1930–39 Pacific hurricane seasons

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The 1930–1939 Pacific hurricane seasons all began during the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the central Pacific. They ended in late fall.

Before the satellite age started in the 1960s, data on Pacific hurricanes is extremely unreliable.[1]

1930 season[edit]

I. On June 4, a tropical cyclone formed south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It paralleled the coast, became a hurricane, and approached the coast. On June 11, it made landfall north of Mazatlán and dissipated inland. Some damage in Mazatlán was reported.[2]

II. From August 18 to 20, a tropical cyclone existed in the waters west of Manzanillo. A ship reported a pressure of 29.63 inHg (100.3 kPa).[3]

III. On October 3, a tropical cyclone formed near the Revillagigedo Islands. It slowly moved northeasterly, became very intense, and made landfall north of Mazatlán on October 4 or October 5. Once inland, it greatly increased in speed, and dissipated October 7, while over Arkansas. A ship in the eye of the hurricane reported a pressure of 27.72 inHg (93.9 kPa), low enough to make this the most intense Pacific hurricane in Mexican waters known at the time.[4]

This hurricane hassled a number of ships. One of them needed to be repaired at a cost of $10,000 (1930 USD), and another had its cargo damaged.[4]

IV. On October 9, a tropical cyclone formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Eventually becoming a hurricane, it moved up the coast as far as Acapulco. It was last seen on October 11. The lowest pressure reported was 29 inHg (98 kPa).[4]

This hurricane caused damage in Acapulco. Many buildings were demolished by the storm, and roads and telegraph lines were destroyed.[5] Damage to property was heavy, but no one was killed or injured.[6]

V. On October 16, a tropical cyclone existed somewhere between Acapulco and Cape Corrientes.[4] Two days later, it made landfall near La Manzanilla, Jalisco as a hurricane near with a pressure of 98.3 kilopascals (29.0 inHg).[7] It or its remnants managed to cross the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and enter the Bay of Campeche, where they dissipated on October 20.[4]

1931 season[edit]

On July 3, a tropical cyclone possibly existed south of Acapulco. A ship measured a pressure of 29.55 inHg (100.1 kPa).[8]

In the western part of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a possible tropical cyclone existed on July 10. A ship reported a pressure of 29.66 inHg (100.4 kPa).[8]

On July 21, a tropical cyclone began forming southwest of Manzanillo. It had completely formed by July 23. It moved along the coast, and entered the Gulf of California. It was last observed on July 25. This cyclone produced gales, and the lowest reported pressure was 29.39 inHg (99.5 kPa).[8]

On July 26, a tropical cyclone existed midway between Acapulco and Salina Cruz. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 29.63 inHg (100.3 kPa).[8]

In the central Pacific east-southeast of the Hawaiian Islands, a ship encountered a tropical cyclone on August 30 and 31. It produced gales, and a pressure of 28.82 inHg (976 hPa).[9]

South of the coast of Mexico, a tropical cyclone formed on September 6. It paralleled the coast, entered the Gulf of California, and dissipated by September 14.[10]

This system sank an American steamship called the Colombia (losses unknown).[10] On land, the area around Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur was severely devastated. More than 100 people were killed on land,[11] mostly due to drowning.[12]

In Santa Rosalía itself, fifty were killed. Numerous small craft were sunk, with at least eight people going down with them. A merchant ship called Perkins was damaged in the storm, with two people were washed overboard. On land, connections with the El Boleo copper mine were destroyed, with the mine itself flooded, causing $500,000 (1931 USD) in damage.[13] Hundreds were left homeless. In the aftermath, there was a shortage of food and medicine,[12] and troops were dispatched to maintain order.[13]

The next tropical cyclone was a slightly weaker and faster-moving clone of the previous one. On September 14, it formed at around the same location as the first, and took a similar path. It dissipated September 18 in the Gulf of California.[10]

A tropical cyclone existed from September 20 to on or just after September 24. It formed well south of the Mexican coast. It moved northwestward, and dissipated off the coast of the Baja California Peninsula.[10]

On September 26, a tropical cyclone formed south of the Mexican coast. It moved generally northwards, and dissipated in the Gulf of California sometime after September 29.[10]

1932 season[edit]

I. A tropical cyclone formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 18. It moved along the coast, became a hurricane, and was last seen June 21. The lowest pressure was an uncorrected 29.48 inHg (99.8 kPa). This hurricane was reported to have winds of 130 mph.[14]

