1920–29 Pacific hurricane seasons

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The 1920–1929 Pacific hurricane seasons all began during late spring in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the central Pacific. They ended in late fall.

Before the satellite age started in the 1960s, data on east Pacific hurricanes is extremely unreliable. In a few years, there are no reported cyclones although many systems certainly formed.

1920[edit]

Three known tropical cyclones formed this year in the eastern Pacific proper. One of them existed from September 10 to 13. It passed close to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula but never made landfall.

1921[edit]

Nine tropical cyclones are known this year in the eastern Pacific proper.

I. After crossing central Baja California, a tropical cyclone moved northward into southwestern Arizona on August 20, causing up to 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.

II. A system stayed at sea from September 25 to 30. It paralleled the coast of Mexico without making landfall. The remnants of this tropical cyclone moved northeastward through Baja California and Arizona, producing up to 4 inches (100 mm) of rain in the desert region.

III. and IV. Two possible tropical cyclones exited in the central Pacific during the month of October. The first developed on October 5 near Hawaii, and moved northward until being absorbed by an extratropical storm over the Aleutian Islands. The second was observed on October 17 well to the northeast of Hawaii. For both of these systems, it is unknown what, if any, tropical characteristics they had. It is possible they were Kona-type storms due to their locations.

1922[edit]

Seven tropical cyclones formed this year.

I. One of them was an extremely unusual hurricane that formed between February 6 and 18 and hassled a ship moving between San Pedro and Panama City. This is the only Eastern Pacific hurricane to form in the month of February.[1]

II. Another cyclone paralleled the coast of Mexico from August 27 to 30. It passed south of the Revilla Gigedo Islands but otherwise stayed at sea.

III. A "tropical hurricane" formed offshore western Mexico on September 9, and moved northwest, parallel but well offshore the coast, dissipating on September 13.[1]

IV. A tropical cyclone was tracked from October 14 to 16. It moved northeast and made landfall near Mazatlán.

1923[edit]

Five known tropical cyclones existed in the eastern Pacific proper this year.

I. The initial low pressure area formed on August 20 well southwest of Hawaii.[1] Moving generally westward, it was a small hurricane on August 23 when it was last noted. This storm is known as the Vega Cyclone, named after the USS Vega (AK-17) which reported the storm.

II. A tropical storm formed on October 12. After moving north, it made landfall near Salina Cruz. It crossed the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and emerged into the Bay of Campeche. It strengthened into Atlantic hurricane 3 and eventually made landfall in Louisiana as a weak Category 2.

1924[edit]

Three known tropical cyclones formed this year in the eastern Pacific proper.

I. One was detected on September 2. It stayed at sea and was lost track of on September 8.

II. Another system was discovered on September 6. It moved in a generally northerly direction. It dissipated on September 9 after making landfall about midway between Acapulco and a place called "C. Corrigules". However, weather associated with it crossed into the Gulf of Mexico.[2]

1925 season[edit]

I. A small tropical cyclone existed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec from June 3 to 6. It had gale-force winds, and its lowest reported pressure was 29.53 inHg (100.0 kPa).[2]

II. Off the coast of Mexico, a hurricane existed from July 7 to 10. The lowest reported pressure was 28.90 inHg (97.9 kPa).[3]

III. A tropical cyclone existed from July 17 to 22.[4]

IV. On July 31 and August 1, a tropical cyclone was encountered by a steamer called the West Calera. This tropical cyclone headed west-northwest and stayed south of the Hawaiian Islands. It brought gales to Honolulu from August 1 to 4. It also brought heavy surf to Oahu and the Big Island. That surf flooded a warehouse at Honuapo. It also flooded houses in Honuapo and Punaluu Beach, and collapsed flurtes at Hutchinson Plantation. On Oahu, Fort Kamehameha was flooded. Lawns at Diamond Head and Kahala were damaged, as were houses on the northern side of Oahu.[5]

V. A tropical cyclone existed on August 16. It had gale-force winds. The lowest reported pressure was 29.79 inHg (100.9 kPa).[4]

VI. Far from land, on September 27 to 28, the same ship that encountered the July 31–August 4 cyclone encountered a hurricane east of the Hawaiian Islands. That ship reported a pressure of 28.53 inHg (96.6 kPa).[5]

