Santa Barbara County, California
Santa Barbara County, California the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895; the county seat is Santa Barbara, the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the county's economy include engineering, resource extraction, winemaking and education; the software development and tourism industries are important employers in the southern part of the county. Southern Santa Barbara County is sometimes considered the northern cultural boundary of Southern California; the Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence has been found in the form of a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara Coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s.
For thousands of years, the area was home to the Chumash tribe of Native Americans, complex hunter-gatherers who lived along the coast and in interior valleys leaving rock art in many locations, including Painted Cave. Europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD 1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the area; the Santa Barbara Channel received its name from Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno when he sailed along the California coast in 1602. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade made emergency stops along the coast during the next 167 years, but no permanent settlements were established; the first land expedition to explore California, led by Gaspar de Portolà explored the coastal area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay. The party traveled the same route on the return to San Diego in January 1770; that same year, a second expedition to Monterey again passed through the area. The DeAnza expeditions of 1774-76 followed Portola's trail.
The Presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, followed by Mission Santa Barbara in 1786 – both in what is now the city of Santa Barbara. The presidio and mission kept Vizcaino's denomination, as did the city and county – a common practice which has preserved the names of many of the 21 California Missions. European contacts had devastating effects on the Chumash people, including a series of disease epidemics that drastically reduced Chumash population; the Chumash survived and thousands of Chumash descendants still live in the Santa Barbara area or surrounding counties. A tribal homeland was established in the Santa Ynez Reservation. Following the Mexican secularization of the missions in the 1830s, the mission pasture lands were broken up into large ranchos and granted to prominent local citizens who lived in the area. 604 of these land grants were confirmed by the state of California, with 36 in Santa Barbara County. Santa Barbara County was one of the 27 original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood.
The county's territory was divided to create Ventura County in 1873. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,789 square miles, of which 2,735 square miles is land and 1,054 square miles is water. Four of the Channel Islands – San Miguel Island, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island and Santa Barbara Island – are in Santa Barbara County, they form the largest part of the Channel Islands National Park. Santa Barbara County has a mountainous interior abutting several coastal plains on the west and south coasts of the county; the largest concentration of population is on the southern coastal plain, referred to as the "south coast" – meaning the part of the county south of the Santa Ynez Mountains. This region includes the cities of Santa Barbara and Carpinteria, as well as the unincorporated areas of Hope Ranch, Mission Canyon and Isla Vista, along with stretches of unincorporated area such as Noleta/Nanta Barbara. North of the Santa Ynez range in the Santa Ynez Valley are the towns of Santa Ynez, Buellton, Lompoc.
North of the Santa Ynez Valley are the cities of Santa Maria and Guadalupe, the unincorporated towns of Orcutt, Los Alamos, Casmalia and Sisquoc. In the extreme northeastern portion of the county are the small cities of New Cuyama and Ventucopa; as of January 1, 2006, Santa Maria has become the largest city in Santa Barbara County. The principal mountain ranges of the county are the Santa Ynez Mountains in the south, the San Rafael Mountains and Sierra Madre Mountains in the interior and northeast. Most of the mountainous area is within the Los Padres National Forest, includes two wilderness areas: the San Rafael Wilderness and the Dick Smith Wilderness; the highest elevation in the county is 6820 feet at Big Pine Mountain in the San Rafaels. North of the mountains is the arid and sparsely populated Cuyama Valley, portions of which are in San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Oil production and agriculture dominate the land use in the owned parts of the Cuyama Valley.
Alfred Emanuel Smith was an American politician, elected Governor of New York four times and was the Democratic Party's candidate for President in 1928. Smith was the foremost urban leader of the Efficiency Movement in the United States and was noted for achieving a wide range of reforms as governor in the 1920s; the son of an Irish-American mother and a Civil War veteran father, he was raised in the Lower East Side of Manhattan near the Brooklyn Bridge, where he resided for his entire life. Like many other New York politicians of his era, he was linked to the notorious Tammany Hall political machine that controlled New York City's politics, although he remained untarnished by corruption. Smith was a strong opponent of Prohibition, which he did not think could be enforced, viewed it as an over-extension of the government's constitutional power, he was the first Catholic nominee for President. His candidacy mobilized Catholic votes from women, who had only received federal suffrage, it brought out the anti-Catholic vote, strong among white conservative Democrats in the South, although Smith was still successful within the states of the Deep South.