II. On August 21, tropical cyclone was heading northwestward south of the Revillagigedo Islands. A ship at the fringes of the cyclone measured a pressure of 29.08 inHg (98.5 kPa).[15]

III. Between August 25 and 27, a "tropical hurricane" formed offshore southern Mexico, and moved north-northwest into southwest Mexico east of Manzanillo before dissipating.[16]

IV. Somewhere southwest of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a tropical cyclone formed on September 24. It paralleled the coast, and intensified into a hurricane on September 25. It then recurved, and made landfall near Mazatlán late during the night of September 26 and 27, while still a hurricane. It dissipated inland over the mountains of Mexico. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 28.64 inHg (97.0 kPa). The hurricane caused about $5,000,000 (1932 USD) in damage.[15]

V. On September 26, a hurricane was spotted south of Acapulco. It headed along the coast, and entered the Gulf of California sometime on or after September 28,[17] wherein it moved north-northwest and dissipated, with its remnants continuing into the Southwestern United States.[18]

Powerful winds in Mazatlán were attributed to this system.[17] Over a four-day period ending October 1, those remnants caused heavy rain of up to 7 inches (180 mm) in the mountains of Southern California. Over a seven-hour period, 4.38 inches (111 mm) fell at Tehachapi.[18] That total by itself is enough to make this tropical cyclone one of California's wettest tropical storm.[19] Those rains also caused flash flooding on Tehachapi and Agua Caliente Creeks, which killed fifteen people.[20]

1933 season[edit]

I. On May 30, a tropical cyclone existed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Shortly after its discovery, it dissipated off the coast of Guatemala. A ship reported gales and a pressure of 29.44 inHg (99.7 kPa).[21]

II. Sometime in June, a possible tropical cyclone existed south of the Mexican coast.[22]

III. A possible tropical cyclone was reported between Salina Cruz and Acapulco July 7. It had moved closer to Acapulco by July 8. This system might have been associated with the remnants of the Atlantic's second tropical cyclone.[23]

IV. Another possible tropical cyclone existed in the same area on July 29.[23]

V. A tropical cyclone formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on August. It moved along the coast, becoming at least a tropical storm, and dissipated in the Gulf of California on August 19 or 20. A ship reported an uncorrected barometer reading of 29.48 inHg (99.8 kPa).[24]

VI. A possible tropical cyclone existed on September 13. It was located well west of Manzanillo.[25]

VII. A "tropical hurricane" was tracked well northeast of Hawaii between October 7 and 9.[16]

1934 season[edit]

I. A possible tropical cyclone, with a ship-reported pressure of 29.53 inHg (100.0 kPa), was located southwest of Acapulco from July 8 to 9.[26]

II. On July 18, a possible hurricane existed north of Cape Corrientes.[26]

III. Somewhere south of Acapulco, a tropical cyclone formed on September 16. It headed along the coast, not strengthening much until September 18. It was a hurricane by September 19. For the next three days, it slowly moved through the area south of the Gulf of California. It had weakened to a depression by September 22, whence it made landfall on the Baja California Peninsula and dissipated. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 28.82 inHg (97.6 kPa).[27]

This hurricane caused death and destruction throughout the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula. A large number of people were killed, and many were injured. The hurricane left twenty thousand people homeless and reduced to hunger.[28] Damage was particularly heavy in La Paz, Triunfor, San Antonio, San Bartolo, Miraflores, San José del Cabo, and Cabo San Lucas. Electricity and water utilities were severely disrupted. The hurricane destroyed the area's tomato crop, and severely disrupted sugarcane plantations. It also destroyed a recently finished highway between La Paz and San Bartolo, and flooded mines near San Antonio and Triunfo. The total damage was estimated at 500,000,000 pesos (1934 MXP). The Mexican government sent aid to the affected area, along with the International Red Cross.[29]

IV. On October 14, well off the coast of Mexico, a tropical storm was noticed. It headed north towards the Gulf of California, and dissipated October 16. The cyclone was a hurricane, and a ship reported a pressure of 28.25 inHg (95.7 kPa).[30]

1935 season[edit]

On 22 March, 1935, the TSS Maunganui sailed through the edge of a hurricane, en route from Auckland, N.Z. to Tahiti, where she picked up the film crew who had just finished making "Mutiny on the Bounty"[31]

