France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely considered the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass. The tournament takes place two weeks in late June and early July, culminating with the Ladies and Gentlemens Singles Final. Five major and invitational events are each year. Wimbledon traditions include a dress code for competitors and Royal patronage. The tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts. In 2009, Wimbledons Centre Court was fitted with a roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain. The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a club founded on 23 July 1868. Its first ground was off Worple Road, Wimbledon, in 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier and originally given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club.
In spring 1877, the club was renamed The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club, a new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event. Todays rules are similar except for such as the height of the net and posts. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemens Singles was the event held. It was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, about 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final. The lawns at the ground were arranged so that the court was in the middle with the others arranged around it. The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, however, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more correctly defined. The opening of the new No.1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description, by 1882, activity at the club was almost exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word croquet was dropped from the title.
However, for reasons it was restored in 1899
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
William Tatem Tilden II, nicknamed Big Bill, was an American male tennis player. He is often considered one of the greatest tennis players of all time, Tilden was the World No.1 player for six years from 1920 through 1925. He won 15 Major singles titles including ten Grand Slam events, one World Hard Court Championships and he was the first American to win Wimbledon in 1920. He won a record seven US Championships titles, Tilden dominated the world of international tennis in the first half of the 1920s, and during his 18-year amateur period of 1912–30, won 138 of 192 tournaments. He owns a number of all-time tennis achievements including a match winning record. At the 1929 US National Championships Tilden became the first player to reach 10 finals at a single Grand Slam event and this mark stood until 2015, when Roger Federer reached his tenth Wimbledon final. He turned professional on the last day of year and toured with a handful of other professionals for the next 15 years. Bill Tilden was born on February 10,1893 in Germantown and his father was William Tatem Tilden, a wool merchant and local politician, and his mother, Selina Hey, was a pianist.
The loss at 22 of his father and older brother Herbert marked him deeply, after several months of deep depression, and with encouragement from his aunt, which he had taken up at age five, became his primary means of recovery. In spite of his travels, Tilden lived at his aunts house until 1941 when he was 48 years old. Tilden was initially home-schooled but in 1908 went to Germantown Academy and he attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he was a reluctant student, and graduated from Peirce College. Tilden went to the prep school Germantown Academy where he wasnt known for his tennis nor was he eventually good enough to play on his college team, the following year he won his first tournaments, the junior singles and doubles title of Germantown. He enrolled at the Peirce School of Business, in just three years, he worked his way up the ranks. His first national title was winning the doubles championships with Mary Browne in 1913. From 1914 to 1917, Tilden won the Philadelphia championship and he won six consecutive U. S.
singles championships from 1920–1925 and seven in total, making him the co-record holder with Richard Sears and Bill Larned. In the winter of 1919–20, he moved to Rhode Island where, on an indoor court, with this change, he became the world no.1 tennis player and the first male American to win the Wimbledon singles championship. In the mid 1920s Tilden came into conflict with the USLTA regarding alleged violations of the amateur rule, Tilden had long been at odds with the rigid amateur directors of the United States Lawn Tennis Association about his income derived from newspaper articles about tennis. He won his last major championship at Wimbledon in 1930 at the age of 37, on 31 December 1930, in need of money, he turned professional and joined the fledgling pro tour, which had begun only in 1927
Henri Jean Cochet was a French tennis player. He was a world No.1 ranked player, and a member of the famous Four Musketeers from France who dominated tennis in the late 1920s, born in Villeurbanne, Rhône, Cochet won ten amateur Majors and one professional Major during his singles career. He was ranked World No.1 player for four years,1928 through 1931 by A. Wallis Myers. He turned professional in 1933 but, after a less than stellar pro career, the Four Musketeers were inducted simultaneously into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island in 1976. Cochet died at age 85 in Paris, Henri Cochet was born on 14 December 1901 in Villeurbanne to Gustave Cochet and Antoinette Gailleton. His father was a groundkeeper in a Lyonnese tennis club where Henri worked as a ball boy and he began playing at the age of eight along with his sister. The president of the club, an owner and French-ranked player Georges Cozon, recognized his talent. He entered his first local tournament in 1920 where he met his mentor in the final and he moved on to win a series of matches at Aix-les-Bains mostly scratch and handicap matches.
That qualified him to be featured in the 1921 French Closed Championships where he repeated his victory over Borotra, in 1921 he won the military Championship of France. Meanwhile, his sister Aimée Cochet became a player and was on the main draw of the 1930 Wimbledon Championships. Immediately after he entered the amateur scene Cochet won every major tournament of the era. After his success abroad he claimed the French Closed Championships when he defeated defending champion Jean Samazeuilh in the final, afterwards he topped the French rankings. In June 1922 he debuted in the France Davis Cup team against Denmark, the next round the team only composed of him and André Gobert and fell to the Australasian team. He found success in the minor tournaments, at the South of France Championships he lost to Russian count Mikhail Sumarokov-Elston. At the Côte dAzur Championships he repelled the Englishman Morgan for his first Riviera title, in February 1923 he retained his World Covered Court Championships title, defeating John B.
Gilbert in the final in straight sets. On 1 April 1924 he met René Lacoste in the match for the Beausite trophy of Cannes. He was ranked the number one player of France alongside Lacoste, due to his business affairs and injuries he missed most of the 1925 season, while he kept his French first place shared with Borotra. The French Internationals of that year marked the first instance of an all-Four Musketeers final in the doubles of the Championships where Brugnon and Lacoste finished ahead of Cochet–Borotra
John Sheldon Olliff was an English tennis player and sportsjournalist. Olliff took part in the Wimbledon Championships from 1928, in singles, he advanced to the fourth round several times until 1939. In doubles, he reached the semifinals with his partner Ronnie Shayes where they lost to Harold Hare, at the French Championships Olliff reached the fourth round in 1932. He played at the US Championships in 1929 and 1930, Olliff won six tournaments in his career as a tennis player, the Northern Lawn Tennis Championships, the Irish Championships, the Queens Club Championships and the Surrey Grass Court Championships. After the Second World War, he played a match for the British Davis Cup team in the first round against France in 1946, along with Henry Billington, he lost against Marcel Bernard and Bernard Destremau. After his active career, he took a job as a sportsjournalist at the Daily Telegraph and he died of a heart attack on the way to a match at Wimbledon on 29 June 1951. His successor at the Telegraph became Lance Tingay, W. & G.
