The Riley Nine was one of the most successful light sporting cars produced by the British motor industry in the inter war period. It was made by the Riley company of Coventry, England with a wide range of body styles between 1926 and 1938; the car was designed by two of the Riley brothers and Stanley. Stanley was responsible for the chassis and body and the older Percy designed the engine; the 1,087 cc four-cylinder engine had hemispherical combustion chambers with the valves inclined at 45 degrees in a crossflow head. To save the expense and complication of overhead camshafts, the valves were operated by two camshafts mounted high in the crankcase through short pushrods and rockers; the engine was mounted in the chassis by a rubber bushed bar that ran through the block with a further mount at the rear of the gearbox. Drive was to the rear wheels through a torque tube and spiral bevel live rear axle mounted on semi elliptic springs. At launch in July 1926 two body styles were available, a fabric bodied saloon called the Monaco at £285 and a fabric four-seat tourer for £235.
The saloon could give 40 mpg‑imp. A further two bodies were offered, the San Remo, an artillery wheeled basic saloon and a two-seater plus dickie open tourer and there was the option of steel panelling rather than fabric for the four-seater tourer. After the car's 1926 launch, Mark 1 production started in 1927 at Percy's engine factory, due to some resistance in the main works to the new design, it was such a critically acclaimed success that after fewer than a thousand cars had been produced the works shut down side-valve production and tooled up for the new Nine in early 1928. This switch to the main factory coincided with several modernisations of the Mark 1 - the cone clutch was dropped, the gear lever and handbrake were moved from the right to the centre of the car and a Riley steering box was adopted, thus making the car the Mark II; the Mark III was a gentle update of the II at the end of 1928, evolving stronger wheels and a different arrangement of rods to the rear brakes. The Mark IV was a thorough re working of the Nine.
Heavier Riley-made 6-stud hubs and axles replaced the bought-in five-stud items. A new cable braking system was introduced with larger drums; the range of bodies was further extended in 1929 with the Biarritz saloon, a de-luxe version of the Monaco. The improved brakes were fitted using the Riley continuous cable system and if the cable stretched it could be adjusted from the driver's seat. More body variants were added over the next few years and in 1934 a Preselector gearbox was offered for £27 extra; the range was slimmed down in 1935 to the Monaco saloon, Kestrel streamlined saloon and Lynx four-seat tourer as the works started gearing up for production of the new 12 hp model. In an attempt to keep costs down Riley entered into an agreement with Briggs Manufacturing to produce a steel body for a newly designed chassis; this new chassis was introduced in 1936 and incorporated such features as Girling rod operated brakes and a prop shaft final drive for the Nine. The Briggs body was named the Merlin and was available alongside the last nine Kestrel variant built on the "Merlin" chassis.
The Briggs body evolved through 1937 with a large boot extension to be called the Touring Saloon and an additional body style was added on the same chassis - the higher specified special series Monaco. The final version was the 1938 Victor available with 1496 cc engine; the Victor had the engine further forward to increase interior room, with the battery moved to the engine bay and smaller diameter wheels were fitted. The Riley company was bought by Lord Nuffield in 1938 and Nine production ceased as the company pursued a strict two-engine line up, continued after the war with the RM series; some saloonsOpen two-seatersTourers When compared with its contemporary Hillman Minx it had a sophisticated 1098 cc engine with hemispherical combustion chambers pumping out more than 25 per cent more horsepower than the 1185 cc Hillman. Riley's preselector gearbox provided easy progress through the gears; the Riley was adding to it. The Riley body was composite wood and metal, a style-leader — fabric top, centre-lock wire wheels.