A tropical storm caused gales in Manzanillo on July 1.[32]

On August 5, a tropical cyclone formed just off the coast of Mexico. It generally moved west-northwest, and was last seen August 9. The storm caused gales, and a ship reported a pressure reading of 29.61 inHg (100.3 kPa).[33]

South of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a tropical cyclone formed on August 17. It remained poorly organized and moved slowly, making landfall on August 20. It had moved back off shore by August 21. It headed northwest, passing west of Cabo San Lucas, and hugged the Pacific coast of the Baja California Peninsula. It rapidly weakened as it headed north, and its remnants made landfall near Point Conception, California, on August 26 and dissipated after that.[33]

The tropical cyclone destroyed many buildings in Salina Cruz on August 20. It also blew down trees and downed power lines. No casualties were reported.[34] The tropical cyclone remnants also caused rainfall of up to 2 inches (51 mm) in parts of California and Arizona.[18]

1936 season[edit]

Just off the coast of Guatemala, a tropical storm was reported on June 8. It headed north, and sometime after June 9 made landfall. It crossed the isthmus, and it emerged into the Gulf of Honduras. The system then became the first tropical storm of the 1936 Atlantic hurricane season.[35] This cyclone's lowest measured pressure while located in the Pacific Ocean was 29.67 inHg (100.5 kPa).[36] This tropical storm caused heavy rains over parts of Central America, especially the Yucatán and British Honduras.[35]

On June 22, there was a possible tropical cyclone some ways south of Acapulco. A ship reported a pressure reading of 29.49 inHg (99.9 kPa).[36]

About or before 5 August, a tropical cyclone formed southwest of Cape Corrientes. It tracked along the coast and reached hurricane intensity for a time. It entered the Gulf of California and moved up its entire length, weakening as it went north-northwestward. The tropical storm made landfall near the head of the Gulf of California on 8 August and dissipated inland. The lowest pressure reported was 29.39 inHg (99.5 kPa).[37] On 8 August in consequence of this tropical storm, San Diego, California, recorded a maximum wind velocity of 26 mph (42 km/h; 23 kn) from the south and a temperature of 94 °F (34 °C). The wind whipped tender plants west of San Diego but did little other damage in California. Remnants of this tropical cyclone contributed locally heavy rain over parts of southern California and Arizona on 9 August. A wind and rain storm struck central and southeast Arizona on 8 August, causing $15,000 in damage. Floods washed out railroad tracks near Tucson, and the storm blocked highways and disrupted railway, bus, and airline schedules. In Phoenix, winds swept roofs away and uprooted trees. Two persons suffered injury as the storm demolished their home.[18]

On August 17, a hurricane was located south of Cabo San Lucas. It rapidly moved north along the Pacific side of the Baja California peninsula. It was last detected in a much weakened state on August 18. The lowest pressure reading was 28.82 inHg (97.6 kPa).[37]

The hurricane caused serious damage to fishing vessels. Two that had sought refuge in Magdalena Bay were driven aground. Another, the Enterprise, was destroyed on Tosco Point. Its crew of twelve were rescued by the Panama Pacific liner California.[38]

A tropical cyclone formed near Cape Corrientes on September 8. It moved north, intensified into a hurricane, and made landfall near Cabo San Lucas late on September 9. It had dissipated by September 10. The lowest pressure reading reported for this system was 29.25 inHg (99.1 kPa).[39]

From September 24 to 26, a tropical cyclone might have existed in the waters off Manzanillo and south of the Gulf of California.

On October 27, an area of low pressure existed. By October 28, it had intensified into a hurricane. A ship reported a pressure 28.78 inHg (97.5 kPa). On October 29, a ship in subtropical latitudes low that was the remnant of this hurricane.[40]

On December 4, a northward-moving tropical depression passed over some of the Hawaiian Islands. Its only apparent impact was to cause intensification of the trade winds.[41]

1937 season[edit]

On May 25, a tropical cyclone was detected south of Acapulco. The cyclone headed northwards, made landfall directly at Acapulco that day. Weather associated with this tropical cyclone made it to Gulf of Mexico, where they became a depression in the Bay of Campeche on May 27.[42] However, this depression never developed into anything.[43]

This tropical cyclone destroyed telephone and telegraph lines leading into Acapulco, cutting that city off from the outside world for four days. Numerous buildings in the city were damaged. Several fishing boats were missing, and a woman was killed when a telephone pole was blown down on her.[44]