Foyle, London 1951. John Olliff at the International Tennis Federation John Olliff at the Davis Cup
Jean Robert Borotra was a French tennis champion. He was one of the famous Four Musketeers from his country who dominated tennis in the late 1920s, Borotra was born in Domaine du Pouy, Biarritz and married an English woman. Known as the Bounding Basque, he won four Grand Slam singles titles in the French, the 1924 French Championship does not count towards his grand slam total as the French was only open to French nationals, not internationals. He only failed to win the American championships, as he was defeated in the final by his countryman René Lacoste 6–4, 6–0, 6–4 and his 1924 Wimbledon victory made him the first player from outside the English-speaking world to win the tournament. His first appearance was in the French Davis Cup team of 1921 and he made the final of the World Covered Court Championship in 1922, losing to Henri Cochet, but won the doubles and mixed doubles. The other major he did well in was the World Hard Court Championships – he won the doubles with Henri Cochet there in 1922, Borotra was ranked as high as World No.2 by A.
Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph in 1926. Arrested by the Gestapo in November 1942, Borotra was deported to a camp in Germany. He was freed from the castle after the Battle for Castle Itter, in which he played a role by vaulting from the fortress. The Four Musketeers were inducted simultaneously into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, in 1984, Borotra received a Distinguished Service award from the United States Sports Academy in recognition of his achievements. On 17 July 1994, Borotra and president of honour of the CIFP died at the age of 95, the International Fair Play Committee, which recognises achievements annually, awards a Jean Borotra World Fair Play Trophy. Jean Borotra at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Jean Borotra at the Association of Tennis Professionals Jean Borotra at the International Tennis Federation Jean Borotra at the Davis Cup
Wilmer Lawson Allison, Jr. was an American amateur tennis champion of the 1930s. Allisons career was overshadowed by the arrival of Don Budge, although he was both a singles player and, along with his frequent partner, John Van Ryn. At the University of Texas at Austin, Allison was the Intercollegiate tennis champion in 1927, one of Allisons earliest tournament wins was the 1928 Canadian Championship, where he won the final over doubles partner Van Ryn 6–2, 6–4, 6–3. Right-handed, Allisons greatest triumph was winning the 1935 U. S, Championship singles, defeating Fred Perry in the semifinals and Sidney Wood in the finals, both in three sets. He had previously lost to Perry 8–6 in the set in the 1934 finals. No.1 both years and World No.4 in 1932 and again in 1935 by A. Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph. At the Wimbledon Championships his best results in singles came in 1930 when he finished runner-up to Bill Tilden, en route to the final he defeated reigning champion and first-seed Henri Cochet in straight sets in the quarterfinals.
As a doubles player with partner John Van Ryn, Allison won the 1929 and 1930 Wimbledon and 1935 U. S. doubles championships, Allisons last major tournament was a 1936 quarterfinal loss to Bunny Austin. Allison played a total of 44 matches,29 in doubles with Van Ryn, in Davis Cup for the United States and he won 32 of those matches but never the cup. In his 1979 autobiography Jack Kramer, who had a fine volley himself and he writes, FOREHAND VOLLEY — Wilmer Allison of Texas, who won the 1935 Forest Hills, had the best I ever saw as a kid, and Ive never seen anyone since hit one better. Budge Patty came closest, Newcombe and he called the team of Allison and Van Ryn the ninth best of all time. Allison was a colonel in the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and he coached tennis for the varsity team of his alma mater from 1946 through 1972 and was head coach from 1957. Allison was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island in 1963
Doctor John Colin Gregory was an amateur British tennis player, best remembered for winning the Australian Open in 1929. Gregory was born in 1903 in Beverley, the son of Dr William Herbert, like his father, he became a medical doctor but was a successful amateur lawn tennis player in both doubles and singles. In the 1920s he played doubles with Ian Collins and they were runners up at the 1929 Wimbledon Championships, in 1929 he won the Australian singles championship. Following the Second World War, Gregory was captain of the British Davis Cup team, due to an accident Geoffrey Paish was unable to play in a 1952 match against Yugoslavia and the 49-year-old Gregory stepped in to win the doubles match with Tony Mottram. Gregory became chairman of the All-England Club at Wimbledon in 1955, bud Collins Total Tennis - The Ultimate Tennis Encyclopedia, ISBN 0-9731443-4-3. Colin Gregory at the International Tennis Federation Colin Gregory at the Davis Cup
John Van Ryn
John Van Ryn was an American tennis champion of the 1930s. He was primarily known as being a doubles player with Wilmer Allison. Van Ryn won the Men’s Doubles at Wimbledon three straight years and he took two of the titles with Wilmer Allison and won the third with George Lott. In 1931, he was successful with Lott at the French Championships. He became the first male player to win the French, Van Ryn had an excellent record when he competed for the United States in Davis Cup, winning 22 of 24 encounters in a period of eight years. He was inducted into the Tennis Hall of Fame in 1963, on 22 October 1930 he married tennis player Midge Gladman. French Championships Mens Doubles champion,1931 Wimbledon Mens Doubles champion,1929,1930,1931 U. S
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci