Football at the 1928 Summer Olympics
Football was one of the tournament at the 1928 Summer Olympics. It was won by Uruguay against Argentina, was the last Olympic football tournament before the inception of the FIFA World Cup, held for the first time in 1930. Up to 1928 the Olympic football tournament had represented the World Championship of football, yet this presented a significant problem for the governing body, FIFA, since the tournament, though organised and run by FIFA, was an event subject to the ethical foundation that underpinned the Olympic movement. That all Olympic competitors had to maintain an amateur status had, for a length of time, been a constraint that football was unable to uphold. FIFA had sought to appease those nations that required concessions in order that players could participate in the Olympics; this required there to be an acceptance that irregular payment could be made to players by national associations: the so-called'broken time payments' by which loss of pay and expenses would be met. On February 17, 1928 the four'home' associations of the United Kingdom, meeting in Sheffield voted unanimously to withdraw from FIFA in opposition to the manner in which the governing body was seeking to dictate on such matters and, as was noted'that be free to conduct their affairs in the way their long experience has shown them to be desirable'.
For Henri Delaunay, President of the French Football Federation the writing was on the wall. In 1926 he stated, at the FIFA Conference:'Today international football can no longer be held within the confines of the Olympics; the day before the tournament began, on May 26, 1928 the FIFA congress in Amsterdam presided over by Jules Rimet, voted that a new FIFA World Cup tournament be organised in 1930 and be open to all member nations. Italy, the Netherlands and Uruguay would all lodge applications to host the event. By 1926, three years had passed since the British Associations had asked FIFA to accept their definition of what an amateur player was; the Rome Convention was called to try to coax the Danes back into the fold. Switzerland, a nation that favoured broken time payments suggested: It is not allowed to pay compensation for broken time, except in some well-circumscribed cases, to be fixed by each National Association; this challenge to the centralised authority of FIFA was disputed by the Football Association.
In 1927 FIFA asked the Olympic committee to accept the concept of broken time payments as an overriding condition for the competing members. The British Associations withdrew from the Olympiad and a few months withdrew from FIFA Uruguay were considered to be the strongest side with the Argentinians shading the advantage between the two. Upon returning home in 1924 Uruguay had ceded to a request to play a disbelieving Argentina in a two staged contest; the Argentinians won. Uruguay, the defending Olympic champions, once again sent a side made up, predominantly, by the personnel of their two biggest clubs: Nacional and, to a lesser degree, Peñarol; the competition was more competitive than the 1924 edition. Ten European nations had made the journey to the Netherlands for the competition; the Italians had been defeated only twice in three years. The Italian coach, Augusto Rangone, had been a beneficiary of the national federation's decision in 1923 to permit subsidies to cover player's lost wages.
For two years his forward line had remained comparatively the same: Adolfo Baloncieri, Virgilio Levratto. Spain had been defeated once since the last Olympic Games. After the first game, they lost their experienced captain Pedro Vallana. Uruguay dispatched the hosts, the Netherlands, 2-0 in front of 40,000 people with none of the controversy that had surrounded their previous encounter at the 1924 Summer Olympics; the game was controlled by Jean Langenus, a performance, recognised. Meanwhile, the Argentinians had little difficulty against the United States winning 11-2. Elsewhere Germany were defeated by the Uruguayans 4-1. In another quarter-final the Italians encountered Spain. In the first game they reached a tie with the Spanish fighting back from a half time deficit to force a replay. In the replay three days the Azzurri scored four without response before the break. Rangone kept faith in a unchanged team. Spain, on the other hand, had gambled by making five changes to Italy's two. Portugal, after wins over Chile and Yugoslavia lost to Egypt 2-1.