On June 16, while west of the Revillagigedo Islands, a ship encountered a possible westward-moving tropical cyclone. The ship reported a pressure of 29.74 inHg (100.7 kPa).[45]

On June 23, a tropical cyclone was spotted developing south of Acapulco. It had fully formed by June 24, and moved northward. It then turned to the north-northeast and approached the Gulf of California, where it subsequently dissipated on June 26. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 29.63 inHg (100.3 kPa).[45]

On August 31, a hurricane was observed west of the Revillagigedo Islands. A ship measured a central pressure of 29.12 inHg (98.6 kPa).[46]

On October 24, a tropical cyclone formed well south of the Revillagigedo Islands. It rapidly headed northeast, and had approached land somewhere between Manzanillo and Cape Corrientes by October 27. At that point, the cyclone fell apart and ceased to exist. A ship reported a pressure of 29.59 inHg (100.2 kPa).[47]

1938 season[edit]

Two tropical cyclones existed in January, one near the International dateline and another near the Revillagigedo Islands.[48]

A hurricane hit Northern California in early to mid-February, killing five.[49]

A tropical storm possibly existed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 2.[50]

On June 15, a tropical cyclone was observed. It was moving northwestward. A pressure reading of 28.84 inHg (97.7 kPa) was reported in association with this tropical cyclone.[50]

On June 20, a tropical cyclone was observed west of Manzanillo. Two days later, it was observed again south of the entrance to the Gulf of California. The tropical cyclone was not observed after June 22. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 29.59 inHg (100.2 kPa).[50]

Southeast of Acapulco, a tropical cyclone existed on June 25. It was moving northwestward, and its lowest reported pressure was 29.14 inHg (98.7 kPa).[50]

On July 28, a tropical cyclone caused gales in the Gulf of Tehuantepec.[51]

A tropical cyclone existed on August 1. It moved west, and was last detected on August 2. The lowest pressure reading was of 29.68 inHg (100.5 kPa).[52]

A tropical storm was detected on August 4. It was moving westwards. A ship recorded a pressure of 29.82 inHg (101.0 kPa).[52]

On August 18, a tropical depression formed close to the Revillagigedo Islands. By the next day, it had move to a location west-southwest or west of Cabo San Lucas. A ship reported a pressure reading of 29.50 inHg (99.9 kPa). The cyclone dissipated by late August 19.[52]

On August 18 and 19, a severe storm struck the Hawaiian Islands. It caused gales, broke August rainfall records, and a record low pressure of 29.77 inHg (100.8 kPa). The storm also downed power lines and damaged crops and trees at a plantation. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center calls this event the "Mokapu Cyclone" and speculates that it might have been caused by a tropical cyclone.[53]

On September 1, a possible tropical depression formed south of Cape Corrientes. Without strengthening, it moved into the Gulf of California, from which it made landfall on September 3.[54]

In the Gulf of Tehuantepec, a tropical cyclone formed on September 4. It moved along the coast of Mexico, staying offshore, and dissipated on September 13 while off the west coast of the Baja California. The lowest pressure reported by a ship was 29.31 inHg (99.3 kPa).

A short-lived tropical cyclone existed between Salina Cruz and Acapulco on September 11. Ships reported gales and a pressure of 29.65 inHg (100.4 kPa).

On September 24 and 25, a ship encountered stormy weather and gales. These were probably caused by a tropical cyclone located west of the Revillagigedo Islands.

On October 9, a ship encountered a tropical cyclone. It reported gales, and recorded a pressure of 29.43 inHg (99.7 kPa).[55]

On October 22, a tropical cyclone existed. It had gales, and a ship measured a central pressure of 29.31 inHg (99.3 kPa).[55]

