Football in Israel
Football is the most popular sport in Israel. Football as a sport, first developed in the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. Finally it was admitted to UEFA as a member in 1992 and as a full member in 1994. The Israel Football Association is the body of football in the State of Israel. All of Israels professional football clubs must be members, and hundreds of semi-professional, as of 2013–14, the Israeli football league system has five levels and 16 different divisions, all run by the IFA. Promotion and relegation operates between each level, theoretically allowing clubs to progress from bottom to top four seasons. The State Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English FA Cup and it is a straightforward knock-out cup. The final is played at the Ramat Gan Stadium and the winner qualifies for the UEFA Europa League, the Toto Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English League Cup, the main difference being that there is a separate cup for each of the three national divisions. The cup is played first in a stage, with the highest placed teams qualifying for the knock-out stages. Like the State Cup, the final is played at the National Stadium, clubs who do well in either the Premier League or State Cup qualify to compete in various UEFA-organised Europe-wide competitions in the following season. The number of Israeli clubs playing in Europe in any one season can range four to six. Any clubs playing in the UEFA Champions League that will finish third in the stage will go into the UEFA Europa League round of 32 Israel hosted. Israel qualified for the World Cup in 1970 which was held in Mexico, mordechai Spiegler scored in a 1–1 draw against Sweden. Israels Olympic football team qualified for the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1976 Summer Olympics both times reaching the quarter finals, Israels highest FIFA ranking was 15th in November 2008. During the British Mandate for Palestine, organized football consisted mainly of British and Jewish clubs, although Arab clubs also existed and took part in IFA competitions. As early as 1906, Maccabi Tel Aviv was formed as a club, followed by a string of Maccabi clubs in other cities and towns, such as Jerusalem, Petah Tikva, Haifa, Zikhron Yaakov. On 24 April 1924, Hapoel Haifa was formed, shortly after formation, they joined the World Maccabi Organization
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948, further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. At the wars end the British and French set up a joint Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in what had been Ottoman Syria, the British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, the land west of the Jordan River, known as Palestine, was under direct British administration until 1948. The land east of the Jordan, a region known as Transjordan, under the rule of the Hashemite family from the Hijaz. The divergent tendencies regarding the nature and purpose of the mandate are visible already in the discussions concerning the name for this new entity. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called Southern Syria in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs, following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920, the administration was replaced by a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner. The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist recent cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920, following the arrival of the British, Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem and its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission was formed in March 1918 and was active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine, on 19 April 1920, elections were held for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community, Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organizations, investors, and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof that the British intended to favor Zionism, when Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist. As Grand Mufti, as well as the influential positions that he held during this period. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council which had created by Samuel in December 1921. The Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds, in addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Israel Football Association
The Israel Football Association, also known as IFA, is the governing body of football in Israel. It organizes a variant of football leagues, cups. The association is based in Ramat Gan, IFA was founded in 1928 as the Palestine Football Association. The Palestine Football Association was founded in July 1928 under the British Mandate, in 1954, the Israel Football Association was admitted to the Asian Football Confederation. In 1974, the Israel Football Association was expelled from the AFC due to pressure from Arab. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. In 1992, the IFA was admitted to UEFA as an associate member, since 1992, Israeli clubs have been playing in the various UEFA club competitions and the Israeli national teams play in UEFA championships. In 1979, Yosef Yekutieli, the founder of the IFA, was awarded the Israel Prize for dedicating his life to promoting and laying the foundation of Israeli sports. Football in Israel List of football stadiums in Israel Sport in Israel Official website Israel at FIFA site Israel at UEFA site
1929 Palestine riots
The riots took the form, in the most part, of attacks by Arabs on Jews accompanied by destruction of Jewish property. During the riots,17 Jewish communities were evacuated and it also attributed the cause as being Arab fears of Jewish immigrants not only as a menace to their livelihood but as a possible overlord of the future. Avraham Sela described the riots as unprecedented in the history of the Arab-Jewish conflict in Palestine, in duration, geographical scope and direct damage to life and property. The Western Wall is one of the holiest of Jewish sites, the Jews, through the practice of centuries, had established a right of access to the Wailing Wall for the purposes of their devotions. As part of the Temple Mount the Western Wall was under the control of the Muslim religious trust, there had been a few serious incidents resulting from these differences. The Muslims linked any adaptions to the site with the Zionist project and he concluded, Let us swear that the Jewish people will not rest and will not remain silent until its national home is built on our Mt Moriah, a reference to the Temple Mount. In September 1928, Jews praying at the Wall on Yom Kippur placed chairs and this precipitated emotional protests and demands from the assembled sheiks that it be removed. Unless it was taken down, they said, they would not be responsible for what happened, Keith-Roach told the beadle that the screen had to be removed because of the Arabs demands. The beadle requested that the screen remained standing until the end of the prayer service, when the Jewish beadle failed to remove the screen as agreed, ten armed men were sent in, urged on by Arab residents who were shouting, Death to the Jewish dogs. A violent clash with worshipers took place, and it was destroyed, the internal politics of both sides had been willing to adopt extreme positions and to make use of religious symbols to whip up popular support. Zionist literature published throughout the world used the imagery of a structure on the Temple Mount to symbolize their national aspirations. Zionists had appropriated an Islamic minaret from the Ottoman period on the old city wall as a symbol for their propaganda. A Zionist flag was depicted atop of a building reminiscent of the Dome of the Rock in one publication. The Shaw Commission stated that some sections of the Arabic Press had reproduced documents concerning the Wailing Wall which were of a character likely to excite any susceptible readers, one consequence was that Jewish worshippers frequently were subjected to beatings and stoning. In October 1928, the Grand Mufti organised new construction next to, mules were driven through the praying area often dropping excrement, and waste water was thrown on Jews. A muezzin was appointed to perform the Islamic call to prayer directly next to the Wall, the Jews protested at these provocations and tensions increased. Zionists began making demands for control over the wall, some went as far as to call openly for the rebuilding of the Temple, ben-Gurion said the wall should be “redeemed”, predicting it could be achieved in as little as “another half a year”. During the spring of 1929 the Revisionist newspaper, Doar HaYom ran a campaign claiming Jewish rights over the wall
Israel State Cup
The State Cup, is a knockout cup competition in Israeli football, run by the Israeli Football Association. The State Cup was first held in 1928 as the Peoples Cup, the holders of the State Cup are the Israeli Premier League side Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona, who beat Maccabi Netanya in the 2014 final on 7 May 2014. Maccabi Tel Aviv have 23 titles, having the record for most titles won, Hapoel Tel Aviv in 1937–1939 and 2010–2012 are the only club to have retained the State Cup for three consecutive seasons. The draw also determines which teams play at home. Each tie is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, though until 1964 replays would be played until one team was victorious. Some ties took as many as three matches to settle, there are a total of 13 rounds in the competition—nine rounds, followed by quarter-finals, semi-finals, and the final. Which are contested by the lowest-ranked clubs, clubs playing in the Liga Alef are given exemption to the Fifth Round, and Liga Leumit teams are given exemption to the Eighth Round. The 18 winners from that round join the 14 clubs from the Israeli Premier League, as well as being presented with the trophy, the winning team also qualifies for the UEFA Europa League. If the winners have qualified for the UEFA Champions League via the Israeli Premier League. If they also have qualified for the UEFA Champions League, the place goes to the next highest placed finisher in the league table. The draw for round, performed by drawing the clubs name from a jar, is a source of great interest to clubs and their supporters. Sometimes two top clubs may be drawn against each other in the rounds, removing the possibility of them meeting in the final. Mid-ranked teams hope for a draw against a peer to improve their chances of reaching future rounds, top-ranked teams look for easy opposition, but have to be on their guard against giant-killers and lower teams with ambition. The balls are being drawn by the officials of the Israel Football Association, the semifinals and the finals are traditionally held in the national Ramat Gan Stadium in the middle of the week. The match considered more interesting to the public is usually the second, for the final, the two winning teams of the semifinal return to Ramat Gan, with the winning team being awarded the State Cup from the President of Israel. The presidents role is traditional, and entered the Israeli sports lexicon, Israel Football Association List of winners on IFA website State Cup Soccerway Israel – List of Cup Finals
Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C.
Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club and part of the Maccabi Tel Aviv sports club. Founded in 1906 as the HaRishon Le Zion-Yafo Association, Maccabi Tel Aviv is the oldest, largest and most decorated club in Israel. With the establishment of the city of Tel Aviv in 1909, in 1922 they became the first Jewish football club to participate in local competitions. Maccabi Tel Aviv have won more titles than any other Israeli club, winning 22 League Championships,23 prestigious State Cups, the club is named after the Maccabees. Maccabi Tel Aviv FC invest a lot of money in the development, the clubs youth system operate football academies at three sites in the Tel Aviv area, working with over 750 children aged 6–15. The club also runs 17 youth teams with 400 players between 9 and 19 years old and these teams tend to compete very successfully in local and national leagues. Durims decided to establish the Palestine League, in the same year the State Cup was founded under the name People Cup. That same year, the first Tel Aviv derby was played, with Maccabi winning, Maccabi won their first State Cup in 1929 after beating Maccabi HaShmonai. Maccabi won the State Cup for a time in 1930, beating the 48th Regiment of Foot 2–1, and a third in 1933. In 1936 the club was invited to play in the United States, on their way, Maccabi played in France, losing, 2–0, to Racing Paris and 3–1 to Lille. In the United States, Maccabi defeated the All-star team of New York City in front of 50,000 in Yankee Stadium. Maccabi also defeated the American Soccer League team in Brooklyn and Philadelphia on their ground, 1–0, and also played in Canada. Maccabi continued their tour in the USA and lost, 3–2, to St. Louis Stars, after returning from the United States, Maccabi players went on strike because they had not been paid. In 1937, after a year of action, the Football Association accepted their demands. In that year, Maccabi Tel Aviv also won their first league title, in 1939, after the start of World War II, Maccabi won their second championship. At the end of the season, Maccabi went to another tour and they played 18 games, winning 11, losing 5 and drawing 2. The games were against State sides, regional sides and five tests against the Australian national team, winning one, drawing one, in 1941 Maccabi won their first double, Winning both the league and State Cup, beating Hapoel Tel Aviv, 2–1, in the final. Between 1941 and 1945 the league was suspended because of the war, in 1946, the league was still suspended but the State Cup returned with Maccabi beating Hapoel Rishon LeZion, 6–0, on aggregate in the final
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Maccabi Petah Tikva F.C.
Maccabi Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. It is part of the Maccabi sports club and currently plays in the Israeli Premier League. In 1921, after the death of founder member Avshalom Gisin during the 1921 Palestine riots, the club added his name to the name. In 1927 the club moved to the Maccabi Petah Tikva Ground, in 1935 they won their first piece of silverware, beating Hakoah Tel Aviv 1–0 in the cup final. In 1939 they reached the final again, but lost 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, the following year they won the Haaretz tournament. The club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949, in the next season they finished as runners-up to champions Maccabi Tel Aviv and also won the State Cup, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0. In 1953–54 they also finished second with Eliezer Spiegel finishing as the top goalscorer on 16 goals from 22 matches. After several seasons of mid-table finishes, Maccabi finished bottom of the table in 1962–63 and were due to be relegated to Liga Alef, however, the Israel Football Association decided to expand the league from 12 to 15 clubs and they were spared demotion. However, the club was relegated at the end of the 1965–66 season after finishing second from bottom, after two seasons in Liga Alef the club returned to the top division in 1969. At the end of the 1970–71 season the club was relegated again after finishing second from bottom, although Maccabi finished bottom in 1974–75, they were again reprieved from relegation due to league expansion. However, after a performance in 1976–77 they did go down. After making another return to the top flight, the club maintained several mid-table finishes. In 1990 and 1991 the club won the Liga Artzit Toto Cup and they returned to the top division in 1991 and have remained there since. In 1995 the club won the top divisions Toto Cup for the first time, in 2001 the club reached the cup final for the first time in 49 years, losing 3–0 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 2003–04 they finished third, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, however, the home leg of their third qualifying round tie against SC Heerenveen was cancelled by UEFA due to a baggage handlers strike, and they lost the away leg 5–0. In 2004–05 the club finished second in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup again and this time they were more successful, beating Macedonian side FK Baskimi 11–0 on aggregate, before knocking out Partizan Belgrade. However, in the stage they finished bottom having lost all four matches. As of 1 February 201604 – Morad Megamadov, Center back, the club played at the Maccabi Petah Tikva ground between 1926 and the 1970s
No. 14 Squadron RAF
No.14 Squadron of the Royal Air Force currently operates the Beechcraft Shadow R1 in the Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance role from RAF Waddington. No.14 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps was formed on 3 February 1915 at Shoreham with Maurice Farman S.11 and B. E.2 aircraft. After a few months of training it departed for the Middle East in November of that year for Army co-operation duties during the Sinai. In 1916 the squadrons B. E. 2s were supplemented with a number of D. H. 1A two seat fighters for escort duties, with the type remaining in use until March 1917. Other fighters operated by the fighter flight included the Bristol Scout and Vickers FB.19. The squadron flew in support of British forces in the Third Battle of Gaza in late 1917 and it was recalled to the UK in January 1919 and disbanded the following month. On 1 February 1920 the squadron was reformed in Ramleh by renumbering No.111 Squadron, the squadron operated Bristol Fighters and used them for various duties including photo surveying and air policing. The squadron patrolled Trans-Jordan and Palestine for the next 20 years, the squadron fully equipped with DH. 9As in January 1926. Fairey IIIFs replaced the squadrons DH. 9As in November 1929, the Fairey Gordon, a radial engined derivative of the IIIF re-equipped the squadron in September 1932, being used for operations against Arab rioters during the 1933 Palestine riots. In March 1938, the squadron replaced its Gordons with Vickers Wellesley monoplane bombers, when World War II broke out the squadron was transferred to Egypt but soon returned to Amman. It lost its first Wellesley to Italian defences on 14 June during a raid against Massawa. The Squadron started to receive twin-engined Bristol Blenheims in September that year, flying its first Blenheim mission on 20 September, in March 1941 it carried out bombing raids in support of the assault on Keren. In April 1941, following the liberation of Addis Ababa, the squadron was sent to Egypt for operations over the Western Desert, on 7 July 1941, the squadron withdrew from the Western Desert, being based in Palestine and Iraq until it returned to Egypt in November 1941. On 17 August 1942,14 Squadron was withdrawn from operations to convert to the Martin Marauder, the squadron flew its first operational mission with the Marauder, a maritime reconnaissance mission on 26 October 1942. The squadron used its Marauders for ling-range maritime reconnaissance missions, minelaying and anti-shipping attack with torpedoes, the squadrons Marauders sank a Tanker with torpedoes on 19 January 1943 and two more merchant ships on 21 February. In March 1943, it started performing anti-submarine missions out of Algeria, basing detachments in Italy and Sardinia, the Squadron flew its last Marauder mission on 21 September that year, leaving its equipment behind when it transferred back to the UK. On its return to the UK, the squadron was based at RAF Chivenor and carried out anti-submarine mission over the Western Approaches and the Bay of Biscay using Vickers Wellington Mk. XIVs. The squadron was disbanded on 1 June 1945 but was reborn the same day
Royal Corps of Signals