The pressed steel Hillman body, ordinary. The Minx body rusted. Hillmans outsold Rileys better than 4.5:1But a Monaco was nearly double the price of a Minx. While the Monaco's handling was much better there was not a lot of difference in performance, the Minx was faster in a straight line. With a Riley "special series" twin carburettor engine you might reach 112 km/h. A 1931 Monaco weighed a 1937 model 1 160 kg. In spite of its standard twin carburettors the 1937 Monaco took half a minute to reach 50 mph and could exceed 62 mph or 100 km/h; the Automobile. February 1999. Modern Nines. Jonathan Wood The Production and Competition History of the Pre 1939 Riley Motor cars - AT Birmingham Photos of Tourer, Biarritz and Torpedo models
Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit
The Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is a motor racing circuit located near Ventnor, on Phillip Island, Australia. The current circuit was first used in 1956. Motor racing on Phillip Island began in 1928 with the running of the 100 Miles Road Race, an event which has since become known as the first Australian Grand Prix, it utilised a high speed rectangle of local closed-off public roads with four similar right hand corners. The course length varied, with the car course 6 miles per lap, compared to the motorcycle circuit, 10 miles in length; the circuit was the venue for the Australian Grand Prix through to 1935 and it was used for the last time on 6 May 1935 for the Jubilee Day Races. A new 3.312 mile triangular circuit utilising the pit straight from the original rectangular course was subsequently mapped out and first used for the Australian Race Drivers' Cup on 5 November 1935. The final car event on the circuit was held on Cup Day 1938 and the final motorcycle race meeting was conducted on 30 January 1940.
Aside from the Australian Grand Prix races, other significant events staged at the Phillip Island road circuit included: 1934 Phillip Island 100 1934 Winter 100 1934 Victorian Centenary Grand Prix 1935 Centenary 300 1935 Winter 100 1935 Australian Race Drivers' Cup 1936 Victorian Sporting Car Club Trophy 1936 Australian Tourist Trophy 1937 Phillip Island Trophy In 1951, a group of six local businessmen decided to build a new track. About 2 km away from the original circuit, it still bears the corner name signs of the original circuit; as the piece of available land was on the edge of the coast, the track is known for its steep grades – the highest 57 metres – which caused cost overruns and delays in track opening. The new track was opened in 1956 and in 1960 the first Armstrong 500 production car race was held at the circuit. Extensive damage resulted from the running of the 1962 Armstrong 500, with the circuit owners unable to finance repairs, the circuit was closed and the race was moved to the Mount Panorama Circuit at Bathurst in New South Wales, to become known as the Bathurst 1000.
The circuit reopened in October 1967 and hosted the Phillip Island 500K endurance race, a round of the Australian Manufacturers' Championship, from 1971 to 1977. The race was a round of the Australian Touring Car Championship in 1976 and 1977, but again, due to its testing terrain, the circuit required significant maintenance and declined through the 1970s. It was farmed by its owners while closed and was sold in 1985 in preparation for reopening, but did not do so until 1988 after agreement on a long term lease and rebuild agreement. During the time the circuit deteriorated and closed, part of the main problem for its owners was that the main bridge from the island to the Australian mainland could not carry the heavy vehicles needed to resurface the circuit; this meant that the bitumen surface was a cold mix which broke up under the rigours of racing, instead of the standard hot mix which would have allowed a more durable surface. It would not be until the mid-1980s that the bridge would be rebuilt allowing the necessary equipment needed for resurfacing.
The circuit was refurbished with a reduced length of 4.445 kilometres and was reopened on 4 December 1988 for the final round of the 1988 Swann Insurance International Series for motorcycles. In 1989, the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix joined the F. I. M. Road Racing World Championship calendar for the first time, was held at Phillip Island; the 1989 race saw a race long dice in the 500 cc division between local favourites Wayne Gardner and Kevin Magee, along with Wayne Rainey and Christian Sarron. The race was won by 1987 World Champion Gardner to the delight of the huge crowd. Gardner would make it two in a row at the Island in 1990 before the race moved to Eastern Creek in Sydney for 1991; the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix would remain at Eastern Creek until it returned permanently to Phillip Island from 1997 onwards. Phillip Island hosted its first Superbike World Championship round in 1990, taking over from Sydney's Oran Park Raceway as the Australian round of the series. Local riders Peter Goddard and Rob Phillis won the two races for what was Round 12 of the season, with Goddard having secured pole position.
