University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi-campus public research university in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa. The university was established in 1908 as the Pretoria campus of the Johannesburg-based Transvaal University College and is the fourth South African institution in continuous operation to be awarded university status; the university has grown from the original 32 students in a single late Victorian house to 39,000 in 2010. The University was built on 7 suburban campuses on 1,120 hectares; the University is organised into a business school. Established in 1920, the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science is the second oldest veterinary school in Africa and the only veterinary school in South Africa. In 1949 the university launched the first MBA programme outside North America and the university's Gordon Institute of Business Science has been ranked the top business school in Africa for executive education, as well as being placed in the top 50 in the world.
In 2012 the Financial Times ranked the GIBS Executive MBA 1st in 60th in the world. Since 1997, the university has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark. In 2008, the university awarded 15.8% of all masters and doctorate degrees in South Africa, the highest percentage in the country. The university is referred to as UP, Tuks, or Tukkies and in post-nominals the university is abbreviated as Pret or UP, although Pretoria is used in official publications; the proposal for a university for the capital, first mooted in the Volksraad in 1889, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899. In 1896 the South African School of Mines was founded in Kimberley. Eight years in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and was renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute; the school's name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1902 after the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging, the Normal College for teacher training was established in Groenkloof, Pretoria.
On 4 March 1908 when the Transvaal University College transferred its arts and science courses to its newly established Pretoria Campus the precursor to the university was established offering courses in languages and law. Instruction commenced with 32 students, 4 professors and 3 lecturers in the Kya Rosa, 270 Skinner Street a late Victorian residence purchased from Leo Weinthal the owner of The Press; the first four professors were Prof H. Th. Reinink, J. Purves, D. F. du Toit Malherbe and A. C. Paterson, who would become the first Vice-ChancellorIn 1910 the Colonial Secretary, General Jan Smuts tabled the act constituting the university as a separate entity before the Transvaal Parliament, the "Transvaalse Universiteits-Inlijvingswet" Law 1 of 1910. On 17 May 1910 the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated, each becoming an independent institution; the Johannesburg campus being reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, while the Pretoria campus retained the name of Transvaal University College until 1930.
The South African School of Mines and Technology would go on to become the University of the Witwatersrand in 1922. In 1910 the TUC acquired its own campus in the East of Pretoria, what is now the western part of the university's main campus in Hatfield. On 3 August 1910 Governor-General Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone laid the cornerstone of the Old Arts Building, the first building to be built on the newly established Hatfield campus; the building's striking Cape Dutch and Neo-Romanesque architectural style was recognised in 1968 when it was declared a provincial heritage site. During this time the colloquial name for the university, Tukkies or Tuks, was derived from the Afrikaans acronym for the college i.e. Transvaalse Universiteitskollege; the late 1910s and early 1920s saw the establishment of several faculties as the academic activities were expanded. Courses in agriculture, theology and political science, veterinary science, music were established as the institution grew.
On 10 October 1930 the University of Pretoria Private Act, No. 13 of 1930 changed the name of the TUC to the University of Pretoria. The TUC established as an English medium institution had evolved into the only bilingual university in South Africa and remained as such until the early 1930s; the rapid increase of Afrikaans speaking students brought about an imbalance between the demographics of students and the languages of instruction. By 1931, although 65% of students were Afrikaans speaking, 68% of the classes were conducted in English. In 1932 the University Council addressed the imbalance, deciding that Afrikaans would become the only medium of instruction. An increase in student numbers necessitated the building of new facilities such as the Club Hall and Administration Building when the 7th faculty, the Medical Faculty, was established in 1943; this period further saw the establishment of numerous student activities such as the annual Spring Day event and intervarsity. Student publications established include the Trek in 1931, the first Rag Mag in 1936 and the weekly student newspaper, Die Perdeby in 1939.