The Royal Corps of Signals is one of the combat support arms of the British Army. Signals units are among the first into action, providing the battlefield communications, colloquially referred to by some as Siggies, Royal Signals units provide the full telecommunications infrastructure for the Army wherever they operate in the world. The Corps has its own engineers, logistics experts and systems operators to run radio, in 1870, C Telegraph Troop, Royal Engineers, was founded under Captain Montague Lambert. By 1871, C Troop had expanded in size from 2 officers and 133 other ranks to 5 officers and 245 other ranks, in 1879, C Troop first saw action during the Anglo-Zulu War. Signalling was the responsibility of the Telegraph Battalion until 1908, when the Royal Engineers Signal Service was formed, as such it provided communications during the First World War. It was about time that motorcycle despatch riders and wireless sets were introduced into service. A Royal Warrant for the creation of a Corps of Signals was signed by the Secretary of State for War, Winston Churchill, six weeks later, King George V conferred the title Royal Corps of Signals. Before the Second World War, Royal Signals recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 2 inches tall and they initially enlisted for eight years with the colours and a further four years with the reserve. They trained at the Signal Training Centre at Catterick Camp, all personnel were taught to ride. Throughout the Second World War, members of the Royal Corps of Signals had served in every theatre of war, by the end of the war the strength of the Corps was 8,518 officers and 142,472 other ranks. In the immediate period, the Corps played a full and active part in numerous campaigns, including Palestine, Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation, Malaya. Soldiers from the Royal Signals delivered communications in the Falklands War, the first Gulf War, Bosnia, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, East Timor and they are currently deployed in Cyprus and Afghanistan. In late 2012, 2nd Signal Brigade disbanded, the future structure of the Royal Signals will change under Army 2020. Other ranks are trained both as soldiers and tradesmen. Their basic military training is delivered at the Army Training Regiment at Winchester before undergoing trade training at 11th Signal Regiment. Whilst SSgts are generally regarded as being Regimental Duty, this roster does not start until WO2, the Corps wears a blue and white tactical recognition flash. This is worn horizontally on the arm with the blue half charging forward. Airborne elements of the Royal Signals wear a Drop Zone flash on the arm of their combat jacket
St. George's College, Jerusalem
St Georges College Jerusalem is a continuing education center of the Anglican Communion. It is an agency of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem, with a mission to the church within the Diocese, to the wider Anglican Church in the Middle East. The College was founded as a seminary for Palestinian seminarians, in 1962, it expanded its mission to include educating clergy and laity from other parts of the world. Today the College programs focus on pilgrimage, community, study, programs typically last 8,10 or 14 days, and are open to clergy and laity of all denominations and any faith. It is in East Jerusalem, near the American Colony Hotel and is ten minutes’ walk from the Old City of Jerusalem, the school has a three story building containing en suite rooms capable of housing up to 42 people. The 21,000 volume library is one of the largest English language libraries in Jerusalem, st. Georges School, Jerusalem Saint Georges College Website Lonely Planet TV clip of SGCJ
Palestine Police Force
The Egyptian Expeditionary Force had won the decisive Battle of Gaza in November 1917 under the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of Palestine, Edmund Allenby. Following a decisive British victory at the Battle of Megiddo, the Ottoman Empire formally surrendered on 30 October 1918, headquarters of the police in Jerusalem were initially set up in the Russian Compound, along Jaffa Road, where assistant provost marshal was assisted by the British Military Police. Initially Palestine was administered in the district of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. The Palestine Police was founded with the establishment in July 1920 of the administration of the British Mandate under high commissioner Herbert Samuel. The first police commander was Lieutenant Colonel P. B, Bramley, OBE, with the title of Director of Public Security and with the rank of Commandant of Police and Prisons. Legislative authority was granted eight months after-the-fact with Police Ordinance 1921, by 1928 the Force had 2,143 officers,321 Jews,1293 Muslim Arabs and 471 Christian Arabs. It was a confidential document which it was considered impossible to publish at the time. Each colony was provided with a telephone and the network was improved to give the Police greater mobility. The Colonial Office wanted Charles Tegart to become Inspector-General of the Force in 1937 and he refused but joined Sir David Petrie in visiting the territory to advise on dealing with Arab guerrillas. Tegart forts are a style of militarized police fortress constructed throughout Palestine during the British mandate, the forts are named after British police officer and engineer Sir Charles Tegart, who designed them in 1938 based on his experiences in the Indian insurgency. Many of them stand to this day, and some continue to be used as jails, on 27 May,1942 the Police became a military force eligible to be deployed on military operations inside Palestine and in Syria and Iraq. In 1944 the Police Mobile Force was created as a fully militarized strike force, established with 800 British servicemen, who had been on active wartime service in Italy, North Africa and Britain, the PMF was organized, trained and equipped along military lines. Members wore battle dress and were trained in a training depot based in Jenin. By the time of the 1947 UN Partition Plan the British members of the Force alone numbered 4,000. The British mandate over Palestine was due to expire on 15 May 1948, members of the Palestine Police Force withdrew with the remainder of the British Forces in Palestine. However, the influence of the Palestine Police reached its peak after the force was disbanded on 15 May as around 1,400 policeman obtained postings elsewhere. In particular, a Special Constabulary of 500 former Palestine Police was established in Malaya after the state of emergency was declared in June 1948, officers who served in Malaya also transferred to colonial police forces in Kenya), Hong Kong and Tanganyika. Percy Bramley, Commandant of Police, July 1920 - March,1923, arthur Mavrogordato, Commandant of Police, March 1923 - July,1931
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club is an Israeli football club in Liga Leumit. Hapoel plays at Teddy Stadium in Malha, Jerusalem, Hapoel Jerusalem Club was established in 1926 and played in the inaugural season of the EIFA league, playing the leagues first match against local rivals Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem. The club played in the league for its first three seasons, however, the club was restricted to playing mainly in the Jerusalem area due to travelling difficulties. The club participated occasionally in the Palestine Cup, reaching the cup final in 1943, after the establishment of Israel, the club registered to play in the makeshift second tier league, Liga Meuhedet, in the Jerusalem-Central division, which the club won. The club continued to play in the division, until it was promoted to the top division at the end of the 1956–57 season. Following the promotion, the club stayed in the top division for 21 seasons, achieving its best position, 3rd, in 1971–72 the club reached the State Cup final, losing to Hapoel Tel Aviv 0–1. A season later, the reached the cup final again. The club was relegated to the division in 1979. The club continued to yo-yo between the two top divisions in the seasons, playing his last season at the top division in 1999–2000. In 1998, the club reached its fourth cup final, in the early 1990s, the club was transferred to businessmen Yossi Sassi and Victor Yona. The two ran the team together until falling out, leading to a business and legal dispute which lasted until 2009. The fan-based club was established in 2009 and progressed to the Liga Leumit in 2013–14, the club currently plays in second tier Liga Leumit, to which it promoted from Liga Alef in 2010–11. Katamon Stadium was razed in 1982, with the intention to build a modern stadium in its place. The new stadium in Katamon was never built, and instead Teddy Stadium was built in the Malha neighborhood, during the early years, support of the club came mostly from the labour organizations in Israel. City rivals Beitar were identified with the right-wing nationalist organizations, all this played out to create the Jerusalem derby. To this day the rivalry exists, though it is not nearly as heated as both clubs played in the top division of Israeli football. In 2007 a large majority of fans, unhappy with the management of the club, as to 11 February 2017 Club website Hapoel Jerusalem Israel Football Association