The World Superbike round continues to be held annually at Phillip Island to this day. In 1990, the Australian Touring Car Championship returned to the circuit for the first time since 1977, this time as a sprint round. Dick Johnson won the round in his Ford Sierra RS500, in what was to be his final round victory; the event was not held in 1991 or 1992, but was reinstated to the calendar in 1993, with the sprint format continuing every year until 2004. By the ATCC was known as V8 Supercars. After not appearing on the calendar in 2004, from 2005 to 2007, Phillip Island hosted the Grand Finale. In each year, the event decided that year's champion, including in controversial circumstances in 2006. From 2008 to 2011, Phillip Island returned to hosting a 500 km race, this time known for sponsorship reasons as the L&H 500; the Phillip Island 500 replaced Sandown's Sandown 500 as the annual V8 Supercar 500 km race, an event, reinstated for 2012. Since Phillip Island has returned to hosting a sprint round of the championship, which has become known as the Phillip Island Super Sprint.
The Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix has always been more of a promoter event than a profit-raiser in itself. The contract was prolonged until 2026, although tobacco advertising has been banned since 2007. 1951: A significant meeting of six local businessmen decided to re-establish
The Austin 7 is an economy car, produced from 1922 until 1939 in the United Kingdom by Austin. It was nicknamed the "Baby Austin" and was at that time one of the most popular cars produced for the British market and sold well abroad, its effect on the British market was similar to that of the Model T Ford in the US, replacing most other British economy cars and cyclecars of the early 1920s. It was licensed and copied by companies all over the world; the first BMW car, the BMW Dixi, was a licensed Austin 7, as were the original American Austins. In France they were sold as Rosengarts. In Japan, Nissan used the 7 design as the basis for their first cars, although not under licence; this led to a 1952 agreement for Nissan to build and sell Austins in Japan under the Austin name. Many Austin 7s were rebuilt as "specials" after the Second World War, including the first race car built by Bruce McLaren, the first Lotus, the Mark I; such was the power of the Austin 7 name that the company re-used it for early versions of the A30 in 1951 and Mini in 1959.
Until the First World War Austin built large cars, but in 1909 they sold a single-cylinder small car built by Swift of Coventry called the Austin 7 hp. After this they returned to bigger cars. In 1920 Sir Herbert Austin commenced working on the concept of a smaller car to meet the needs of young families aspiring to own an affordable motor car; this idea was spurred on by the introduction of the Horsepower Tax in 1921. His design concept marked a departure from his company's conservative motoring past and Austin received considerable opposition from his board of directors and creditors; because the company was in receivership Austin decided to carry out the project himself on his own account and in 1921 hired an 18-year-old draughtsman, Stanley Edge, from the Austin factory at Longbridge, Birmingham to aid in the drawing of detailed plans. This work was carried out in the billiard room of Austin's Lickey Grange home. Edge convinced Austin to use a small four-cylinder engine; the original side valve engine design featured a capacity of 696cc giving a RAC rating of 7.2 hp, the cast cylinder block featured a detachable head and was mounted on an aluminium crankcase.
The crankshaft used the big-ends were splash lubricated. Edge carried out the design of other mechanical components such as the three speed gearbox and clutch assembly. Austin was responsible for styling the Seven's design, influenced by the design of the Peugeot Quadrilette; the "A" frame chassis design was believed to have been influenced by the design of an American truck used in the Longbridge factory in the early 1920s. The design was completed in 1922 and three prototypes were constructed in a special area of the Longbridge factory, announced to the public in July 1922. Austin had put a large amount of his own money into the design and patented many of its innovations in his own name. In return for his investment he was paid a royalty of two guineas, on every car sold. Nearly 2,500 cars were made in the first year of production, not as many as hoped, but within a few years the "big car in miniature" had wiped out the cyclecar industry and transformed the fortunes of the Austin Motor Co.