The period of 1948–1982 is characterised by the substantial increase in numbers of an exclusively white student body and the concomitant physical growth of the university infrastructure. The nearly doubling of stu
Governor-General of South Africa
The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa was the highest state official in the Union of South Africa between 31 May 1910 and 31 May 1961. The Union of South Africa was founded as a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire in 1910 and the office of governor-general was established as the representative of the monarch. Fifty-one years the country declared itself a republic and the historic link with the British monarchy was broken; the office of governor-general was abolished. Some of the first holders of the post were members of the British royal family including Prince Arthur of Connaught between 1920 and 1924, the Earl of Athlone, who served between 1924 and 1931, before becoming the Governor General of Canada; as in other Dominions, this would change, from 1943 onward only South Africans held the office. The office was established by the South Africa Act 1909. Although the Governor-General was nominally the country's chief executive, in practice he was bound by convention to act on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet of South Africa.
The Afrikaner-dominated National Party, which came to power in 1948, was avowedly republican and regarded South Africa's personal union with the United Kingdom and other realms within the Commonwealth of Nations as a relic of British imperialism. In the interim, the National Party used the Governor-General's post as a sinecure for retired National Party ministers; the two Governors-General appointed after 1948, Ernest George Jansen and Charles Robberts Swart, chose not to wear the traditional court uniform nor to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch. In 1957, God Save the Queen ceased to have equal status with Die Stem van Suid-Afrika as a national anthem, the Union Flag ceased to have equal status with the South African flag. However, it was not until 1960 that Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd advised Governor-General Swart to hold a referendum on the issue. After several protests regarding the lowering of the voting age to 18, the inclusion of white voters in South West Africa, on 5 October 1960 South Africa's whites were asked: Are you in favour of a Republic for the Union?
The result was 52 per cent in favour of the change. Swart, the last Governor-General, asked the Queen to relieve him of his duties on 30 April 1961, after he signed the new republican constitution into law. Chief Justice Lucas Cornelius Steyn became Officer Administering the Government under a transitional arrangement until 31 May 1961, when the Republic of South Africa was declared and Swart become the first State President of South Africa. State President of South Africa President of South Africa Prime Minister of South Africa
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 4-8-2 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels, eight powered and coupled driving wheels and two trailing wheels. This type of steam locomotive is known as the Mountain type; the tank and tender locomotive versions of the 4-8-2 Mountain wheel arrangement both originated in the Colony of Natal in South Africa. In 1888, the Natal Government Railways placed the first five of its eventual one hundred Class D 4-8-2 tank locomotives in service; the locomotive was designed by William Milne, the locomotive superintendent of the NGR from 1877 to 1896, was built by Dübs and Company. This was the first known use of the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement in the world. In 1906, six NGR Class B 4-8-0 Mastodon locomotives, designed by D. A. Hendrie, NGR Locomotive Superintendent from 1903 to 1910, were modified to a 4-8-2 wheel arrangement by having trailing bissel trucks added below their cabs to improve their stability when hauling fast passenger trains.
These altered Class B locomotives were the first 4-8-2 tender locomotives in the world. The first locomotive to be designed and built as a 4-8-2 tender locomotive was New Zealand's X class, designed by A. L. Beattie and built by the New Zealand Railways Department's Addington Workshops in Christchurch in 1908, it was designed to haul heavy freight trains on the mountainous central section of the North Island Main Trunk Railway and it is believed that this was the source of the "Mountain" name of the 4-8-2 type, although it is possible that the name was originated by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in the United States, who named the type after the Allegheny Mountains. The X class was, not considered to be a true Mountain type, since its trailing truck served to spread the axle load rather than to allow a larger and wider firebox; the trailing wheels were positioned well behind a narrow firebox, which itself sat above the coupled wheels, necessitating the same design compromise between coupled wheel diameter and grate size as on a 2-8-0 Consolidation or 4-8-0 Mastodon.
A true 4-8-2 design was a progression of the classic 4-6-2 Pacific layout, which featured a wide firebox positioned above the trailing truck and behind the coupled wheels, allowing for a wide and deep firebox as well as large coupled wheels. In 1909, the NGR placed the world's first true Mountain type locomotive in service when five Class Hendrie D 4-8-2 tender locomotives were commissioned, it was designed by Hendrie to handle coal traffic on the upper Natal mainline and, while it was based on the Class Hendrie B 4-8-0, it had the firebox positioned to the rear of the coupled wheels to make a larger grate and ashpan possible. To accomplish this, the plate frame was equipped with a cast bridle at the rear to accommodate the improved firebox design, which necessitated the addition of a trailing truck. Five locomotives were built by the North British Locomotive Company and delivered in 1909; the 4-8-2 type went on to become the most used steam locomotive wheel arrangement in South Africa, with altogether thirty classes of both tank and tender versions seeing service on the South African Railways.
In 1951, six 4-8-2 locomotives were built by North British Locomotive Company to the design of the South African Class 19D for the Angolan Caminho de Ferro de Benguela as their 11th Class. Unlike some other countries which utilised the 4-8-2 design for heavy passenger duties, the Australian 4-8-2 was more used as a heavy goods locomotive with small coupled wheels and a large firebox; the first 4-8-2 in Australia was the 3 ft 6 in gauge Q class of the Tasmanian Government Railways. Nineteen were built in batches between 1922 and 1945 by Perry Engineering in South Australia, Walkers Limited of Maryborough and Clyde Engineering of New South Wales; until 1950, the class handled the majority of mainline goods trains around the state. Armstrong Whitworth built ten 500 class 4-8-2 locomotives for the South Australian Railways in 1926, they were the most powerful locomotives in Australia at the time and the heaviest non-articulated locomotives yet built in the United Kingdom. In 1929, they were modified to 500B class 4-8-4 Northern locomotives.
The three-cylinder D57 class locomotive of the New South Wales Government Railways was one of the largest and most powerful locomotives built in Australia. Twenty-five were built by Clyde Engineering from 1929. With their large 65 square feet grates and 64,327 pounds-force tractive effort, they were put to good use on the steep, 1 in 33 and 1 in 40 gradients leading out of Sydney on the New South Wales mainlines; the D57 design was developed further in 1950 with the smaller cylindered D58 class, of which thirteen were built at the Eveleigh and Cardiff Locomotive Workshops of the NSWGR. This class proved to be less successful, suffering from reliability problems attributed to the rack and pinion valve gear, used for the third cylinder instead of the Gresley-Holcroft valve gear, used on the D57 class; the Western Australian Government Railways introduced two classes of 4-8-2 locomotive for freight haulage on the state's 3 ft 6 in network. The first was the S class, of which ten were built at the WAGR Midland Railway Workshops from 1943, with the locomotives named after West Australian mountains.
The second was the W class, of which 64 were built by Beyer and Company in 1951 and 1952. The 4-8-2 layout allowed for the weight of these powerful locomotives to be spread over a number of axles, resulting in the W class having a maximum axle load of less than 10 tons, it enabled the incorporation of a wide firebox for burning poor-quality coal. In 1951, the Tasmanian Gove
Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, was a British Army commander and major-general who served as the fourth Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and as Governor General of Canada, the 16th since the Canadian Confederation. Prince Alexander was born in London to the Duke and Duchess of Teck and was educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. In 1904, he married Princess Alice of Albany and rose in the military ranks through his service in African campaigns of the First World War, receiving numerous honours and decorations. A cousin and brother-in-law of King George V, he in 1917 relinquished his German titles, including that of Prince of Teck in the Kingdom of Württemberg, was elevated to the peerage as the Earl of Athlone, he was in 1923 appointed as South Africa's governor-general by the King, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Stanley Baldwin, to replace Prince Arthur of Connaught, he occupied the viceregal post until succeeded by the Earl of Clarendon in 1930.
Athlone served as Chancellor of the University of London until, in 1940, he was appointed as Canada's governor general by King George VI, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King, to replace Lord Tweedsmuir, he occupied the post until succeeded by Viscount Alexander of Tunis in 1946. Athlone helped galvanise the Canadian war effort and was a host to British and American statesmen during the Second World War. After returning to the United Kingdom, Athlone sat on the organising committee for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, he was interred in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. Prince Alexander of Teck was born at Kensington Palace on 14 April 1874, the fourth child and third son of Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck. Although his mother was a granddaughter of King George III and first cousin to Queen Victoria, Athlone, as the son of a prince of Teck in Württemberg, was styled from birth as His Serene Highness and held the title Prince Alexander of Teck.
He was known, however, to his family and friends as Alge, derived from the first two letters of Alexander and George, was characterised as a meticulous individual with a quick, but short-lived, temper and an ability to be cautious and tactful. When Prince Alexander was nine years old, his parents fled the United Kingdom for continental Europe to escape their high debts, they stayed there for two years. The Prince remained at Eton College before moving on to Sandhurst. In October 1894, having completed his officer's training, Prince Alexander was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 7th Queen's Own Hussars, shortly after served in the Second Matabele War, he was mentioned in despatches during the conflict and, after its cessation, was appointed on 8 December 1898 by Queen Victoria as a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. He received a promotion to captain the following April. For his actions in the Second Boer War, Alexander was in April 1901 appointed by King Edward VII as a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order.
The announcement came on 16 November 1903 that Prince Alexander had become engaged to his second cousin once removed, Princess Alice of Albany, daughter of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, thus a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and niece of the soon-to-be Governor General of Canada, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. The two were wed at St. George's Chapel, in Windsor Castle, on 10 February 1904 and, six days in celebration of the wedding, the Prince was promoted to the grade of a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order; the couple thereafter had three children: Princess May of Teck, born 1906. Maurice, lived only for less than six months, between 29 March and 14 September 1910. In the same year Prince Alexander was appointed Chairman of Middlesex Hospital. Prior to the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, Prince Alexander, promoted to major in January 1911 and was a brevet lieutenant-colonel commanding the 2nd Life Guards, was nominated by the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith to serve as Governor General of Canada.
However, the Prince was called up for active service with his regiment, taking him to battle in France and Flanders. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel, with the temporary rank of brigadier-general, in December 1915. At the same time he was serving as the head of the British Mission to the Belgian Army. For his service on the battlefields, in June 1917 Prince Alexander was appointed by his brother in law, King George V, as a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. During the war, anti-German sentiment throughout the British Empire led the King to change the name of the royal house from the Germanic House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the more English House of Windsor, while renouncing all Germanic titles for himself and all members of the Royal Family. Through a royal warrant issued on 14 July 1917, along with his brother, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Teck relinquished all of his German titles and honours, choosing instead the name of Cambridge, after his grandfather, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge.
Alexander was known as Sir Alexander Cambridge, until, on 7 November 1917, the King created him Earl of Athlone and Viscount Trematon. Athlone had declined a marquessate. At
South African Class 16DA 4-6-2 1930
The South African Railways Class 16DA 4-6-2 of 1930 was a steam locomotive. In 1930, the South African Railways placed six redesigned Class 16DA steam locomotives with a 4-6-2 Pacific type wheel arrangement in passenger train service. An order for six locomotives for the South African Railways, similar to the Class 16DA Pacific type locomotives of 1928 and 1929 but built to an improved design, was placed with Henschel and Son of Kassel in Germany in 1930. In an attempt to improve the steaming properties of further orders of Class 16DA locomotives, A. G. Watson, who had succeeded Colonel Collins as CME in 1929, designed a boiler of the Wootten type, it had a wide firebox with a grate area of 60 square feet. Watson was a firm believer in large firegrates with enlarged blast pipe caps to give a reasonably low burning rate of fuel per unit of grate area, which improved boiler efficiency and reduced the emission of sparks and burnt fuel; the boiler itself was of the same dimensions as that of the earlier locomotives in terms of girth and length between tube plates, the only difference being in the tube arrangement.
The enlarged firebox, had a firegrate area, 33⅓% larger than the 45 square feet of the earlier Hohenzollern- and Baldwin-built locomotives. It was of comparable proportions to those which would be installed on the Class 15E and Class 23; this boiler and firebox was installed on these final six Class 16DA locomotives, numbered in the range from 874 to 879, which were built by Henschel and delivered in 1930. Compared to the earlier Hohenzollern- and Baldwin-built locomotives, the steaming ability of the six Henschel-built locomotives was phenomenal and led to the adoption of wide fireboxes without combustion chambers as the standard on all subsequent SAR mainline steam locomotives; the Henschel-built Class 16DA locomotives with their much wider fireboxes, their correspondingly larger grate areas and larger diameter trailing wheels were sufficiently different from the Baldwin- and Hohenzollern-builts to justify a separate classification such as Class 16DB, but this did not happen and the locomotives ended up being known as the Wide Firebox or Boepens Class 16DA.
Five of these locomotives were delivered with Walschaerts valve gear. The last engine, no. 879, was built with Caprotti valve gear for experimental purposes. This rotary poppet valve gear was driven from a single gearbox on the centre of the driving axle; the valve gear was given a fair trial, but was replaced with the standard Walschaerts valve gear in 1940. They were all delivered with 60 inches diameter coupled wheels and with their boiler operating pressure set at 195 pounds per square inch. Four of them were retyred with 63 inches diameter tyres on their coupled wheels. At the same time, their operating boiler pressure was raised to 205 pounds per square inch to not have their tractive effort reduced by the larger coupled wheels; when the larger tyres were fitted, the old tyres were left in position and turned down on the wheel centres to serve as liners and the new tyres were shrunk on over the liners. The practice of increasing the diameter of coupled wheels, wheel spacing and other considerations permitting, was begun by A.
G. Watson was continued by his successors; the reduction of tractive effort caused by the larger wheels was made up by increasing boiler pressures or by fitting larger cylinders or both, as required. This policy resulted in more mileage between heavy repairs, less cost-per-mile on repairs and locomotives capable of higher speeds; the locomotives were placed in service at Kimberley and took over the working of the Union Limited and Union Express between there and Johannesburg from the narrow firebox Class 16DA. They were never stationed at Braamfontein Loco in Johannesburg, but were serviced there in the process of working between Kimberley and Johannesburg, they worked south from Kimberley to Beaufort West. When the Class 16E arrived in 1935, these Class 16DAs remained in service on the express trains in company with the new locomotives which were stationed at Kimberley and worked north to Johannesburg and south to Beaufort West. In 1939-1940, when new air-conditioned rolling stock was placed in service on the Union Limited and Union Express services between Cape Town and Johannesburg, all the Class 16DA and Class 16E locomotives were transferred to Bloemfontein in the Free State.
From here, they continued to work passenger trains north and south, including the Orange Express, the premier passenger train passing through Bloemfontein. During the 1950s the Orange Express was worked exclusively by wide firebox Class 16DA and Class 16E locomotives between Bloemfontein and Kimberley; when the Class 15F replaced them, they were relegated to local passenger train work. The wide firebox Class 16DA were withdrawn from service in 1973. No. 876 was the last of these engines to be kept in working order while being operated as part of the Transnet Heritage Collection and shedded at the Bloemfontein locomotive depot. No. 878 was still serviceable when it was plinthed at the Transnet Rail Engineering shops in Bloemfontein and is in excellent condition, since its location inside the works premises affords protection against South Africa's metal scavengers. During 2012, Atlantic Rail In Cape Town began fundraising efforts with the aim to restore no. 879 to running order. It began steam testing in 2013, which culminated in a test run on the open line with a full load on 6 April 2014.
Named Katie, it is based at Monument Station and is being used on weekend excursion trains to Stellenbosch. The table lists the Class 16DA engine numbers, works numb
Witvlei is a village in Okarukambe Constituency in the Omaheke Region of central-eastern Namibia. It is situated on the B6 150 kilometres from Windhoek on the way to Gobabis, it is known for producing high quality meat. The original name of the village in Khoekhoegowab is ǃUri ǃKhubus; the settlement was the place of the Battle of Witvlei in the First Herero-Nama War in March 1864. Maharero, with the help of the hunter Frederick Green, led a contingent of 1,400 Ovaherero from Otjimbingwe against the Orlam Afrikaners under Jan Jonker Afrikaner. Afrikaner's forces were fled, although a number of other battles followed elsewhere. Witvlei Meat was inaugurated in August 2006 and was for several years the only significant employer and taxpayer in the village; the abattoir has a slaughter capacity of 27,000 cattle annually. Financial problems and arguments with Namibia's biggest meat producer MeatCo over the export quota to Norway led to a closure of the abattoir in 2014, it was set to reopen in 2016 but remains closed as of May 2017.