Raghib al-Nashashibi, CBE, was a wealthy landowner and public figure during the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate and the Jordanian administration. He was a member of the Nashashibi clan, one of the most influential families in Palestine, Nashashibi graduated from Istanbul University and became Jerusalems District Engineer. The Nashashibis were one of the oldest and most influential Jerusalem families, Nashashibi succeeded Musa Kazim al-Husayni as mayor of Jerusalem in 1920. He was an opponent of the Husayni family in Palestine. In 1937 he secretly favoured union with Transjordan, Nashashibi was a founding member of the Arab Higher Committee and a leader of the National Defence Party. In August 1949 he was appointed head of the new Jordanian ministry for refugees, in 1950 he became Jordanian Minister of Agriculture and later Minister of Transport. He was also appointed as custodian of the Holy Places of Jerusalem with cabinet rank, armed Struggle and the Search for State, The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993. ISBN 0-19-829643-6 Prime Ministry of Jordan Facebook Nashshibi page
Jaffa or Yafo, is the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, an ancient port city in Israel. Jaffa is famous for its association with the stories of Jonah, Solomon and Saint Peter as well as the mythological story of Andromeda. The town was mentioned in Egyptian sources and the Amarna letters as Yapu, mythology says that it is named for Japheth, one of the sons of Noah, the one who built it after the Flood. The Hellenist tradition links the name to Iopeia, or Cassiopeia, an outcropping of rocks near the harbor is reputed to have been the place where Andromeda was rescued by Perseus. Pliny the Elder associated the name with Iopa, daughter of Aeolus, the Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi referred to it as Yaffa. The tell of Jaffa rises to a height of 40 metres, with a view of the coastline. The accumulation of debris and landfill over the centuries made the even higher. Archaeological evidence shows that Jaffa was inhabited roughly 7500 BCE, the natural harbour of Jaffa has been in use since the Bronze Age. The city is mentioned in the Amarna letters under its Egyptian name Ya-Pho. The city was under Egyptian rule until around 800 BCE, Jaffa is mentioned in the Book of Joshua as the territorial border of the Tribe of Dan, hence the modern term Gush Dan for the center of the coastal plain. The tribe of Dan did not manage to dislocate the Philistines from Jaffa, in the Song of Deborah the prophetess asks, דן למה יגור אוניות, Why doth Dan dwell in ships. After Canaanite and Philistine dominion, King David and his son King Solomon conquered Jaffa, the city remained in Israelite hands even after the split of the united Kingdom of Israel. In 701 BCE, in the days of King Hezekiah, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, after a period of Babylonian occupation, under Persian rule, Jaffa was governed by Phoenicians from Tyre. Alexander the Greats troops were stationed in Jaffa and it later became a port of the Seleucid Empire until it was taken over by the Maccabees and ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty. During the First Jewish–Roman War, Jaffa was captured and burned by Cestius Gallus, the Roman Jewish historian Josephus writes that 8,400 inhabitants were massacred. Pirates operating from the rebuilt port incurred the wrath of Vespasian, the New Testament account of Saint Peter bringing back to life the widow Dorcas (recorded in Acts of the Apostles,9, 36–42, takes place in Jaffa, then called in Greek Ἰόππη. Peter retells the story of his vision in Acts 11, 4-17, in Midrash Tannaim in its chapter Deuteronomy 33,19, reference is made to Jose ben Halafta traveling through Jaffa. Jaffa seems to have attracted serious Jewish scholars in the 4th and 5th century, the Jerusalem Talmud in Moed Ketan references Rav Acha of Jaffa, and in Pesachim chapter 1 refers to Rav Phineas of Jaffa
Tel Aviv-Yafo is a major city in Israel, located on the countrys Mediterranean coastline. It is the center and the technology hub of Israel, with a population of 432,892. Tel Aviv is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel, Tel Aviv is also a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron Huldai, Tel Aviv is a global city, and is the thirty eighth most important financial center in the world. Tel Aviv is known to have the third-largest economy of any city in the Middle East after Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City, the city receives over a million international visitors annually. Known as The City that Never Sleeps and a party capital, it has a lively nightlife, the city was founded in 1909 by Jewish immigrants on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa. It is named after the Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzls 1902 novel, Altneuland, the modern citys first neighbourhoods had already been established in 1886, the first being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffas, Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel. Tel Avivs White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzls Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including Herzliya and it was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for spring, symbolizing renewal, and tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a settlement on the sand dunes North of Jaffa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote, In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city. Since 1886, Jewish settlers had founded new neighborhoods outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv, the first was Neve Tzedek, built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche and inhabited primarily by Mizrahi Jews. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Achva, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa. The Second Aliyah led to further expansion, in 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society. The societys goal was to form a Hebrew urban centre in an environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics
Zikhron Yaakov is a town in Israel,35 kilometres south of Haifa, and part of the Haifa District. It is located at the end of the Carmel mountain range overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. It was one of the first Jewish settlements of Halutzim in the country, founded in 1882 by Baron Edmond James de Rothschild and named in honor of his father, in 2015 it had a population of 22,532. Zikhron Yaakov was founded in December 1882 when 100 Jewish pioneers from Romania, members of the Hovevei Zion movement, the difficulty of working the rocky soil and an outbreak of malaria led many of the settlers to leave before the year was up. In 1883, Baron Edmond James de Rothschild became the patron of the settlement and drew up plans for its residential layout and agricultural economy. Zikhron was one of the first Jewish agricultural colonies to come under the wing of the Baron, to accomplish his first objective, Baron de Rothschild brought in planners who designed and allotted housing lots along the main road for the use of settlement farmers. Each lot included a house facing the street, an interior courtyard. The French-inspired architecture included tiled roofs and painted wooden windows, each farmer was given a salary and placed under the direction of Elijah Shaid, the Barons clerk. The Baron also commissioned the construction of the Ohel Yaakov Synagogue, named after his father, sparing no expense to build the edifice, the synagogue features a majestic ark made of white marble. The synagogue opened in 1886 and has conducted daily prayer services continuously to this day, following a number of economic failures, in 1885 Rothschild helped to establish the first winery in Israel, Carmel Winery, together with a bottling factory, in Zikhron Yaakov. This was more successful economically although it was initially short-lived as in 1892 the grapevines succumbed to phylloxera, after a brief set-back, American seedlings which were resistant to phylloxera were grown and the winery began to flourish. Today, the remains in action, as do the huge wine cellars that were carved into the mountain over a century ago. In 1954, the remains of Baron Edmond de Rothschild were reinterred in Zikhron Yaakov, Zikhron Yaakov came to fame during World War I for the establishment of the Nili spy ring by Sarah Aaronsohn, together with her brothers, Aaron and Alex, and their friend Avshalom Feinberg. The group volunteered to spy on Ottoman positions and report them to British agents offshore, in September 1917, the Ottomans caught one of Sarahs carrier pigeons and cracked the Nili code. In October, they surrounded Zikhron Yaakov and arrested Sarah and several others, sara shot herself in the throat, leaving her unable to speak, in order to avoid releasing classified information. The Aaronsohn House–Nili Museum recreates the history of this period, the population increased dramatically in the early 1950s, after the establishment of the State of Israel. Between the 1960s and 1990s, the population remained constant with about 5,000 inhabitants, at the end of 2009, Zikhron Yaakov had a population of 18,719. Many residents continue to engage in agriculture, although upscale private homes have built by families attracted to the scenic landscape