The African side advanced to a semi-final tie against Argentina. This meant; the Italians selected Giampiero Combi in Angelo Schiavio, in attack. Both would be crowned World champions at the 1934 FIFA World Cup. In this game the Uruguayans stormed to a convincing lead by the break. In the final the Uruguayans played Arg
Chile national football team
The Chile men's national football team represents Chile in major international football competitions and is controlled by the Federación de Fútbol de Chile, established in 1895. The team is referred to as La Roja, they have appeared in nine World Cup tournaments and were hosts of the 1962 FIFA World Cup where they finished in third place, the highest position the country has achieved in the World Cup. Since the mid to late 1960s, the Elo ratings ranks Chile among the 10 strongest football teams in the world. Chile are the reigning Copa América champions. Prior to this, Chile had been runners-up in the competition on four occasions; as a result of winning the 2015 Copa América, they qualified for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, where they finished second. The Federación de Fútbol de Chile is the second oldest South American federation, having been founded in Valparaíso on 19 June 1895. Chile is one of the four founding member nations of CONMEBOL. Together with Argentina and Uruguay, the four competed in the first South American Championship to be renamed the Copa América, in 1916.
On 12 October 1926, Chile made the first corner-kick goal in Copa América history in a match against Bolivia. Chile was one of the thirteen national teams that competed in the inaugural World Cup in 1930; the team started off well, beating France without conceding a goal. A 3–1 loss to Argentina in the final game left the Chilean team in second place within the group, eliminating it from the tournament. In the 1950 World Cup, Chile defeated the United States, 5–2, but was eliminated in the first round; the best Chilean result in the World Cup was third place in 1962, as the host nation. Chile lost 4–2 to eventual champion Brazil in a semi-final but went on to defeat Yugoslavia 1–0 to earn third place. Chilean players made two World Cup firsts: the first player to miss a World Cup penalty kick was the Chilean Guillermo Subiabre, in a 1930 FIFA World Cup match against France, Carlos Caszely of Chile became the first player to be sent off with a red card, during a match against West Germany at the 1974 World Cup.
La Roja's most infamous moment, known as the "Roberto Rojas scandal" or in Chile as "El Maracanazo", occurred on 3 September 1989. At a 1990 FIFA World Cup qualifying match at Rio de Janeiro's Maracanã stadium, Brazil led Chile 1–0 and La Roja needed to win. Chilean goalkeeper Roberto Rojas fell to the pitch with an apparent injury to his forehead. A firework had been thrown from the stands by a Brazilian fan named Rosenery Mello do Nascimento and was smouldering about a yard away. After Rojas was carried off the pitch, the Chilean players and coaches claimed that conditions were not safe and they refused to return, so the match was abandoned. However, video footage of the match showed. FIFA forfeited the game to Brazil, Chile was banned from the qualifiers for the 1994 FIFA World Cup, Rojas was banned for life, although an amnesty was granted in 2001. On 19 July 2007, the Chilean Football Federation banned six of the national team players, because of "internal indiscipline" during the Copa América tournament, for 20 international matches each and none of the players will be allowed to captain the national team.
The players banned were captain Jorge Valdivia, defenders Álvaro Ormeño, Rodrigo Tello, Jorge Vargas, Pablo Contreras and striker Reinaldo Navia. Nelson Acosta's resignation as manager came. Chile had qualified to the quarter-finals after a 3–2 win against Ecuador, a 0–0 draw against Mexico, but two losses, one of those being a 6–1 defeat against Brazil, sealed Acosta's fate. Former Argentina manager Marcelo Bielsa was given the task of becoming the Chile national team manager in preparation for the 2010 World Cup qualifiers. On 16 October 2008, Chile beat Argentina 1–0 for the first time in a qualifying competition, making history. Marcelo Bielsa was acclaimed for this accomplishment by both Argentinian people; this match was seen as one of the reasons. After finishing in second place of the CONMEBOL qualifiers for the 2010 FIFA World Cup held in South Africa and reaching the round of 16 at the tournament, head coach Marcelo Bielsa extended his contract with the Chilean national team until 2015.
