Football in Israel
Football is the most popular sport in Israel. Football as a sport, first developed in the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. Finally it was admitted to UEFA as a member in 1992 and as a full member in 1994. The Israel Football Association is the body of football in the State of Israel. All of Israels professional football clubs must be members, and hundreds of semi-professional, as of 2013–14, the Israeli football league system has five levels and 16 different divisions, all run by the IFA. Promotion and relegation operates between each level, theoretically allowing clubs to progress from bottom to top four seasons. The State Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English FA Cup and it is a straightforward knock-out cup. The final is played at the Ramat Gan Stadium and the winner qualifies for the UEFA Europa League, the Toto Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English League Cup, the main difference being that there is a separate cup for each of the three national divisions. The cup is played first in a stage, with the highest placed teams qualifying for the knock-out stages. Like the State Cup, the final is played at the National Stadium, clubs who do well in either the Premier League or State Cup qualify to compete in various UEFA-organised Europe-wide competitions in the following season. The number of Israeli clubs playing in Europe in any one season can range four to six. Any clubs playing in the UEFA Champions League that will finish third in the stage will go into the UEFA Europa League round of 32 Israel hosted. Israel qualified for the World Cup in 1970 which was held in Mexico, mordechai Spiegler scored in a 1–1 draw against Sweden. Israels Olympic football team qualified for the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1976 Summer Olympics both times reaching the quarter finals, Israels highest FIFA ranking was 15th in November 2008. During the British Mandate for Palestine, organized football consisted mainly of British and Jewish clubs, although Arab clubs also existed and took part in IFA competitions. As early as 1906, Maccabi Tel Aviv was formed as a club, followed by a string of Maccabi clubs in other cities and towns, such as Jerusalem, Petah Tikva, Haifa, Zikhron Yaakov. On 24 April 1924, Hapoel Haifa was formed, shortly after formation, they joined the World Maccabi Organization
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948, further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. At the wars end the British and French set up a joint Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in what had been Ottoman Syria, the British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, the land west of the Jordan River, known as Palestine, was under direct British administration until 1948. The land east of the Jordan, a region known as Transjordan, under the rule of the Hashemite family from the Hijaz. The divergent tendencies regarding the nature and purpose of the mandate are visible already in the discussions concerning the name for this new entity. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called Southern Syria in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs, following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920, the administration was replaced by a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner. The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist recent cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920, following the arrival of the British, Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem and its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission was formed in March 1918 and was active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine, on 19 April 1920, elections were held for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community, Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organizations, investors, and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof that the British intended to favor Zionism, when Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist. As Grand Mufti, as well as the influential positions that he held during this period. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council which had created by Samuel in December 1921. The Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds, in addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Israel Football Association
The Israel Football Association, also known as IFA, is the governing body of football in Israel. It organizes a variant of football leagues, cups. The association is based in Ramat Gan, IFA was founded in 1928 as the Palestine Football Association. The Palestine Football Association was founded in July 1928 under the British Mandate, in 1954, the Israel Football Association was admitted to the Asian Football Confederation. In 1974, the Israel Football Association was expelled from the AFC due to pressure from Arab. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. In 1992, the IFA was admitted to UEFA as an associate member, since 1992, Israeli clubs have been playing in the various UEFA club competitions and the Israeli national teams play in UEFA championships. In 1979, Yosef Yekutieli, the founder of the IFA, was awarded the Israel Prize for dedicating his life to promoting and laying the foundation of Israeli sports. Football in Israel List of football stadiums in Israel Sport in Israel Official website Israel at FIFA site Israel at UEFA site
Palestine Police Force