As a committed "wet" who opposed the prohibition laws, Smith attracted two groups: those who wanted their beer and liquor and did not like dealing with criminal bootleggers, those who were outraged that new criminal gangs had taken over the streets in most large and medium-sized cities. Many Protestants feared his candidacy, including German Lutherans and Southern Baptists, believing that the Pope in Rome would dictate his policies. Incumbent Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover was aided by national prosperity and the absence of American involvement in war. Four years Smith sought the 1932 nomination but was defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt, his former ally and successor as Governor of New York. Smith entered business in New York City, became involved in the construction and promotion of the Empire State Building, became an vocal opponent of Roosevelt's New Deal. Smith was born at 174 South Street, raised in the Fourth Ward on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, his mother, was the daughter of Maria Marsh and Thomas Mulvihill, who were immigrants from County Westmeath, Ireland.
His father, Alfred Emanuele Ferraro, took the anglicized name Alfred E. Smith; the elder Alfred was the son of Italian and German immigrants. He served with the 11th New York Fire Zouaves in the opening months of the Civil War. Smith grew up with his family struggling financially in the Gilded Age; the Brooklyn Bridge was being constructed nearby. "The Brooklyn Bridge and I grew up together", Smith would recall. His four grandparents were Irish, German and Anglo-Irish, but Smith identified with the Irish-American community and became its leading spokesman in the 1920s, his father Alfred owned a small trucking firm, but died when the boy was 13. Aged 14, Smith had to drop out of St. James parochial school to help support the family, worked at a fish market for seven years. Prior to dropping out of school, he served as an altar boy, was influenced by the Catholic priests he worked with, he never attended high school or college, claimed he learned about people by studying them at the Fulton Fish Market, where he worked for $12 per week.
His acting skills made him a success on the amateur theater circuit. He became known, developed the smooth oratorical style that characterized his political career. On May 6, 1900, Al Smith married Catherine Ann Dunn, with whom he had five children. In his political career, Smith built on his working-class beginnings, identifying himself with immigrants and campaigning as a man of the people. Although indebted to the Tammany Hall political machine to its boss, "Silent" Charlie Murphy, he remained untarnished by corruption and worked for the passage of progressive legislation, it was during his early unofficial jobs with Tammany Hall that he gained renown as an excellent speaker. Smith's first political job was in 1895, as an investigator in the office of the Commissioner of Jurors as appointed by Tammany Hall. Smith was first elected to the New York State Assembly in 1904, was elected to office, serving through 1915. After being approached by Frances Perkins, an activist to improve labor practices, Smith sought to improve the conditions of factory workers.
He served as vice chairman of the state commission appointed to investigate factory conditions after 146 workers died in the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Meeting the families of the deceased Triangle factory workers left a strong impression on him. Together with Perkins, Smith crusaded against dangerous and unhealthy workplace conditions and championed corrective legislation; the Commission was chaired by State Senator Robert F. Wagner and co-chaired by Smith, they held a series of publicized investigations around the state, interviewing 222 witnesses and taking 3500 pages of testimony. They hired field agents to do on-site inspections of factories. Starting with the issue of fire safety, they studied broader issues of the risks of injury in the factory environment, their findings led to thirty-eight new laws regulating labor in New York State, gave each of them a reputation as leading progressive reformers working on behalf of the working class. In the process, they changed Tammany's reputation from mere co
Merced County, California
Merced County, is a county located in the northern San Joaquin Valley section of the Central Valley, in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 255,793; the county seat is Merced. The county is named after the Merced River. Merced County comprises the Merced, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Modesto-Merced, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is located north of Fresno County and Fresno, southeast of Santa Clara County and San Jose. The county derives its name from the Merced River, or El Río de Nuestra Señora de la Merced, named in 1806 by an expedition headed by Gabriel Moraga, which came upon it at the end of a hot dusty ride on the El Camino Viejo across the San Joaquin Valley in Spanish colonial Las Californias Province. Between 1841 and 1844, during the period when Alta California was a territory of independent Mexico, four Mexican land grants were made in what became Merced County: Rancho Orestimba y Las Garzas, Rancho Panoche de San Juan y Los Carrisolitos, Rancho San Luis Gonzaga, Rancho Sanjon de Santa Rita Merced County was formed in 1855 from parts of Mariposa County.