The Witlvei Street Kids Center was inaugurated in the village in 2001. The regional council donated an empty, un-serviced plot to the project in November 2004, in December 2005 the center was built with money donated by the Suiderhof Dutch Reformed Church congregation and various individuals and companies. Two pre-fabricated houses were transported from Windhoek all the way to Witvlei. Witvlei is governed by a village council; the 2010 local authority election was won by SWAPO. One seat each was won by the Rally for the United Democratic Front. SWAPO gained three seats in the 2015 local authority election. UDF and the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance won one seat each with 72 votes, respectively. Most of the inhabitants of Witvlei are of Damara descent, but there are Ovambo, people from Kavango, a few Himbas, many more inhabitants of mixed ethnicity
Empangeni is a town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is 157 kilometres north of Durban, in hilly countryside, overlooking a flat coastal plain and the major harbour town of Richards Bay 16 kilometres away; the N2 freeway runs east from Empangeni intersecting John Ross Highway which connects Empangeni and Richards Bay. The climate is sub-tropical with an average temperature of 14.5 °C in Winter. The town is said, by local residents, to not have a real winter, as temperatures are very low. Empangeni has five high schools, Empangeni High School, St Catherine's Empangeni, Old Mill High School, Richem Secondary and Felixton College; the town has four primary schools, Grantham Park, Empangeni Preparatory School and Empangeni Christian School, overseen and run by Victory Family Church. The main campus of the University of Zululand lies a short drive to the south and The Owen Sitole College of Agriculture to the north. Empangeni is home to several well-known Christian Churches, such as Christian Family Church, The Redeemed Christian Church of God, Empangeni Methodist Church, AGS Empangeni, Victory Family Church, Full Gospel Church, Lutheran Church, Solid Ground Church, Empangeni Baptist Church, Uniting Reformed Church, the Catholic Church, Holy cross and St Thomas in Felixton.
Empangeni is the birthplace of star tennis player Ian Vermaak, Ruve Robertson, now married to Hollywood actor Neal McDonough, cricketer Kyle Abbott and Bradley G. Patterson, author of The Burden of Jonah Blondel. Empangeni's local news media is covered by The Zululand Observer. Empangeni's local radio is Icora FM. Indonsakusa Community Radio known as ICORA FM is a community radio based at Empangeni, it is registered as a non-profit company. Its structure has 7 board members, management that consists of the Station Manager, Marketing Manager, Human Resource & Admin Manager and Production/ Programs Manager; the idea of forming this radio station was born out of the conviction that the station would stimulate and guide the communities to action. Some programs that are being broadcast are teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, child abuse, drug addictions and social development issued to name a few. In 1851, the Norwegian Missionary Society established a mission station on the banks of the eMpangeni river.
The river was named after the profusion of Mpange trees growing along its banks. The mission was moved to Eshowe, 61 kilometres north-west. In 1894 a magistracy was established; the Zululand Railway linked the area to Durban and Eshowe. The government planted eucalyptus trees in 1905 as part of an experimental timber plantation; the plantation was a success and led to a large scale planting along the coastal belt. In 1906 Empangeni became a village. Rapid expansion began; the establishment of the Empangeni Sugar Mill set the area on the road to rapid development. Empangeni was proclaimed as a township on 15 January 1931 and declared a borough on 13 October 1960. For nearly a year in 1983 and 1984, the town was terrorized by 35-year-old Simon Mpungose, called the "Hammer Man" because he would break into homes in the dead of night and kill the occupants with a hammer before robbing them of their money and jewels. In December 1983, he killed Graham and Margaretha Macaskill, both prison officers, in February the following year he killed Justin and Terri Smith.
When he was brought to trial in November 1984, the court was told that he had attacked many other people during violent robberies a report, lost on Mpungose because he slept through the entire proceedings. Mr. Justice Broome could find no extenuating circumstances, noting that Mpungose covered his hands with socks during the robberies to avoid leaving fingerprints; the fact that the defendant was a psychopath was not a mitigating factor in law. He sentenced him to hang, whereupon Mpungose threw his blue tracksuit into the public gallery and threatened to expose his penis to the court, until he was restrained with handcuffs, he was hanged a year on Friday, November 29th, 1985, in Pretoria. Ngwelezane is a township on the outskirts of Empangeni; the township is home to the Ngwelezane Hospital. Media related to Empangeni at Wikimedia Commons