VII. South of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a tropical cyclone formed. It headed west-northwest. On October 24, it re-curved to the north, and made landfall near Cabo Corrientes on October 25. The next day, it dissipated inland.[6] The lowest pressure reported in association with this hurricane was 28.57 inHg (96.7 kPa). It caused rain throughout coastal areas near where it hit.[7] This hurricane also damaged many houses, and blew down trees in mountainous areas.[6] Roads were damaged, and telegraph lines were downed. In Puerto Vallarta, 270 houses were destroyed while 200 families were left homeless. Three people died and many were injured.[8]

VIII. A ship encountered a strong tropical cyclone near Acapulco on November 10. On November 11, it was near Manzanillo. It was not seen after that. This tropical cyclone was initially reported to have a pressure of 29.19 inHg (98.8 kPa uncorrected).[9] However, a later report attributes a pressure of 28.15 inHg (95.3 kPa).[10] Even in HURDAT, the modern "best track" database, there was no November tropical cyclone this intense until Hurricane Kenneth in 2011, which broke this record.[11] This hurricane also caused heavy rains to coastal areas of Mexico.[9]

IX. A tropical cyclone existed from December 22 to 26.[10]

1926 season[edit]

I. A tropical storm existed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 13. The lowest reported pressure was 29.55 inHg (100.1 kPa).[12]

II. Well south of Mexico, a tropical cyclone formed on July 5. It moved northwestward, and was last observed on July 9 while located south of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. It was a hurricane, and the lowest reported pressure was 28.90 inHg (97.9 kPa).[13]

III. Far from land, a tropical cyclone was reported on July 21. It had gale-force winds and a minimum reported pressure of 29.49 inHg (99.9 kPa).[13]

IV. On August 8, a tropical cyclone began forming. It was definitely extant on August 11, and was last seen on August 15. It caused gales and had a lowest reported pressure of 29.44 inHg (99.7 kPa).[14]

V. Another tropical cyclone was observed from August 22 to 23. It had a lowest reported pressure of 29.60 inHg (100.2 kPa) and also caused gales.[14]

VI. A tropical cyclone existed from September 14 to 16, during which time it moved along the coast. The lowest reported pressure was 29.64 inHg (100.4 kPa). It caused heavy rain.[15]

VII. A tropical cyclone moved along the coast from Manzanillo, to Mazatlán, to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, from September 24 to 26. It had gale-force winds, a lowest reported pressure of 29.56 inHg (100.1 kPa), and caused heavy rainfall.[15]

VIII. A tropical cyclone formed south of Acapulco on October 2. The next day, it was a tropical storm. It pretty much hung around in the same area, and dissipated near the western Gulf of Tehuantepec on October 11. The lowest reported pressure was 29.55 inHg (100.1 kPa).[16]

1927 season[edit]

I. A tropical cyclone moved along the coast of Mexico from June 14 to 18. It had gale-force winds and a minimum reported pressure of 29.58 inHg (100.2 kPa).[17]

II. A tropical storm existed off the coast of Mexico during late June.[18] The initial low pressure area formed near the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 23, moving west-northwest near the coast into July 1.[19]

III. A small tropical cyclone was detected on July 1. Its lowest reported pressure was 29.56 inHg (100.1 kPa), and was moving along the coast of Mexico.[17]

IV. A ship encountered a tropical cyclone on July 5. The ship reported a pressure of 29.70 inHg (100.6 kPa). The cyclone was moving west-northwest.[17]

V. On July 28, a tropical cyclone moved eastward in the Gulf of Tehuantepec.[17]

VI. Roughly southwest of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a tropical cyclone formed on August 7. It moved along the coast and dissipated south of the entrance to the Gulf of California on August 10.[20]

VII. On September 6, a tropical cyclone formed south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It moved along the coast, and by September 8 it was west of Manzanillo. It entered the Gulf of California on September 10, and it made landfall or dissipated the next day. The lowest reported pressure was 29.15 inHg (98.7 kPa).[21]