Parts of its territory were given to Fresno County in 1856. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,979 square miles, of which 1,935 square miles is land and 44 square miles is water. Merced National Wildlife Refuge San Luis National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that Merced County had a population of 255,793; the racial makeup of Merced County was 148,381 White, 9,926 African American, 3,473 Native American, 18,836 Asian, 583 Pacific Islander, 62,665 from other races, 11,929 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 140,485 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 210,554 people, 63,815 households, 49,775 families residing in the county. The population density was 109 people per square mile. There were 68,373 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.2% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 1.2% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 26.1% from other races, 5.7% from two or more races.
45.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 6.6% were of Portuguese and 6.0% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 55.1% spoke English, 35.3% Spanish, 3.2% Hmong, 2.9% Portuguese and 1.0% Punjabi as their first language. There were 63,815 households out of which 45.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.0% were non-families. 17.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.25 and the average family size was 3.69. In the county, the population was spread out with 34.5% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,532, the median income for a family was $38,009.
Males had a median income of $31,721 versus $23,911 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,257. About 16.9% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.4% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2008, according to the Lao Family Community, a nonprofit organization, about 8,000 Hmong lived in Merced County. Merced County is a California Constitution defined general law county and is governed by an elected Board of Supervisors; the Board consists of five members, elected by districts. The Merced County Sheriff provides court protection, jail administration, coroner service for the entire county, it provides patrol and other police services for the unincorporated parts of the county. The main sheriff station and offices are at Merced. There are two sheriff's substations. A Grand Jury report in 2010 stated that the Sheriff processed 12,746 average jail bookings per year with an average daily jail population of 1,123. Municipal police departments in the county are: Merced, population 83,000.
In the United States House of Representatives, Merced County is in California's 16th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jim Costa. In the California State Legislature, Merced County is in the 21st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Adam Gray, the 12th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anna Caballero. Merced County voted for the winning candidate for president in every election from 1972-2012, before voting for Hillary Clinton in 2016. Democrat Barack Obama won a majority in the county in both 2008 and 2012. Republican George W. Bush won a majority in the county in both 2000 and 2004. According to the California Secretary of State, as of October 20, 2008, there were 97,179 registered voters in Merced County. Of those, 44,704 are registered Democratic, 35,955 are registered Republican, 3,090 are registered with other political parties, 13,430 declined to state a political party. Atwater and the unincorporated areas of Merced County have Republican plurality registration advantages.
All of the other cities and towns in the county have Democratic pluralities or majorities in voter registration. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and t
San Benito County, California
San Benito County the County of San Benito, is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,269; the county seat is Hollister. San Benito County is included in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. El Camino Real includes one mission in San Juan Bautista. San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874; the county is named after the San Benito Valley. Father Juan Crespí, in his expedition in 1772, named a small river in honor of San Benedicto, the patron saint of the married, it is from the contraction of this name that the county took its name. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,389 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Sharing a border with Santa Clara County, San Benito County lies adjacent to the San Francisco Bay Area and is sometimes considered a part of that region.
The county is associated with the Monterey Bay Area through governmental organizations such as the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments as well as the Pajaro River, which flows from northern San Benito County into the Monterey Bay. However, the United States Census Bureau includes the county in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara MSA and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland CSA, which the Census uses as a statistical definition of the San Francisco Bay Area; the county borders Merced County and Fresno County in the east, which lead onto California's San Joaquin Valley. The county is the location of the Mount Harlan and San Benito American Viticultural Areas; the latter contains the Cienega Valley, Lime Kiln Valley, Paicines AVAs. There are a number of plant communities that occur in San Benito County including grasslands and chaparral. Benitoite, the official gem of the State of California, was discovered in San Benito County; the county is home to the San Benito evening primrose. The plant genus.
Pinnacles National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that San Benito County had a population of 55,269. The racial makeup of San Benito County was 35,181 White, 483 African American, 895 Native American, 1,443 Asian, 94 Pacific Islander, 14,471 from other races, 2,702 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,186 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 53,234 people, 15,885 households, 12,898 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 16,499 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county in 2010 was 38.3% non-Hispanic White, 0.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 56.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.6% were of German, 6.3% Irish and 5.4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 62.8% spoke English and 35.3% Spanish as their first language.
As of the 2010 United States Census, San Benito County was the only county in the greater San Francisco Bay Area with a Hispanic majority and where a minority race formed the largest race composition. There were 15,885 households out of which 46.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.8% were non-families. 14.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.32 and the average family size was 3.64. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.2% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 102.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,469, the median income for a family was $60,665.
Males had a median income of $44,158 versus $29,524 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,932. About 6.7% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. County government is overseen by a five-member elected Board of Supervisors, who serve four-year terms of office. Other elected county leaders include: Assessor Clerk-Auditor-Recorder District Attorney Sheriff-Coroner Treasurer-Tax Collector-Public AdministratorSan Benito County has the last elected Marshal in California. Shasta and Trinity Counties still have appointed Marshals. In the United States House of Representatives, San Benito County is part of California's 20th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jimmy Panetta. In the California State Legislature, San Benito County is in the 12th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anna Caballero, in the 30th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Robert Rivas. San Benito is a Democratic-leaning county in congressional elections.
The last Republican to win a majority in the county was George H. W. Bush in 1988. San Benito is considered a bellwether county for California in presidential elections.
1928 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1928 was the 36th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1928. Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover defeated the Democratic nominee, Governor Al Smith of New York. Hoover was the last Republican to win a presidential election until 1952. After President Calvin Coolidge declined to seek reelection, Hoover emerged as his party's front-runner; as Hoover's intra-party opponents failed to unite around a candidate, Hoover received a large majority of the vote at the 1928 Republican National Convention. The strong state of the economy discouraged some Democrats from running, Smith was nominated on the first ballot of the 1928 Democratic National Convention. Hoover and Smith had been known as potential presidential candidates long before the 1928 campaign, both were regarded as outstanding leaders; each candidate was a newcomer to the presidential race and presented in his person and record an appeal of unknown potency to the electorate.
Each candidate faced serious discontent within his party membership, neither had the wholehearted support of his party organization. In the end, the Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, his association with the legacy of corruption of Tammany Hall. Hoover won a third straight Republican landslide and made substantial inroads in the traditionally Democratic Solid South, winning several states that had not voted for a Republican since the end of Reconstruction. Hoover's victory made him the first president born west of the Mississippi River, he is the most recent sitting member of the Cabinet to win a major party's presidential nomination. Republican candidates: With President Coolidge choosing not to enter the race, the race for the nomination was wide open; the leading candidates were Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, former Illinois Governor Frank Orren Lowden and Senate Majority Leader Charles Curtis.
A draft-Coolidge movement failed to gain traction with party insiders and failed to persuade Coolidge himself. In the few primaries that mattered, Hoover did not perform as well as expected, it was thought that the president or Vice-President Charles G. Dawes might accept a draft in case of a deadlock, but Lowden withdrew just as the convention was about to start, paving the way for a Hoover victory; the Republican Convention, held in Kansas City, from June 12 to 15, nominated Hoover on the first ballot. With Hoover disinclined to interfere in the selection of his running mate, the party leaders were at first partial to giving Dawes a shot at a second term, but when this information leaked, Coolidge sent an angry telegram saying that he would consider a second nomination for Dawes, whom he hated, a "personal affront." To attract votes from farmers concerned about Hoover's pro-business orientation, it was instead offered to Senator Curtis, who accepted. He was nominated overwhelmingly on the first ballot.
In his acceptance speech eight weeks after the convention ended, Secretary Hoover said: "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than before in the history of this land... We shall soon with the help of God be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this land." The phrase would haunt Hoover during the Great Depression. Democratic candidates: With the memory of the Teapot Dome scandal fading, the current state of prosperity making the party's prospects look dim, most of the major Democratic leaders, such as William Gibbs McAdoo, were content to sit this one out. One who did not was New York Governor Al Smith, who had tried twice before to secure the Democratic nomination; the 1928 Democratic National Convention was held in Houston, Texas, on June 26 to 28, Smith became the candidate on the first ballot. The leadership asked the delegates to nominate Sen. Joseph Taylor Robinson of Arkansas, in many ways Smith's political polar opposite, to be his running mate, he was nominated for vice-president.
