1930 Lucifer

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1930 Lucifer
1930Lucifer (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Lucifer
Discovery [1]
Discovered by E. Roemer
Discovery site NOFS (USNO)
Discovery date 29 October 1964
MPC designation (1930) Lucifer
Pronunciation /ˈljsɪfər/ LEW-si-fər
Named after
Lucifer (religion)[2]
1964 UA · 1954 SQ
1954 TC
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 62.61 yr (22,870 days)
Aphelion 3.3078 AU
Perihelion 2.4883 AU
2.8981 AU
Eccentricity 0.1414
4.93 yr (1,802 days)
0° 11m 59.28s / day
Inclination 14.057°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 26.90 km (derived)[3]
27.00±3.2 km[4]
30.92±0.84 km[5]
34.04±11.55 km[6]
34.437±0.168 km[7]
36.335±0.376 km[8]
39.61±0.50 km[9]
13.0536±0.0005 h[10]
13.054±0.004 h[11]
13.056±0.005 h[12]
13.092±0.0808 h[13]
0.0886 (derived)[3]
SMASS = Cgh [1] · C[3]
10.818±0.002 (R)[13] · 10.9[4][8][9] · 11.00[5][6] · 11.1[1][3] ·

1930 Lucifer, provisional designation 1964 UA, is a carbonaceous asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 34 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 29 October 1964, by American astronomer Elizabeth Roemer at the Flagstaff station (NOFS) of the United States Naval Observatory (USNO).[14] It is named after Lucifer, the "shining one" or "light-bearer" form the Hebrew Bible.


Lucifer orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.5–3.3 AU once every 4 years and 11 months (1,802 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 14° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] It was first identified as 1954 SQ at Goethe Link Observatory in 1954, extending the body's observation arc by 10 years prior to its official discovery observation at NOFS.[14]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Spectral type[edit]

In the SMASS taxonomy, Lucifer is a Cgh-type that belongs to the carbonaceous C-group of asteroids.[1]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Lucifer measures between 27.00 and 39.61 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.05 and 0.1058.[4][5][6][7][8][9] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0886 and calculates a diameter of 26.90 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.1.[3]

Rotation and pole axis[edit]

In October 2003, a rotational lightcurve of Lucifer was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory in Colorado. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 13.056 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.44 magnitude (U=3).[12]

In January 2005, observations by astronomer Horacio Correia gave a concurring period of 13.054 hours and an amplitude of 0.22 magnitude (U=3).[11] In 2013, another lightcurve was obtained at the Palomar Transient Factory (U=2),[13] and a modeled lightcurve from various data sources, including the AstDyS database, gave another concurring period of 13.0536 hours and found a pole of (32.0°,17.0°).[10]


Lutz D. Schmadel's Dictionary of Minor Planet Names reads "Named for the proud, rebellious archangel, identified with Satan, who was expelled from heaven".[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 4419).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1930 Lucifer (1964 UA)" (2017-05-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1930) Lucifer. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 155. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1930) Lucifer". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1930) Lucifer". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (September 2005). "Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory - winter 2004-2005". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 32 (3): 54–58. Bibcode:2005MPBu...32...54W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "1930 Lucifer (1964 UA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 

External links[edit]