By 1939 when production ended, 290,000 cars and vans had been made. The Austin 7 was smaller than the Ford Model T; the wheelbase was only 6 ft 3 inches, the track only 40 inches. It was lighter – less than half the Ford's weight at 794 pounds; the engine required for adequate performance was therefore reduced and the 747 cc sidevalve was quite capable with a modest 10 hp output. The chassis took the form of an "A" with the engine mounted between the channel sections at the narrow front end; the rear suspension was by quarter elliptic springs cantilevered from the rear of the chassis while at the front the beam axle had a centrally mounted half elliptic transverse spring. Early cars did not have any shock absorbers. Brakes were on all wheels but at first the front brakes were operated by the handbrake and the rear by the footbrake, becoming coupled in 1930. In late 1931 the chassis was lengthened by 6" with a corresponding increase in the rear track. Steering is by wheel mechanism; the original 1922 four-cylinder Austin Seven engine had a bore of 2.125" and stroke of 3", giving a capacity of 696 cc and RAC rating of 7.2 hp.
From March 1923 the bore was increased to 2.2" giving 10.5 hp. The side-valve engine was composed of an aluminium crankcase, cast iron cylinder block and cast iron cylinder head. Cooling was by thermosiphon, without a water pump, the dynamo was driven from the timing gears; the big end bearings were lubricated by jets from an oil gallery in the crankcase, the oil striking the crankshaft webs which were drilled accordingly. The journal diameter was 1.125". The three bearing engine used a white metal centre bearing; the splash-lubricated crankshaft at first ran in two bearings changing to three in 1936. An electric starter was fitted from November 1923; the early cars used magneto ignition, but this was changed to coil in 1928. The 3-speed and reverse gearbox was integral with the engine, had a variety of ratios depending on application. A four-speed gearbox was introduced in 1932 and in 1933 synchromesh was added to third and top ratios extending to second gear in 1934; the back axle was of spiral bevel type with ratios between 4.4:1 and 5.6:1.
A short torque tube ran forward from the differential housing to a bearing and bracke
Doriot, Flandrin & Parant
Doriot, Flandrin & Parant was a French car maker based in Courbevoie, Seine between 1906 and 1926. Auguste Doriot and Ludovic Flandrin had both worked for Peugeot and Clément-Bayard before setting up their own car making company in 1906, their main product was sold as a Doriot-Flandrin. In 1908 they were joined by Alexandre and Jules-René Parant and a new company was formed including all the names. Four-cylinder models were now made with Chapuis-Dornier engines alongside the single-cylinder cars; the singles were discontinued in 1910 and a smaller 1592 cc four joined the line up. D. F. P. started to make their own engines in 1912. The 2-litre 12/15 was used by W. O. Bentley in a tuned version with aluminium alloy pistons to race at Brooklands; the aluminium pistons were fitted to some 12/40 hp production cars from 1914. This car had electric starting. After World War I D. F. P. started to fit their cars with proprietary engines from both Altos and Sargant. In 1923 they started to make their own engines again fitting them to the 1924 cc 13/50 model.
A new light car was introduced as the D. F. Petite with 1098 cc made by C. I. M. E.. All production finished in 1926 and the factory was sold to light car maker Lafitte but they in turn closed in 1928. 1906-10: Type 6cv 1906-10: Type 8cv 1907-10: Type 10cv 1908-12: Type 12cv 1908-12: Type 14cv 1911-14: Type "10/12" 1911-14: Type "25/30" 1912-14: Type "12/15" 1912-14: Type "12/16" 1913-14: Type "16/22" 1914: Type "12/40" Sport 1919-22: series 2000 Type 7cv 1919-22: series 2000 Type 10cv 1919-22: series 2000 Type 12cv 1922-26: series A. D. M Type "10/12" 1923-26: series A. D. M Type "13/50" 1924-33: series V/VA Type 7cv DF Media related to DFP vehicles at Wikimedia Commons
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι. In architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to raise people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown an increasing use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in events such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used. Traditionally, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a somewhat lower platform for the silver medalist, to the left of the gold medalist is an lower platform for the bronze medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver and Bronze were equal in elevation. In many sports, results in the top three of a competition are referred to as "podiums" or "podium finishes". In some individual sports, "podiums" is an official statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career.