Bielsa stated that he would leave his position if Jorge Segovia were elected as President of the Chilean Football Board. He followed through on this threat, despite Segovia's election being annulled, resigned in February 2011. Claudio Borghi became Chile's manager in March 2011. After a string of bad performances and harsh criticisms, Claudio Borghi stepped down as Chile's manager in November 2012. A new manager, Jorge Sampaoli, was appointed in December 2012. A disciple of Marcelo Bielsa, Jorge Sampaoli broke new records for La Roja by winning 10, drawing 3, losing only 3 of 15 games as the head of the Chilean national team. With Sampaoli, Chile were able to qualify for 2014 FIFA World Cup, reaching to the round of 16, where Chile lost to Brazil in penalties. In the 2015 Copa América, Chile won their first game with 2 -- 0 being the score. In their second game, Chile drew against Mexico. Chile advanced to the knockout stage as Group A winners with 7 points and most goals scored of any team in the tournament.
They beat Uruguay in the quarterfinals and Peru in the semifinals. In the final, Chile defeated Argentina on penalties after a 0–0 draw, to win their first Copa America title. In January 2016, just six months af
Argentina national football team
The Argentina national football team represents Argentina in football. Argentina's home stadium is Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti in Buenos Aires. La Selección known as the Albicelestes, has appeared in five World Cup finals, including the first final in 1930, which they lost 4–2 to Uruguay. Argentina won in their next final appearance in 1978, beating the Netherlands at extra time, 3–1. Argentina won again in 1986, through a 3–2 victory over West Germany, a tournament campaign led by Diego Maradona, they made the World Cup finals once more in 1990, lost 1–0 to West Germany following a controversial penalty call in the 87th minute. Argentina, led by Lionel Messi, made their fifth appearance in a World Cup final in 2014, again losing to Germany, 1–0 during extra-time. Argentina's World Cup winning managers are César Luis Menotti in 1978, Carlos Bilardo in 1986. Argentina has been successful in the Copa América, winning it 14 times, being second only to Uruguay in Copa América victories.
Argentina have won the'extra' South American Championships in 1941, 1945 and 1946. The team won the 1992 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 1993 Artemio Franchi Trophy; the Argentine olympic team won the Olympics football tournaments in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008. Argentina and France are the only national teams that have won the three most important men's titles recognized by FIFA: the World Cup, the Confederations Cup, the Olympic tournament, they have won their respective continental championship. Argentina is known for having rivalries with Brazil, Uruguay and Germany due to particular occurrences with one another throughout football history; the first match recorded by Argentina was against Uruguay. The game was held in Montevideo on 16 May 1901 and Argentina won 3–2. During the first years of its existence, the Argentina national team only played friendly matches against other South American teams; the reasons for this varied, including long travel times between countries and World War I. La Selección known as the Albicelestes, has appeared in five World Cup finals, including the first final in 1930, which they lost, 4–2, to Uruguay.
Argentina won in their next final in 1978, beating the Netherlands, 3–1. Argentina, led by Diego Maradona won again in a 3 -- 2 victory over West Germany. Argentina last reached the World Cup final in 2014. Previous to this their last World Cup final was in 1990, which it lost, 1–0, to West Germany by a much disputed penalty. Argentina's World Cup winning managers are César Luis Menotti in 1978, Carlos Bilardo in 1986. Argentina has been successful in the Copa América, winning it 14 times and winning the "extra" South American Championships in 1941, 1945 and 1946; the team won the FIFA Confederations Cup and the Kirin Cup, both in 1992, the 1993 Artemio Franchi Trophy. An Argentina team won the Olympics football tournaments in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008. Argentina won six of the 14 football competitions at the Pan American Games, winning in 1951, 1955, 1959, 1971, 1995 and 2003. In March 2007, Argentina reached the top of the FIFA World Rankings for the first time; the first jersey worn by Argentina was a white shirt, when the national side debuted against Uruguay in 1902.