Binyamina-Givat Ada is a town in the Haifa District of Israel. It is the result of the 2003 merger between the two councils of Binyamina and Givat Ada. In 2015 its population was 14,777, prior to the merger, the population of Binyamina was 6,600. Binyamina was founded in 1922 and named after the Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild, according to the Jewish National Fund, Binyamina was founded on PICA land by members of the Third Aliyah. According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Binyamina had a population of 153 inhabitants, the original economy of the village was citrus-based. In 1947, Binyamina had a population of 2000, Givat Ada, named for Baron Edmond James de Rothschilds s wife Adelaid, was established in 1903 by eight families from Zikhron Yaakov. Givat Ada was established as an agricultural settlement, the main farming branches were field crops and vegetables, and later, grapes. The area is home to both the Binyamina Winery, producers of 2.8 million bottles of wine annually, Tishbi now produces one million bottles annually. Plans have been drawn up to build a 150-acre wine park on the slopes between Binyamina and Zichron Yaakov to promote tourism in Israel. A direct non-stop train from Binyamina reaches Tel Aviv or Haifa in 30 minutes, Binyamina is the birthplace of the Israeli songwriter Ehud Manor, and is referenced in a number of his songs. It is also the birthplace of former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, four-time Olympian and world-record-holder in shooting, Guy Starik, lives there
Hadera is a city located in the Haifa District of Israel, in the northern Sharon region, approximately 45 kilometers from the major cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa. The city is located along 7 km of the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain, the city has a population of about 91,634, which includes a high proportion of immigrants arriving since 1990, notably from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union. In 2015 it had a population of 88,783, Hadera was established in 1891 as a farming colony by members of the Zionist group, Hovevei Zion, from Lithuania and Latvia. By 1948, it was a center with a population of 11,800. In 1952, Hadera was declared a city, with jurisdiction over an area of 53,000 dunams. Hadera was founded in 1891, in the early days modern Zionism by Jewish immigrants from Lithuania and Latvia on land purchased by Yehoshua Hankin, the land was purchased from a Christian effendi, Selim Khuri. This was the largest purchase of land in Eretz Israel by a Zionist group, although the land was of low quality, the only inhabitants prior to the purchase were a few families raising water buffaloes and selling reeds. The town may derive its name from the Arabic word khadra, the first settlers lived in a house known as the Khan near Haderas main synagogue. Initially, Hadera was a lonely outpost of 10 families and 4 guards, in its early years, however, the town had issues with land ownership having drained the swamps with the aid of Egyptian workers sent to them by Baron Edmond de Rothschild. Old tombstones in the local cemetery reveal that out of a population of 540,210 died of malaria, relations between the residents of Hadera and neighboring Bedouins were poor and HaShomer organization was assigned to guarding the fields. By the early century, the town had become a regional economic center. Land disputes in the area were resolved by the 1930s, by which time, free schooling was introduced in the city in 1937 in all schools apart from the Histadrut school. Haderas population began to grow dramatically after Israeli independence in 1948 as immigrants flocked to the country, among the immigrants to the city were Russian and other European immigrants and also 40 Yemenite families. In 1953, Israels first paper mill opened in the town, sponsored by investors from within Israel as well as from the United States, Brazil, and Australia, the mill was designed to meet all of Israels paper needs. It was also at this time that the Givat Olga neighborhood was constructed on the coast, in 1964, Hadera was declared a city. The city grew dramatically during the 1990s as it absorbed large numbers of Russian and Ethiopian immigrants, in addition, four civilians were killed when a terrorist opened fire on pedestrians at a bus stop on October 28,2001. However, since the construction of the nearby West Bank barrier, on August 4,2006, three rockets fired by Hezbollah hit Hadera. Hadera is 50 miles south of the Lebanese border and marked the farthest point inside Israel hit by Hezbollah, Hadera has traditionally been known as a backwater
Netanya is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, and is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain. It is 30 km north of Tel Aviv, and 56 km south of Haifa, Netanya was named in honor of Nathan Straus of Macys, a prominent Jewish American merchant and philanthropist in the early 20th century. Its 14 kilometres of beaches have made the city a popular tourist resort, in addition, the city is known for its large immigrant population. In 2015, it had a population of 207,946, an additional 150,000 people live in the local and regional councils within 10 kilometres of Netanya which serves as a regional center for them. The city mayor is Miriam Feirberg, the city is expected to reach a population of 350,000 by 2020. The idea to create the settlement of Netanya was drawn up at a meeting of the Bnei Binyamin association in Zikhron Yaakov, Netanya. was named for Straus in the hope he would donate money to them. When he told them he had no money to give they were disappointed. In 1928 members of Bnei Binyamin and Hanote, a set up after Straus was informed of the establishment of the settlement. On December 14,1928 a team led by Moshe Shaked began digging for water at the site, subsequently, on February 18,1929, the first five settlers moved onto the land, plowing and cultivating it for the first time. In the weeks that followed, more settlers began arriving, the land was divided between the settlers in June 1929 as slowly the vision of the settlement became reality. Development was set back, however when the 1929 Palestine riots, by September, however, development was back on track with the cornerstones for the first 10 houses being laid on Sukkot. In the following years, Netanya continued to grow, with the first kindergarten and shop opening in 1930, in 1933, the British architect Cliff Holliday proposed a plan for Netanya to become a tourist city. Holliday also prepared urban projects in Jaffa, Tiberias, Lydda,1933 also saw the completion of the Tel-Aviv Hotel, the first hotel in the city, as well as the establishment of two new neighborhoods, Ben Zion and Geva. The moshava as it then was continued to grow in 1934 and these operations continued until 1939, with over seventeen ships landing near the city, being aided by the residents of Netanya. Whilst flourishing agriculturally,1934 also saw the city diversify with Primazon opening the first factory there, producing fruit, following this, the first industrial zone was set up, whilst the Shone Halahot Synagogue was built and the Bialik School, the first school, inaugurated. In 1940, the British Mandate government defined Netanya as a council of which Oved Ben-Ami was elected head of. Expansion continued after this point, with the settlement of Neve Itamar created near Netanya in 1944, later becoming a neighborhood, in November 1947, an Egged bus which left Netanya for Jerusalem was attacked in Petah Tikva. In 1948, following the withdrawal of British forces from Netanya and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when fighting calmed down, Netanya was designated, on December 3,1948 a city, the first city to be designated in the newly established State of Israel