The tropical cyclone caused much damage and destruction.[21] The cyclone drove huge waves ashore along the coast, and destroyed rail lines linking Mexico City with the Pacific coast.[22] Some ships were also missing and presumed sunk.[23] Shipping was badly damaged.[24] Some of the ships initially reported sunk were later accounted for.[25] The worst hit areas were Manzanillo and Salina Cruz. Salina Cruz was reduced to ruins.[22] A sudden plunge in the barometer provided enough warning for emergency evacuations in those cities, which were credited with keeping the death toll below that which was initially reported.[25] In Mazatlán, one person was killed by being swept over the sea wall.[22] Acambaro, Guanajuanto was flooded.[26] In the aftermath, displaced refugees attempted to cross the border and enter Nogales, Arizona.[27]

VIII. A "tropical hurricane" formed well southwest of Mexico on September 7, dissipating on September 10.[19]

IX. A tropical cyclone formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on September 11. It moved northwest and was last observed on September 12.[21]

X. In the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a tropical cyclone was detected on September 25. It moved along the coast and was last seen on September 30. The lowest reported pressure was 29 inHg (98 kPa); a ship reported a maximum windspeed of 125 miles per hour (201 km/h; 109 kn).[21]

XI. A tropical depression existed south of Acapulco on October 19 and 20.[28]

1928 season[edit]

A weak tropical cyclone existed south of the Gulf of California was spotted on May 24. It moved westward, and was last seen on May 27. The lowest pressure reported was 29.77 inHg (100.8 kPa).[29]

A tropical cyclone in the Gulf of Tehuantepec produced gales on June 5. The lowest reported pressure was 29.67 inHg (100.5 kPa).[30]

A hurricane existed south of Cape Corrientes on July 28 and 29. The lowest reported pressure was a reading of 29.64 inHg (100.4 kPa).[31]

A tropical cyclone was noticed just south of the Mexican coast on August 6. This system might have formed south of Costa Rica three days earlier. Wherever it formed, this tropical cyclone intensified into a hurricane, and paralled the coast. It passed south of the Gulf of California on August 10. The hurricane passed northwestward of Cabo San Lucas on September, and dissipated on August 11 while over the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula. The lowest pressure reported in association with this hurricane was 28.50 inHg (96.5 kPa).[32]

This hurricane brought gale or hurricane-force winds to several areas of the Mexican coast. An American steamer, the William A. McKenney, had its cargo and structure damaged by the hurricane. Repairs were attempted during the storm, and 14 members of its crew were washed overboard and drowned.[32]

On September 1, a tropical cyclone formed well south of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. It moved west-northwest and was last seen on September 3. A ship reported a pressure reading of 29.44 inHg (99.7 kPa).[33]

About 200 miles west-southwest of Acapulco, a tropical cyclone formed on September 17. It slowly moved northwestward. It had intensified into a hurricane by September 18. On September 21, the hurricane weakened and recurved to the east-northeast. It made landfall north of Mazatlán and became a remnant over Mexico. Its remnants had crossed Mexico by September 22 and entered the Gulf of Mexico south of Brownsville, Texas.[33] They never developed into anything,[34] and had dissipated by the end of the month. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 28.82 inHg (97.6 kPa).[33]

From September 20 to 22, a tropical cyclone existed south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec.[33]

On October 7, at a location well south of the entrance to the Gulf of California, a hurricane existed. It was moving northwest. A ship measured a central pressure of 29.60 inHg (100.2 kPa).[35]

On October 16 and 17, a ship encountered a tropical cyclone well south of the southern Tip of the Baja California Peninsula. The ship reported a pressure of 29.48 inHg (99.8 kPa).[35]

1929 season[edit]

I. A "tropical hurricane" made a clockwise loop near Johnston Island between March 20 and 24.[36]

II. A tropical cyclone existed from May 29 to June 1. Starting from a location southwest of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, it traveled west-northwestward not far off the Mexican shore. A ship recorded its lowest known pressure of 29.21 inHg (98.9 kPa).[37]

III. A cyclone existed southwest of Acapulco on June 16 and 17. It produced gales, and a ship reported a pressure reading of 29.66 inHg (100.4 kPa).[38]

IV. On August 2, a tropical cyclone formed near the Mexican coast. It eventually became a hurricane, and was last seen on August 6. The lowest pressure reported in association with this system was 28.80 inHg (97.5 kPa).[39]

V. On August 21 and 22, a ship encountered a possible tropical cyclone at a location far from land and almost in the central Pacific basin. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 29.42 inHg (99.6 kPa).[39]

VI. On August 28. It moved along the coast, and passed over the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula around August 31.[39]

VII. On September 10, a tropical cyclone formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It moved along the coast, and was a hurricane by September 13.[40] It moved along the Pacific side of the Baja California Peninsula, and became a remnant off its northern coast on September 16.[41] Its remnants subsequently moved inland, and dissipated around September 18. The lowest pressure measured in association with this tropical cyclone was 28.28 inHg (95.8 kPa).[40]

This tropical cyclone inflicted gale or hurricane-force winds along parts of the coast of Mexico, including Manzanillo, Acapulco, and Mazatlán.[42] On September 18, its remnants caused rain of up to 4 inches (100 mm) in mountainous parts of Southern California.[43] An unseasonal warming was also attributed to this cyclone. It was also responsible for the strongest September winds ever recorded in San Diego up to that time.[44]

VIII. Somewhere between Manzanillo and Acapulco, a tropical cyclone might have existed on September 19.[45]

IX. On September 23, a tropical cyclone was located southeast of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It was last observed the next day. A ship reported a pressure of 29.56 inHg (100.1 kPa).[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b United States Weather Bureau (1947). Pressure Center Tracks From the 1300 GMT Northern Hemisphere Sea Level Pressure Maps. Tracks of Lows 1919-1923. 
  2. ^ F. G., Tingley (June 1925). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  3. ^ Hurd, Willis (July 1925). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  4. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (August 1925). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  5. ^ a b Hablutzel, Benjamin C.; Rosendal, Hans E.; Weyman, James C.; Hoag, Jonathan D. "Central Pacific Tropical Cyclones: 1950-52". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  6. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (October 1925). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  7. ^ Allen, Charles (November 1925). "Additional Note on Tropical Cyclone of October 22–25, Off West Coast of Mexico" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  8. ^ https://ams.confex.com/ams/30Hurricane/flvgateway.cgi/id/20999?recordingid=20999
  9. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (November 1925). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  10. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (February 1929). "Tropical Cyclone of the Eastern North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  11. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2016". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service.  A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  12. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1926). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  13. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (July 1926). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  14. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (August 1926). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  15. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (September 1926). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  16. ^ Hurd, Willis (October 1926). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  17. ^ a b c d Hurd, Willis (July 1927). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  18. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1927). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  19. ^ a b United States Weather Bureau (1947). Pressure Center Tracks From the 1300 GMT Northern Hemisphere Sea Level Pressure Maps. Tracks of Lows 1924-1928. 
  20. ^ Hurd, Willis (August 1927). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  21. ^ a b c d Hurd, Willis (September 1927). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  22. ^ a b c Associated Press (1927-09-14). "Many Perish in Hurricane". The Evening Independent. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  23. ^ "Two Ships Overdue After Hurricane". The Border Cities Star. 1927-09-17. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  24. ^ International News Service (1927-09-14). "Hurricane Moderating on Mexican Shorline". Oxnard Daily Courier. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  25. ^ a b "Report Mexico Storm Damage". Painsville Telegraph. 1927-09-15. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  26. ^ Associated Press (1927-09-20). "Lurid Stories Told of Storm". Sarasota Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  27. ^ "P.A. Women Halted at Nogales, Ariz." Saskatoon Phoenix. 1927-09-15. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  28. ^ Hurd, Willis (October 1927). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  29. ^ Hurd, Willis (May 1928). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  30. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1928). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  31. ^ Hurd, Willis (July 1928). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  32. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (August 1928). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  33. ^ a b c d Hurd, Willis (September 1928). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  34. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. April 11, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2018. 
  35. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (October 1928). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  36. ^ United States Weather Bureau (1947). Pressure Center Tracks From the 1300 GMT Northern Hemisphere Sea Level Pressure Maps. Tracks of Lows 1929-1933. 
  37. ^ Hurd, Willis (May 1929). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  38. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1929). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  39. ^ a b c Hurd, Willis (August 1929). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  40. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (September 1929). "The Mexican West Coast Hurricane of September 10–18" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  41. ^ "A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California" (PDF). National Weather Service Forecast Office San Diego. January 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  42. ^ Blake, Dean (November 1929). "A Tropical Cyclone in Southern California" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  43. ^ Williams, Jack (2005-05-17). "Background: California's tropical storms". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  44. ^ Blake, Dean (December 1935). "Mexican West Coast Cyclones" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  45. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (September 1929). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18.