1939 season[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Blake, Eric S; Gibney, Ethan J; Brown, Daniel P; Mainelli, Michelle; Franklin, James L; Kimberlain, Todd B; Hammer, Gregory R (2009). Tropical Cyclones of the Eastern North Pacific Basin, 1949-2006 (PDF). Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  2. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1930). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  3. ^ Hurd, Willis (August 1930). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Hurd, Willis (October 1930). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  5. ^ Associated Press (1930-10-13). "Hurricane in Mexico". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  6. ^ "Hurricane in Mexico". Montreal Gazette. 1930-10-14. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  7. ^ http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/metadata_1926-30.html#1930_03
  8. ^ a b c d Hurd, Willis (July 1931). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  9. ^ Hurd, Willis (August 1931). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Hurd, Willis (September 1931). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  11. ^ "World News". The Virgin Islands Daily News. 1931-09-18. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  12. ^ a b Associated Press (1931-09-16). "50 Die in Mexico". The Modesto Bee. 
  13. ^ a b Associated Press (1931-11-17). "Hurricane Toll Reaches 100 in Mexico Blow". The Evening Independent. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  14. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1932). "North Pacific Ocean, June 1932" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  15. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (August 1932). "North Pacific Ocean, August 1932" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  16. ^ a b United States Weather Bureau (1947). Pressure Center Tracks From the 1300 GMT Northern Hemisphere Sea Level Pressure Maps. Tracks of Lows 1929-1933. 
  17. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (September 1932). "North Pacific Ocean, September 1932" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  18. ^ a b c d Williams, Jack (2005-05-17). "Background: California's tropical storms". USA Today. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  19. ^ Roth, David M. "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall for the West". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  20. ^ "A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California" (PDF). National Weather Service Forecast Office San Diego. January 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  21. ^ Hurd, Willis (May 1933). "North Pacific Ocean, May 1933" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  22. ^ Hurd, Willis (June 1933). "North Pacific Ocean, June 1933" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  23. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (July 1933). "North Pacific Ocean, July 1933" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  24. ^ McDonald, WF (August 1933). "North Pacific Ocean, August, 1933" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  25. ^ Hurd, Willis (September 1933). "North Pacific Ocean, September 1933" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  26. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (July 1934). "North Pacific Ocean, July 1934" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  27. ^ Hurd, Willis (September 1934). "North Pacific Ocean, September 1934" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  28. ^ "Many Die as Storm Sweeps Over Mexico". The Pittsburgh Press. 1934-11-26. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  29. ^ "Mexico". The Virgin Islands Daily News. 1934-11-28. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  30. ^ Hurd, Willis (October 1934). "North Pacific Ocean, October 1934" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  31. ^ From my mother's dairy - she was aboard.
  32. ^ Hurd, Willis (July 1935). "North Pacific Ocean, July 1935" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  33. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (August 1935). "North Pacific Ocean, August 1935" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  34. ^ Associated Press (1935-08-21). "Hurricane Takes Toll in Mexico". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  35. ^ a b Tannehill, IR (July 1936). "Tropical Disturbances, June 1936" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  36. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (June 1936). "North Pacific Ocean, June 1936" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  37. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (August 1936). "North Pacific Ocean, August 1936" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  38. ^ "Hurricane Grounds 3 Fishing Vessels". Rochester Journal. 1936-08-19. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  39. ^ Hurd, Willis (September 1936). "North Pacific Ocean, September 1936" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  40. ^ Gallenne, JH (October 1936). "North Pacific Ocean, October 1936" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  41. ^ Hurd, Willis (December 1936). "North Pacific Ocean, December 1936" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  42. ^ Hurd, Willis (May 1937). "North Pacific Ocean, May 1937" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  43. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). National Hurricane Center. May 1, 2018. Retrieved August 5, 2018. 
  44. ^ Associated Press (1937-05-30). "Pacific Coast Port Damaged by Storm". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  45. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (June 1937). "North Pacific Ocean, June 1937" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  46. ^ Hurd, Willis (August 1937). "North Pacific Ocean, August 1937" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  47. ^ Hurd, Willis (October 1937). "North Pacific Ocean, October 1937" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  48. ^ http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/mwr/066/mwr-066-01-0025.pdf
  49. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=jJs1AAAAIBAJ&sjid=yqsFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1522,4538957&dq=california+hurricane&hl=en
  50. ^ a b c d Hurd, Willis (June 1938). "North Pacific Ocean, June 1938" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  51. ^ Hurd, Willis (July 1938). "North Pacific Ocean, July 1938" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  52. ^ a b c Hurd, Willis (August 1938). "North Pacific Ocean, August 1938" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  53. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Observations. Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  54. ^ Hurd, Willis (September 1938). "North Pacific Ocean, September 1938" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  55. ^ a b Hurd, Willis (October 1938). "North Pacific Ocean, October 1938" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Retrieved 2011-01-18.