Kfar Saba, officially Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel. In 2015 it had a population of 96,922, the origins of the name are not known - in Hebrew it means grandfathers village. Kfar Saba also appears in the Talmud in connection to corn tithing, excavations on the site have revealed the remains of a large Roman bathhouse. In the Byzantine periods the ruins of the bathhouse were first converted into fish pools, in 1596, the Arab village of Kafr Saba was inhabited by 42 Muslim families. In the 1870s it was described as a mud village of moderate size with mud-ponds around it and good water in the wells of Neby Yemin, the Jewish town of Kfar Saba was established in 1898 on 7,500 dunams of land purchased from the Arab village. The Ottoman pasha of Nablus, to whose governorate the land belonged, refused to give building permits, therefore the first settlers lived in huts made of clay and they earned their living by growing almonds, grapes and olives. Most of the manual laborers on the land were peasants from Qalqilya, only in 1912 were permits given and the settlers moved to permanent housing. In the Palestine campaign of World War I, Kfar Saba was on the front line between General Allenbys British Army and the Ottoman army, and was destroyed, at the same time about a thousand residents of Tel Aviv and Jaffa came to live in the town. They had been deported from their homes by the Ottomans. Due to the Jaffa riots of 1921 these deportees returned to their original cities, in 1922 the original residents returned and in 1924 additional settlers joined them. In this period the cultivation of citrus fruit developed, the first elections for the local council were held. In August 1947, a Jewish man was shot to death outside the village. In December 1947, Arab and Jewish leaders in the area pledged to keep the peace between the local communities, in the months leading up to the 1948 war, Kfar Saba was attacked by local militia from Arab Kafr Saba. The Arab Liberation Army, an army consisting of volunteers from several neighboring Arab countries, in 1962 Kfar Saba was awarded city status, with head of the local council, Mordechai Surkis, becoming its first mayor. Located just across the Green Line from Kalkilya, Kfar Saba has been a frequent target of terrorist attacks, in May 2001, a Palestinian Arab suicide bomber wearing an explosive belt killed a doctor and wounded 50 at a bus stop in Kfar Saba. In March 2002, a Palestinian terrorist opened fire on passersby at an intersection, killing an Israeli girl. In April 2003, a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up at the Kfar Saba train station during the rush hour, killing a security guard. The census of 1922 listed the population of Kfar Saba as 14 Jews, by the census of 1931 it had grown to 1405 inhabitants, in 395 houses
Raanana is a city in the heart of the southern Sharon Plain of the Central District of Israel. Bordered by Kfar Saba on the east and Herzliya on the southwest, while the majority of its residents are native-born Israelis, a large part of the population are immigrants from the Americas and Europe. Raananas high tech industrial park is home to leading global companies. It was designated a Green City award by the World Health Organization in 2005, in 1912, the Company for Jewish Settlement in Israel formed the Ahuza A – New York group to purchase land in Palestine for agricultural settlement. The First World War delayed their plans but on 2 April 1922, two left the corner of Lilienblum and Herzl Streets in Tel Aviv carrying four Ahuza members. After a five-hour journey, they unloaded their baggage at the destined to become Raanana. According to a census conducted in 1931 by the British Mandate authorities, Raanana had a population of 615 inhabitants, in its early days, the settlement was called Ahuza A – New York. The Arabs of the region called it Little America as most of its residents were English speakers, later it was renamed Raanania and finally the founding settlers chose Raanana as its official name. By 1948, it was a village of 3,000 residents, by the late 1960s, it had a population of 8,500 spanning an area of 15 square kilometres. In the 1980s Raanana was declared a city, the number of French immigrants is also on the rise. The religious community generally lives on the side and the secular community on the southern sides. Many of these synagogues cater to immigrant groups. There is also a small Hasidic community of Clevelander Hasidim, led by the Clevelander Rebbe of Raanana, the orthodox chief rabbi of the city is Rabbi Yitzhak Peretz. Ahuza Street runs through the city from east to west and is lined with shops, restaurants, Raanana has 12 elementary schools,10 middle schools and 8 high-schools. Educational programs for gifted students start in the third grade, the program, created in conjunction with Ness Technologies, uses advanced technology as a catalyst for developing skills. Raanana has developed education programs for the afternoon and evening hours. These programs foster creativity, promote social involvement and cultivate leadership skills, the supplementary education projects include over 20 Batei Talmid citywide extracurricular programs, an afternoon daycare program, and music, dance, art and science centers. Raanana is home to the Open University of Israel and Raanana College, the park of Raanana is the largest urban park in the Sharon region
Herzliya is an affluent city in the central coast of Israel, at the Northern part of the Tel Aviv District known for its robust start-up and entrepreneurial culture. In 2015 it had a population of 91,926, named after Theodor Herzl, the founder of modern Zionism, Herzliya covers an area of 21.6 square kilometres. At its western municipal boundaries is Herzliya Pituah, one of Israels most affluent neighborhoods and home to numerous Embassies, Herzliya, named after Theodor Herzl, was founded in 1924 as a semi-cooperative farming community with a mixed population of new immigrants and veteran residents. During that year,101 houses and 35 cowsheds were built there, the 1931 census recorded a population of 1,217 inhabitants, in 306 houses. Upon the establishment of the state in 1948, Herzliya was a town of 5,300, large numbers of immigrants settled there, and it had 12,000 residents within a few years. In 1960, when the population reached 25,000, Herzliya was declared a city, according to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, residents of Herzliya are among the wealthiest in Israel. In 2003–2005, average monthly salaries were NIS8,211, however, there is a large gap between the citys seven working-class neighborhoods, among them Yad Tisha, Neve Yisrael and Neve Amal, and upscale Herzliya Pituah. The population is older than that of cities in the Sharon region, 18% are under 14 years old. Investment in education was higher than all other cities in the survey, the Herzliya Interdisciplinary Center is a private college that was founded in 1994 by Prof. Uriel Reichman, who serves as its president to this day. Israels largest television and film studio, Herzliya Studios, is located in Herzliya, the Herzliya Marina was built in the 1970s. The city has an airport, three shopping malls, movie theaters, museums, cultural centers and a stadium. In 2008, the Herzliya Cinematheque opened in the area of the city. In a 2008 survey of 15 Israeli cities, Herzliya ranked second in fiscal management, the Herzliya municipality ended 2006 with a sizeable budget surplus. One of the homes has been turned into a museum Beit Rishonim documenting the history of Herzliya. The Herzliya Museum of Art is part of the Yad Labanim memorial complex, west of Herzliya is Sidna Ali, a Muslim holy site. To the northwest is Tel Arsaf and the Apollonia National Park, inhabited from the Persian period until the Crusader period, the site contains the remains of the Crusader town of Arsuf, including a fortress surrounded by a moat. Another archaeological site, Tel Michal, lies on Herzliyas Mediterranean coast 4 kilometres south of Arsuf, since its inception in 2000, the Herzliya Conference has become an annual summit of the most influential Israeli and international leaders. The city has two clubs, Maccabi Herzliya and Hapoel Herzliya, both of which are based at the 7, 100-capacity Herzliya Municipal Stadium
Hapoel Haifa F.C.