In August 1908, Argentina wore the white and light blue in vertical stripes jersey for the first time. That kit would become the official kit since then; the away kits have been in dark blue tones, varying the colors of shorts and socks. Argentina wore other uniforms a few times. One of them was on 3 June 1919 in Rio de Janeiro playing the "Roberto Chery Cup" against Brazil; that time Argentina wore a light blue kit, similar to Uruguay. The trophy was established by Brazilian Football Confederation for the benefit of Roberto Chery's relatives. Chery was Uruguay's substitute goalkeeper and died during the 1919 South American Championship after collapsing in a game against Chile. At the 1958 World Cup, Argentina wore Swedish club IFK Malmö's yellow jersey in the match against West Germany, as the team did not take away uniforms to Sweden. At the 2018 World Cup in Russia, Argentina wore a black away kit for the first time in their history; the first Argentina national team manager was Ángel Vázquez, appointed in 1924.
Guillermo Stábile is the manager with the most matches coaching the team. Here is the complete list of managers: Win Draw Loss The following 29 players were called up for two friendly matches against Venezuela and Morocco on 22 and 26 March 2019 respectively. Caps and goals correct as of: 26 March 2019, after the match against Morocco; the following players have been called up for the team in the last 12 months. Champions Runners-up Third place Football at the Summer Olympics has been an amateur tournament from 1908 to 1988. Football at the Summer Olympics has been an under-23 tournament since 1992. Argentina has won 6 of the 14 football competitions at the Pan American Games, winning in 1951, 1955, 1959, 1971, 1995 and 2003; as of 16 October 2018, the ten players with the most appearances for Argentina are: As of 30 June 2018, the ten players with the most goals for Argentina are: Most goals scored in all international competitions, including friendlies: 65 – Lionel Messi, 2005– Most goals scored in official international competitions, including FIFA World Cup qualification and FIFA Confederations Cup: 38 – Gabriel Batistuta, 1991–2002 Most goals scored in all major interna
Héctor Pedro Scarone Beretta was a football player considered the best player in the world in his time. At club level, Scarone spent most of his career with Nacional, with whom he won the Uruguayan championship eight times, he scored a total of 301 goals for the club in 369 appearances. He played for Spanish side FC Barcelona, Inter Milan and Palermo in Italy, he won the South American Championship four times: in 1917, 1923, 1924, 1926, the Olympic gold medal twice: in 1924 and 1928 recognized as FIFA World Cup. At the age of 19, he scored the goal that gave Uruguay the title at the 1917 South American Championship, in the final against Argentina, his fourth international match. Scarone finished his international career by leading Uruguay to the 1930 FIFA World Cup, although his international career ended that same year, the 31 goals in 52 matches he scored for his country stood until as of 2011 as the national record. Uruguay's goal tally first Club Nacional Primera División Uruguaya: 1916, 1917, 1919,1920, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1934Uruguay Copa América: 1917, 1923, 1924, 1926 Copa América: Silver Medal: 1919, 1927 Copa América: Bronze Medal: 1921, 1922, 1929 Olympic gold: 1924, 1928 FIFA World Cup: 1930 After retiring as a player, Scarone became a football coach.
He was the second manager of Millonarios since its origins, from 1947 to 1948, while the club was still an amateur team. He was Real Madrid in the 1950s, he died in 1967 in Montevideo, aged 68. International statistics at rsssf
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Uruguay national football team
The Uruguay national football team represents Uruguay in international association football and is controlled by the Uruguayan Football Association, the governing body for football in Uruguay. The current head coach is Óscar Tabárez; the Uruguayan team is referred to as La Celeste. They have won the Copa América 15 times, the most successful national team in the tournament, the most recent title being the 2011 edition; the team has won the FIFA World Cup twice, including the first World Cup in 1930 as hosts, defeating Argentina 4–2 in the final. They won their second title in 1950, upsetting host Brazil 2–1 in the final match, which received an attendance higher than any football match ever, they have won the Gold Medals in football at the Summer Olympics twice, in 1924 and 1928 recognized by FIFA as World Championships, before the creation of the World Cup. Uruguay won the 1980 Mundialito, a tournament among former World Cup champions. In total, Uruguay have won 20 official titles, a world record for the most international titles held by any country.