The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, "to podium", meaning to attain a podium place. Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the 1932 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid; the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Present are the dignitaries selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. In an international series, the national anthem of the winning driver, the winning team or constructor may be played over a public address system and the flags of the drivers' countries are hoisted above them; the recordings are short versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a slow lap in Formula One, that driver is transported to the pit lane via road car by the Formula One Administration security officer.
Following the presentation of the trophies, the drivers will spray Champagne over each other and their team members watching below, a tradition started by Dan Gurney following the 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans race. The drivers will refrain from spraying champagne if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. In countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, for example rose water; the term has become common parlance in the media, where a driver may be said to "be heading for a podium finish" or "just missing out on a podium" when he is heading for, or just misses out on a top three finish. The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics. Instead, the winning team celebrates in victory lane, top-five and top-ten finishes are recognized statistically; those finishing second to fifth are required to stop in a media bullpen located on pit lane for interviews.
The INDYCAR Verizon IndyCar Series does not use a podium at either the Indianapolis 500 or at Texas Motor Speedway. The Indy 500 has a long tradition of the winning driver and team celebrating in victory lane, while Texas Motor Speedway president Eddie Gossage has stated that victory lane should be reserved for the winner of the race. However, the series does use a podium at all other races road course events. Architectural podiums are consist of a projecting base or pedestal at ground level, they have been used since ancient times. Sometimes only meters tall, architectural podiums have become more prominent in buildings over time, as illustrated in the gallery. Lectern
The Alvis 12/50 is a car introduced by British business Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd in 1923. It went through a series of versions, with the last ones being made in 1932. A range of factory bodies could be specified in two- or four-seat form, with either open or closed bodies; the first 12/50s were produced in late 1923 for the 1924 model year. The cars from this first year of production were designated SA and SB; the SA had a 1496 cc 4-cylinder overhead valve engine in a chassis with a wheelbase of 108.5 in, while the SB had a wheelbase of 112.5 in. The SB was fitted with the 1496cc engine, but after the introduction of a 1598 cc version of the OHV engine this became the standard fitment; the engines of these early cars were carried in a subframe bolted to the slender ladder chassis. The SA carried two-seat bodywork the Super Sports 2/3-seater nicknamed "duck's back" because of its pointed rear end, said to resemble that of a duck; the majority of SB cars carried Super Sports four-seater bodywork, but a good number were fitted with touring bodies from the standard Alvis range.
The SA and SB 12/50s were built with brakes on the rear wheels only. All the 12/50s had a four speed non-synchromesh gearbox with right hand change; the clutch was a fabric-faced aluminium cone. The cars were right hand drive; the SC arrived in Autumn 1924 for the 1925 model year with the larger 1598 cc engine as standard. Most SC 12/50s were built on the longer chassis, which would be standard for the 12/50 until the end of production. Front wheel brakes were offered as an option on this model: a front axle of new design could be supplied with or without brakes. Power transmission was via a roller-bearing prop shaft of new design; the 12/50 was redesigned for the 1926 model year. From Autumn 1925 a new stronger chassis was used for the TE, which had its engine enlarged again to 1645 cc, the TF of the same year with a short stroke version of the same engine, displacing 1496 cc. A single-plate clutch replaced the previous cone type, for these and all subsequent 12/50s the engine was bolted directly to the flange-frame chassis, dispensing with the subframe of previous models.