Hapoel Haifa Football Club is an Israeli football club located in Haifa. The club won one championship and 3 Israeli cups, the Team is also known as The Sharks. The clubs home since the early 1990s is the Kiryat Eliezer Stadium in Haifa, in which they have played since their departure from Kiryat Haim Stadium, the colours of the teams home kit are red throughout. The away colours are white shirts, and black shorts and socks, the beginning of the club was in a local organization founded in Haifa in 1924. This organization included several related to sports, in addition to branches related to worker movements. Their goal was to found the first ever football club in Palestine. The meeting was led by Yehoshua Sherpstein and Yair Aharony, on May 1,1924, Labor Day, was the first match, in which Hapoel Haifa beat 3–1 the train workers of Haifa. In the first years of the club it played friendly matches against different teams from Palestine, Europe. At the beginning Hapoel Haifa was included under the Maccabi union, two years later the club decided to leave Maccabi, and was among the founders of the new union, Hapoel. In 1928 the Israel Football Association was founded, and formal matches were scheduled, In the first 4 years only cup matches, during these years Hapoel Haifa did not win many trophies, yet it was still one of the leading teams in the country. In 1932 the team qualified to its first cup final, against the British Police, the referee was British, and some of the decisions he made were very controversial. During the match, when the score was 1–0 to Hapoel Haifa, after some decisions that the players of Haifa found very odd and unfair, as a result, Hapoel Haifa was disqualified. That year 5 of Haifas players made it to the Palestine squad, in 1950, after the War of Independence, the Israeli League returned to action, and Haifa finished in the 3rd place, after Maccabi and Hapoel Tel-Aviv. Two years later the cup matches were renewed and these years were direct continuation to the seasons before the state of Israel was established, when the team was one of the leaders, yet did not manage to win any trophies. Hapoel was very weak in the early sixties, the team finished 1962–63 one before last, and was supposed to relegate to the second division. But, due to suspicions about improper matches, the relegations were canceled, at this turning point, many talented young players promoted from the youth team, causing a significant improvement that started the clubs best period. In the same season, 1962–63, the won the Israel State Cup. In all of the seasons the team finished in the top third of the league
Ramla is a city in central Israel. The city is predominantly Jewish with a significant Arab minority, Ramla was founded circa 705–715 CE by the Umayyad governor and future caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. Ramla lies along the route of the Via Maris, connecting old Cairo with Damascus, at its intersection with the road connecting the port of Jaffa with Jerusalem. It was conquered many times in the course of its history, by the Abbasids, the Ikhshidids, the Fatimids, the Seljuqs, the Crusaders, the Mameluks, the Turks, the British, and the Israelis. After an outbreak of the Black Death in 1347, which reduced the population. Under Arab and Ottoman rule the city became an important trade center, napoleons French Army occupied it in 1799 on its way to Acre. The town had an Arab majority before most of its Arab inhabitants were expelled or fled during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the town was subsequently repopulated by Jewish immigrants. In 2001, 80% of the population were Jewish and 20% Arab, in recent years, attempts have been made to develop and beautify the city, which has been plagued by neglect, financial problems and a negative public image. New shopping malls and public parks have been built, and a museum opened in 2001. A2013 Israeli police report documented that the Central District ranks fourth among Israels seven districts in terms of drug-related arrests, today, five prisons are located in Ramla, including the maximum-security Ayalon Prison. Its name was derived from the Arabic word raml, meaning sand, the early residents came from nearby Ludd. Ramla flourished as the capital of Jund Filastin, which was one of the five districts of the Syrian province of the Ummayad, Ramla was the principal city and district capital almost until the arrival of the Crusaders in the 11th century. In the 8th century, the Ummayads built the White Mosque, the remains of this mosque, flanked by a minaret added at a later date, can still be seen today. In the courtyard are underground water cisterns from this period, Ramla was sometimes referred to as Filastin, in keeping with the common practice of referring to districts by the name of their main city. The 10th-century geographer al-Muqaddasi describes Ramla at the peak of its prosperity, It is a fine city and it combines manifold advantages, situated as it is in the midst of beautiful villages and lordly towns, near to holy places and pleasant hamlets. Commerce here is prosperous, and the markets excellent. The bread is of the best, the lands are well favoured above all others, and the fruits are the most luscious. This capital stands among fields, walled towns and serviceable hospices. Ramlas economic importance, shared with the city of Lydda, was based on its strategic location
Declaration of Independence (Israel)
It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day. The event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Yom Haatzmaut on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar, the possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, in the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the recently established United Nations. The result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States, the Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by most of the Jewish population, the result was 33 to 13 in favour of the resolution, with 10 abstentions. Resolution 181, PART I, Future constitution and government of Palestine, TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE, Clause 3 provides, Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the forces of the mandatory Power has been completed. The first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, a revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, and was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett, a second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon, Sharett and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence, three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States. The meeting started at 1,45 in the afternoon and ended after midnight, the decision was between accepting the American proposal for a truce, or declaring independence. The latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it, For, David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett, Peretz Bernstein, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Mordechai Bentov, against, Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit. Chaim Weizmann, chairman of the World Zionist Organization and soon to be the first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after reportedly asking What are they waiting for, the idiots. The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13,50 and ended at 15,00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, during the process, there were two major debates, centering on the issues of borders and religion. On the border issue, the draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Rosen and Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit, it was opposed by Ben-Gurion and Zisling, with Ben-Gurion stating, We accepted the UN Resolution and they are preparing to make war on us. If we defeat them and capture western Galilee or territory on both sides of the road to Jerusalem, these areas become part of the state
Hapoel Petah Tikva F.C.
