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California Trojans football team, the facility has a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference. For Rams games, capacity is at 80,000, giving it the fourth-largest capacity in the NFL, the stadium is located in Exposition Park and across the street from USC. From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum, the Coliseum is the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1932 and 1984 and has been proposed to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The stadium was the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3,4. It was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game, called Super Bowl I, additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, and UCLA Bruins football.
It was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27,1984, under the lease the University has day-to-day management and operation responsibility for both the Coliseum and Sports Arena. The 98-year lease took effect on July 29,2013, and was signed by the parties on September 5,2013. The Coliseum is now primarily the home of the USC Trojans football team, Most of USCs regular home games, especially the alternating games with rivals UCLA and Notre Dame, attract a capacity crowd. The current official capacity of the Coliseum is 93,607, USCs women lacrosse and soccer teams use the Coliseum for selected games, usually involving major opponents and televised games. USC rents the Coliseum to various events, including soccer games, musical concerts. The Olympic Cauldron was built for the stadiums two Olympic Games and it is still lit during the fourth quarter of USC football games, and other special occasions. It was lit to honor the fallen Israeli Athletes from the 1972 Munich Olympics Games and it was lit for several days following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986.
The torch was lit for over a following the September 11 attacks in 2001. In 2004, the cauldron was lit non-stop for seven days in tribute to president Ronald Reagan and it was lit again in April 2005 following the death of Pope John Paul II, who had celebrated Mass at the Coliseum during his visit to Los Angeles in 1987. At the Los Angeles Dodgers 50th anniversary game on March 29,2008, charity ceremony, while Neil Diamonds Heartlight was played and the majority of the attendees turned on their complimentary souvenir keychain flashlights. It was lit for the duration of Special Olympics World Games held in Los Angeles from July 25,2015 to August 2,2015, the cauldron was most recently lit for the returning Los Angeles Rams first home game on September 18,2016 against the Seattle Seahawks. The Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I, the official ground breaking ceremony took place on December 21,1921 with work being completed in just over 16 months, on May 1,1923
Whitman College is a private liberal arts college located in Walla Walla, Washington. Initially founded as a seminary by a legislative charter in 1859. Whitman College is accredited by the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges and competes athletically in the NCAA Division III Northwest Conference, the school offers 46 majors and 32 minors in the liberal arts and sciences, and has a student to faculty ratio of 9,1. Whitman was the first college in the Pacific Northwest to install a Phi Beta Kappa chapter, Whitman was ranked tied for 41st in the nation in the 2017 U. S. News & World Report list of Best Liberal Arts Colleges. Whitmans acceptance rate for 2015 was 41%, Marcus Whitman and Narcissa Whitman, along with 12 others were killed by a group of Cayuse Indians during the Whitman Massacre. While at the site, Eells became determined to establish a monument to his missionary colleagues in the form of a school for pioneer boys. Eells obtained a charter for Whitman Seminary, a pre-collegiate school, from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, he acquired the Whitman mission site.
Eells soon moved to the site with his family and began working to establish Whitman Seminary, despite Eellss desire to locate Whitman Seminary at the Whitman mission site, local pressure and resources provided a way for the school to open in the burgeoning town of Walla Walla. In 1866, Walla Wallas wealthiest citizen, Dorsey Baker, donated land near his house to the east of downtown, a two-story wood-frame building was quickly erected and classes began that year. The schools first principal, local Congregational minister Peasly B, resigned within a year and Cushing Eells was called upon to serve as principal, which he did until 1869. After Eellss resignation in 1869, the school struggled—and often failed—to attract students, pay teachers, Whitmans trustees decided in 1882 that while their institution could not continue as a prep school, it might survive as the areas only college. Alexander Jay Anderson, the president of the Territorial University, came to turn the institution into a college.
After modeling the institution after New England liberal arts colleges, Anderson opened the school on September 4,1882 with an enrollment of 60 students, in 1883, the school received a collegiate charter and began expanding with aid from the Congregational American College and Education Society. Despite local support for Whitman College and help from the Congregational community, after losing favor with some of the schools supporters, Anderson left Whitman in 1891 to be replaced by Reverend James Francis Eaton. The continuing recession of the 1890s increased the institutions financial worries, by popularizing Marcus Whitmans life and accomplishments, Penrose was able to gain support and resources for the college. Under his leadership, the faculty was strengthened and the first masonry buildings, Billings Hall, in 1907, Penrose began a plan called Greater Whitman which sought to transform the college into an advanced technical and science center. To aid fundraising, Penrose abandoned affiliation with the Congregational Church, the prep school was closed and fraternities and sororities were introduced to the campus.
Penrose iterated the schools purpose to be a college, with a limited number of students to whom it will give the finest quality of education