From the TE and TF models onwards four-wheel brakes were fitted as standard, single-shoe drums on the rear replacing the double-shoe drums of the previous model. The TE and was superseded for the 1927 model year by the TG. Confusingly, the short-stroke TF was replaced in the 1927 range by a car with an'S' prefix: the SD; the TG was the standard'touring' model, while the SD - powered by the 1496 cc engine, now fitted with a large-port cylinder head - satisfied the needs of the sporting motorist. Available in this year was the TH, which had the gearbox and rear axle ratios of the'touring' TG, but the sub-1500 cc engine of the SD; the TG and SD models were available until 1929. The TG and TH models can be recognised by their taller radiators, with a noticeably deeper top section. Cars from the 1928 and 1929 model years sported higher-set lamps, with horizontal crossbar, in accordance with the fashion of the time; the 12/50 was withdrawn between 1929 and 1930 when the company decided that the future lay with the front-wheel drive FD and FE models, but when these did not reach the hoped for volumes a final version of the 12/50 was announced for the 1931 model year as TJ.
Fitted with the 1645 cc engine this continued in production until 1932. The'post-vintage' TJ is referred to by Alvis historians as being from the'revival period', it differs from its predecessor in a number of ways, notably coil instead of magneto ignition, deep chromed radiator shell, rear petrol tank in place of the scuttle-mounted tank on most older 12/50s; the TJ was joined in the range by a more sporting version of the same chassis, but this car was marketed not as a 12/50, but as the 12/60. The TK 12/60 was available in 1931, the TL 12/60 in 1932. Alvis Register on the 12/50
Sénéchal was a French automobile manufacturer between 1921 and 1929. Robert Sénéchal was an aviation pioneer and an industrialist, he was the grandfather of the journalist and motor-sport innovator Patrick Zaniroli. In 1921 Sénéchal founded the automotive business; the origins of the business went back to the "Eclair" cyclecar business in which Sénéchal had been involved. Sénéchal was himself a celebrity in the automotive world, his cycle cars were an immediate success, it was impossible to satisfy demand for the vehicles from the manufacturer's small premises at Courbevoie, Sénéchal therefore negotiated a deal with Chenard & Walcker, who had no model of their own in the cyclecar class and from 1923 agreed to take on the manufacturing of the Sénéchal models. As the economy grew the cyclecar boom that had driven the earlier "Eclair" and "Sénéchal" businesses, Sénéchal moved up a notch to become a producer of light cars in the voiturette class. In 1925 the name of the business changed from Sénéchal to Société Industrielle et Commerciale, the business was taken over by Chenard & Walcker.
Voiturettes continued to be produced, powered by Chenard & Walcker engines, until 1929. Robert Sénéchal himself suffered a serious racing accident in 1931, after which he moved away from the world of motor racing and automobile manufacturer, embarking instead on a career as an aerial photographer; the company manufactured small open-topped two seaters. Engines were bought in from specialists such as Ruby, less Train or Chapuis-Dornier By the time of the 19th Paris Motor Show in October 1924, the Sénéchal range comprised two cyclecars; these were a 7HP with an 1100 cc power unit. The two of them sat on wheelbases of 2,300 mm and 2,450 mm, were priced by the manufacturer at 12,600 francs and 14,900 francs. There was again a Sénéchal stand at the 22ndMotor Show in October 1928, now advertising two voiturettes fitted with Chenard & Walcker engines of 7HP and 9HP. However, this was Sénéchal's final motor show appearance, as production came to an end during 1929. GTÜ Gesellschaft für Technische Überwachung mbH Harald Linz, Halwart Schrader: Die Internationale Automobil-Enzyklopädie.
United Soft Media Verlag, München 2008, ISBN 978-3-8032-9876-8. George Nick Georgano: The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Volume 3: P–Z. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago 2001, ISBN 1-57958-293-1. George Nick Georgano: Autos. Encyclopédie complète. 1885 à nos jours. Courtille, Paris 1975