Hapoel Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. Their most successful period was the late 1950s and early 1960s, in which the club won six championships, although they have not won the title since 1963, Hapoel still hold the record for the number of back-to-back titles. The club was established in 1934 and that years tournament, which was known as the War Cup and was boycotted by Beitar-affiliated clubs, was not recognised by the Israel Football Association until recently. Nowadays, the IFA recognize this cup edition as part of the competitions history, the club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949 and finished fourth in the first post-independence championship, with their 3–2 home defeat to Beitar Tel Aviv annulled. In the 1954–55 season the club won their first championship, and they finished second for the next three seasons, winning the cup for the first time in 1957, before winning the title again in 1958–59. They retained the title in 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62 and 1962–63, in both 1959 and 1960 the club also reached the cup final, but lost on both occasions, 4–3 to Maccabi Tel Aviv and 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv respectively. Hapoel finished second in 1964–65 and 1966–68 and reached the cup again in 1968. In the 1974 final they lost 1–0 to Hapoel Haifa after extra time, at the end of the 1975–76 season the club were relegated for the first time in their history, and dropped into Liga Artzit. They returned to the top flight in 1978, but were relegated again at the end of the 1981–82 season, the club returned to Liga Leumit in 1984. In 1986 they won the Toto Cup for the first time, despite a two-point deduction for breaking budget rules, Hapoel finished second in 1988–89 and qualified for the Intertoto Cup. They also finished as runners-up in 1989–90 and 1990–91, winning the Toto Cup in both seasons, in the latter they also reached the State Cup final, but lost 3–1 to Maccabi Haifa. The following year the club reached the final, this time winning, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–1 after extra time. In their first season in Europe, Hapoel beat Strømsgodset 4–0 on aggregate in the first qualifying round, domestically, Hapoel struggled during the 1992–93 season, finishing second from bottom, only avoiding relegation after beating Maccabi Jaffa in a play-off. In 1996–97 Hapoel finished second, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, after beating Flora Tallinn and Vejle in the qualifying rounds they were knocked out by Rapid Vienna. In 2005 they won the Toto Cup for a fourth time. In 2006–07 the club finished bottom of the Israeli Premier League, however, they made an immediate return to the top division after finishing as runners-up in the 2007–08 Liga Leumit, also winning the Liga Leumit Toto Cup. The club have developed a yo-yo pattern, relegated in 2011–12, the club were promoted in 2013–14, before being relegated immediately. The home ground of Hapoel Petah Tikva is HaMoshava Stadium which opened at the end of 2011, as of 22 October 2016 Official WebSite www. 4everblue. co. il Hapoel Petach Tikva Museum The Blue Frontier 06 site
American University of Beirut
The American University of Beirut, Arabic, الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت) is a private, secular and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. Degrees awarded at the American University of Beirut are officially registered with the New York Board of Regents, the university is ranked as the number one university in Lebanon and among the top 250 universities in the world by the QS World University Rankings. The American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to Bachelors, Master’s, MD, the current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, M. D. The American University of Beirut boasts an operating budget of $300 million with an endowment of approximately $500 million, the campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center,5 libraries,3 museums and 7 dormitories. Almost one-fifth of AUBs students attended school or university outside of Lebanon before coming to AUB. AUB Graduates reside in approximately 100 countries worldwide, the language of instruction is English. On April 24,1863, while Dr. Daniel Bliss was raising money for the new college in the United States and England, the college, which was renamed the American University of Beirut in 1920, opened with a class of 16 students on December 3,1866. Dr. Bliss served as its first president, from 1866 until 1902, AUB alumni have had a broad and significant impact on the region and the world for many years. For example,19 AUB alumni were delegates to the signing of the United Nations Charter in 1945—more than any university in the world. They work in governments, the sector, and in nongovernmental organizations. During the Lebanese Civil War AUB pursued various means to preserve the continuity of studies, on 18 January 1984, AUB President Malcolm H. On March 21,2008, the Board of Trustees selected Peter Dorman to be AUBs 15th president and he succeeded John Waterbury who was president of AUB from 1998 to 2008. Dorman is a scholar in the field of Egyptology and formerly chaired the University of Chicagos Department of Near Eastern Languages. On March 19,2015, the Board of Trustees formally approved the nomination of Fadlo R. Khuri, MD and he was officially appointed as AUBs 16th president after holding an inauguration ceremony on Monday February 25,2016. As of June 2011, the number of degrees and diplomas awarded totaled 82,032. The 61-acre American University of Beirut campus is on a hill overlooking the Mediterranean Sea on one side, based in one of Lebanon’s few geographic locations, AUB’s campus in Ras Beirut consists of 64 buildings, seven dormitories and several libraries. In addition, the university houses the Charles W. Hostler Student Center. By the academic year 2015-2016, the number of students studying in AUB surpassed 10,000 students
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. No recent population census has been done but in 2007 estimates ranged from more than 1 million to slightly less than 2 million as part of Greater Beirut. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanons Mediterranean coast, Beirut is the countrys largest and it is one of the oldest cities in the world, inhabited more than 5,000 years ago. The first historical mention of Beirut is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters dating from the 15th century BC, the Beirut River runs south to north on the eastern edge of the city. Beirut is Lebanons seat of government and plays a role in the Lebanese economy, with most banks and corporations based in its Central District, Badaro, Rue Verdun, Hamra. Following the destructive Lebanese Civil War, Beiruts cultural landscape underwent major reconstruction, identified and graded for accountancy, advertising, banking/finance and law, Beirut is ranked as a Beta World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In May 2015, Beirut was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, Doha, Durban, Havana, Kuala Lumpur, and La Paz. Beirut I, or Minet el Hosn, was listed as Beyrouth ville by Louis Burkhalter and said to be on the beach near the Orent, the site was discovered by Lortet in 1894 and discussed by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1900. The flint industry from the site was described as Mousterian and is held by the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Beirut II, or Umm el Khatib, was suggested by Burkhalter to have been south of Tarik el Jedideh, where P. E. Gigues discovered a Copper Age flint industry at around 100 metres above sea level, the site had been built on and destroyed by 1948. Beirut III, Furn esh Shebbak or Plateau Tabet, was suggested to have located on the left bank of the Beirut River. Burkhalter suggested that it was west of the Damascus road, although this determination has been criticized by Lorraine Copeland, P. E. Gigues discovered a series of Neolithic flint tools on the surface along with the remains of a structure suggested to be a hut circle. Auguste Bergy discussed polished axes that were found at this site. The area was covered in red sand that represented Quaternary river terraces, the site was found by Jesuit Father Dillenseger and published by fellow Jesuits Godefroy Zumoffen, Raoul Describes and Auguste Bergy. Collections from the site were made by Bergy, Describes and another Jesuit, a large number of Middle Paleolithic flint tools were found on the surface and in side gullies that drain into the river. They included around 50 varied bifaces accredited to the Acheulean period, some with a lustrous sheen, Henri Fleisch also found an Emireh point amongst material from the site, which has now disappeared beneath buildings. Levallois flints and bones and similar material were found amongst brecciated deposits. The area has now built on
Damascus is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine, in addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant. The city has an population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a metropolitan area of 2.6 million people. The Barada River flows through Damascus, first settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad, Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Today, it is the seat of the government and all of the government ministries. The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC, the etymology of the ancient name T-m-ś-q is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic. It is attested as Dimašqa in Akkadian, T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic, the Akkadian spelling is found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name include a intrusive resh, perhaps influenced by the root dr. Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is Damascus which was imported from originated from the Qumranic Darmeśeq, and Darmsûq in Syriac, meaning a well-watered land. In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbours. Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for Levant and for Syria, the latter, the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Syria and Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, however, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables, cereals, maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus. Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not even exist, the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, to the south-east, north and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages, Midan in the south-west, Sarouja and Imara in the north and north-west. These neighbourhoods originally arose on roads leading out of the city and these new neighbourhoods were initially settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule
Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,132,100, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War, however, now Aleppo is likely the second-largest city in Syria after the capital Damascus. Aleppo is an ancient city, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. For centuries, Aleppo was the largest city in the Syrian region, and it was also one of the largest cities in the Levant before the advent of the Syrian Civil War. The citys significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, when the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, in the 1940s, it lost its main access to the sea, Antakya and İskenderun, also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation and this decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the Islamic Capital of Culture 2006, during the Battle of Aleppo the city suffered massive destruction, and has been the worst-hit city in the Syrian Civil War. In December 2016, the Syrian government achieved full control of Aleppo following a successful offensive, modern-day English-speakers commonly refer to the city as Aleppo. It was known in antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, and to the Greeks, during the Crusades, and again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923–1946, the name Alep was used. Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this, the original ancient name, Halab, has survived as the current Arabic name of the city. Some have proposed that halab means iron or copper in Amorite languages, the modern-day Arabic nickname of the city, ash-Shahbaa, which means the white-colored, also allegedly derives from the famous white marble of Aleppo. From the 11th century it was common usage to apply the term Aram-Zobah to the area of Aleppo. Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists, since the city occupies its ancient site. The site has been occupied from around 5000 BC, as shown by excavations in Tallet Alsauda, Aleppo appears in historical records as an important city much earlier than Damascus. The first record of Aleppo comes from the third millennium BC, some historians, such as Wayne Horowitz, identify Aleppo with the capital of an independent kingdom closely related to Ebla, known as Armi, although this identification is contested. The main temple of the storm god Hadad was located on the hill in the center of the city. In the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Empire period, Aleppos name appears in its form as Ḥalab for the first time