Their success is amplified by the fact that the nation has a small population of around 3.4 million inhabitants. Uruguay is by far the smallest country in the world to have won a World Cup in terms of population, 1.75 million inhabitants in 1930. The second-smallest country, by population, to have won the World Cup is Argentina with a population of nearly 28 million people in 1978. Uruguay is the smallest country to win any World Cup medals. In 1901, Uruguay played against Argentina in their first match, a close contest won by Argentina 3–2. Prior to 1916, Uruguay played more than 30 matches; the inaugural Copa America provided Uruguay with more varied opposition. Victories over Chile and Brazil, along with a tie against Argentina, enabled Uruguay to win the tournament; the following year Uruguay hosted the competition, retained the title by winning every game. The 1919 Copa América saw Uruguay's first defeat in the tournament, a 1–0 defeat in a playoff with Brazil which went to two periods of extra time, the longest Copa América match in history.
In 1924, the Uruguay team traveled to Paris to become the first South American team to compete in the Olympic Games. In contrast to the physical style of the European teams of the era, Uruguay played a style based around short passes, won every game, defeating Switzerland 3–0 in the gold medal match. In the 1928 Summer Olympics, Uruguay went to Amsterdam to defend their title, again winning the gold medal after defeating Argentina 2–1 in the replay of the final. FIFA assumed the responsibility of the organization of the Football Games to be played by FIFA rules and the tournaments would be recognized as World Championships, it only happened twice until the creation of its own FIFA World Championship, the FIFA World Cup, in 1930. Following the double Olympic triumph, Uruguay was chosen as the host nation for the first World Cup, held in 1930, the centenary of Uruguay's first constitution. During the World Cup, Uruguay won all its matches, converted a 1–2 half-time deficit to a 4–2 victory against Argentina at the Estadio Centenario.
Due to the refusal of some European teams to participate in the first World Cup, the Uruguayan Football Association urged other countries to reciprocate by boycotting the 1934 World Cup played in Italy. For the 1938 World Cup, France was chosen as host, contrary to a previous agreement to alternate the championships between South America and Europe, so Uruguay again refused to participate. Uruguay again won the World Cup in 1950, beating hosts Brazil in one of the biggest upsets in World Cup history; the decisive match was at the Maracanã Stadium in Brazil. Uruguay came from behind to beat the host nation in a match which would become known as the Maracanazo. Many Brazilians had to be treated for shock after the event, such was the surprise of Uruguay's victory. After their fourth-place finish in the 1954 World Cup, the team had mixed performances and after the fourth-place finish in 1970, their dominance and performance dropped, they were no longer a world football power and failed to qualify for the World Cup on five occasions in the last nine competitions.
They at one time ranked 76th in the FIFA World Rankings. In 2010, however, a new generation of footballers, led by Luis Suárez, Diego Forlán and Edinson Cavani, formed a team considered to be Uruguay's best in the last four decades, catching international attention after finishing fourth in the 2010 World Cup. Uruguay opened the tournament with a goalless draw against France, followed by defeats of South Africa in and Mexico finishing at the top of their group with seven points. In the second round, they played South Korea, defeating them 2–1 with star striker Luis Suárez scoring a brace and earning Uruguay a spot in the quarter-finals for the first time since 1970. Against Ghana, the match finished 1–1, forcing the game into extra-time. Both sides had their chances at extra time but Suárez blocked the ball with his hand in the penalty area, earning Suárez a red card and earning Uruguay universal scorn. Ghana striker Asamoah Gyan missed the subsequent penalty, forcing the game to go into penalties where Uruguay would win 4–2, sending them into the last four.
They played the Netherlands in the semifinals but were beaten 3–2. For the third-place match, they played Germany, again losing 3–2; this placed Uruguay in fourth place for the tournament, thei
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i