Smith was the first Roman Catholic to gain a major party's nomination for president, his religion became an issue during the campaign. Many Protestants feared that Smith would take orders from church leaders in Rome in making decisions affecting the country. Source: US President - D Convention. Our Campaigns.. The Prohibition Party Convention was held in Chicago from July 10 through July 12. Smith opposed Prohibition; some members of the Prohibition Party wanted to throw their support to Hoover, thinking that their candidate would not win and that they did not want their candidate to provide the margin by which Smith would win. Nonetheless, William F. Varney was nominated for president over Hoover by a margin of 68–45. Anti-Catholicism was a significant problem for Smith's campaign. Protestant ministers warned that he would take orders from the pope who, many Americans sincerely believed, would move to the United States to rule the country from a fortress in Washington, D. C. if Smith won. According to a popular joke, after the election he sent a one-word telegram advising Pope Pius XI to "Unpack".
Beyond the conspiracy theories, a survey of 8,500 Southern Methodist Church ministers found only four who supported Smith, the northern Methodists, Southern Baptists, Disciples of Christ were similar in their opposition. Many voters who sincerely rejected bigotry and the anti-Catholic Ku Klux Klan—which had declined during the 1920s until the 1928 campaign revived it—justified their opposition to Smith on their belief that the Catholic Church was an "un-American", "alien culture" that opposed freedom and democracy. An example was a statement issued in September 1928 by the National Luthe
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
San Joaquin County, California
San Joaquin County the County of San Joaquin is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306; the county seat is Stockton. San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton–Lodi–Tracy metropolitan statistical area within the regional San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland combined statistical area; the county is located in Northern California's Central Valley just east of the highly populated nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region and is separated from the Bay Area by the Diablo Range of low mountains with its Altamont Pass. One of the smaller counties in area in California, it has a high population density and is growing due to overflow from the Bay area's need for housing; the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the county was named for the San Joaquin River. In the early 19th century Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga, commanding an expedition in the lower great California Central Valley, gave the name of San Joaquin to the San Joaquin River, which springs from the southern Sierra Nevada.
San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valley's first permanent residence. Between 1843 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, five Mexican land grants were made in what would become San Joaquin County: Campo de los Franceses, Pescadero, Sanjon de los Moquelumnes and Thompson, it was developed for agriculture. It attracted more settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush; the Central Pacific Railroad in the 1860s utilized San Joaquin County's exceptionally flat terrain to construct a rail line from Sacramento to Stockton and southwest through Altamont Pass to the San Francisco Bay. In 1909, a second railroad, the Western Pacific, utilized the same route through Stockton to reach the Bay area. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe Railroad constructed from Bakersfield and Fresno through Stockton north to reach Oakland. Smaller lines constructed at Stockton were the Tidewater Southern to Modesto and the Central California Traction to Sacramento.
Both started. These railroads encouraged the growth of farms and ranches in San Joaquin county and adjacent counties. On August 7, 1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Royster's Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd; the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a better way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out; the cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,426 square miles, of which 1,391 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water; the county has a low inland elevation and a flat drainage basin for the San Joaquin River and its numerous tributaries. With the resulting exceptionally high water table, the county is a marshy and swampy delta with a tendency to flood in the Spring melting snow runoff from the Sierra Mountains.
The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54'N 121°12'W. San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306; the racial makeup of San Joaquin County was 349,287 White, 51,744 African American, 7,196 Native American, 98,472 Asian, 3,758 Pacific Islander, 131,054 from other races, 43,795 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons; the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people, 181,629 households, 134,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at an average density of 135 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.1% White, 6.7% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 11.4% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 16.3% from other races, 6.1% from two or more races.
30.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.3% were of German, 5.3% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66.4% spoke English, 21.3% Spanish, 2.2% Tagalog, 1.8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian, 1.1% Vietnamese and 1.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 181,629 households out of which 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,282, the median income for a family was $46,919.
Males had a median income of $39,246 versus $27,507 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,365. About 13.5% of families and 17.7% of the population were below th