The Egyptian Expeditionary Force had won the decisive Battle of Gaza in November 1917 under the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of Palestine, Edmund Allenby. Following a decisive British victory at the Battle of Megiddo, the Ottoman Empire formally surrendered on 30 October 1918, headquarters of the police in Jerusalem were initially set up in the Russian Compound, along Jaffa Road, where assistant provost marshal was assisted by the British Military Police. Initially Palestine was administered in the district of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. The Palestine Police was founded with the establishment in July 1920 of the administration of the British Mandate under high commissioner Herbert Samuel. The first police commander was Lieutenant Colonel P. B, Bramley, OBE, with the title of Director of Public Security and with the rank of Commandant of Police and Prisons. Legislative authority was granted eight months after-the-fact with Police Ordinance 1921, by 1928 the Force had 2,143 officers,321 Jews,1293 Muslim Arabs and 471 Christian Arabs. It was a confidential document which it was considered impossible to publish at the time. Each colony was provided with a telephone and the network was improved to give the Police greater mobility. The Colonial Office wanted Charles Tegart to become Inspector-General of the Force in 1937 and he refused but joined Sir David Petrie in visiting the territory to advise on dealing with Arab guerrillas. Tegart forts are a style of militarized police fortress constructed throughout Palestine during the British mandate, the forts are named after British police officer and engineer Sir Charles Tegart, who designed them in 1938 based on his experiences in the Indian insurgency. Many of them stand to this day, and some continue to be used as jails, on 27 May,1942 the Police became a military force eligible to be deployed on military operations inside Palestine and in Syria and Iraq. In 1944 the Police Mobile Force was created as a fully militarized strike force, established with 800 British servicemen, who had been on active wartime service in Italy, North Africa and Britain, the PMF was organized, trained and equipped along military lines. Members wore battle dress and were trained in a training depot based in Jenin. By the time of the 1947 UN Partition Plan the British members of the Force alone numbered 4,000. The British mandate over Palestine was due to expire on 15 May 1948, members of the Palestine Police Force withdrew with the remainder of the British Forces in Palestine. However, the influence of the Palestine Police reached its peak after the force was disbanded on 15 May as around 1,400 policeman obtained postings elsewhere. In particular, a Special Constabulary of 500 former Palestine Police was established in Malaya after the state of emergency was declared in June 1948, officers who served in Malaya also transferred to colonial police forces in Kenya), Hong Kong and Tanganyika. Percy Bramley, Commandant of Police, July 1920 - March,1923, arthur Mavrogordato, Commandant of Police, March 1923 - July,1931
Tel Aviv derby
The Tel Aviv derby refers to football matches between Maccabi Tel Aviv and Hapoel Tel Aviv. Maccabi Tel Aviv was established in 1906, while Hapoel Tel Aviv was founded in 1923, between them, the clubs had together won 33 championships and 37 national cups. The first league encounter between the teams was played on 19 December 1931, and the points were shared with a result of 1–1. Prior to the independence, the clubs have met 17 times in the league, out of which Hapoel won 9, post 1948, Maccabi holds the lead with 48 league victories, opposite 46 Hapoel wins and 52 draws. Overall, since 1931, Hapoel has 55 league victories, Maccabi has 53 and 55 matches ended with a draw, the two clubs met 8 times at the Israeli State Cup final, most recently at the 1994–95 Israel State Cup Final. The clubs also met in other competitive tournaments, such as the Toto Cup. The rivalry between the background of the Hapoel and Maccabi sports associations led to the development of the rivalry between the clubs. The two clubs have different support bases, Hapoel are linked to the working-class, whilst Maccabi are considered a middle class club. As of 2014, Both clubs currently play at the Bloomfield Stadium in Jaffa, when Hapoel Tel Aviv are the home team in the derby sections 10–11, are reserved for fans of Maccabi. When Maccabi Tel Aviv are the team, sections 4–5 are reserved for fans of Hapoel. A3 November 2014 match was cancelled after numerous fans ran onto the pitch and began fighting with players, Hapoel manager called it a black day for Israeli football
The Haifa derby is the name given to the football matches between Hapoel Haifa and Maccabi Haifa. As with any major football rivalry, gloating and banter between the two sets of fans is commonplace and this rivalry between those two club has a long history, just like the clubs themselves. Hapoel Haifa was associated with the Israeli Labor Party and a socialist point of view, in recent years these political differences have almost completely disappeared due to Maccabi becoming big club by winning twelve titles since 1984 compared with Hapoels solidarity title won in 1999. This can be evidenced by Hapoels opening fixture at Sammy Ofer Stadium attracting 3,500 fans while Maccabis inaugural fixture was a full capacity 30,000. On June 18,1949 the first game was held between the two clubs, Hapoel beat Maccabi 2–0, since 1955 almost all the derbies took place in the municipal stadium – Kiryat Eliezer Stadium. The first game in that stadium ended with Maccabi winning 4–1, in 1967 was the first derby in Kiryat Haim Stadium. The aggregate score between the two teams is 148–98 to Maccabi Haifa, the two clubs have met 15 times in the State Cup. Maccabi have won 10 games, and Hapoel have won 3. Two games ended with a penalty kick, once in 2000 when Maccabi won and managed to get the final ticket. The teams have met twice in the final, in 1963, Hapoel Haifa won with a third minute goal from Simha Oren, and in 1995 Maccabi won 2–0 with goals from Moshe Glam and Ofer Shitrit. As of 21 December 2014 The Haifa derby matches
Tel Aviv-Yafo is a major city in Israel, located on the countrys Mediterranean coastline. It is the center and the technology hub of Israel, with a population of 432,892. Tel Aviv is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel, Tel Aviv is also a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron Huldai, Tel Aviv is a global city, and is the thirty eighth most important financial center in the world. Tel Aviv is known to have the third-largest economy of any city in the Middle East after Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City, the city receives over a million international visitors annually. Known as The City that Never Sleeps and a party capital, it has a lively nightlife, the city was founded in 1909 by Jewish immigrants on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa. It is named after the Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzls 1902 novel, Altneuland, the modern citys first neighbourhoods had already been established in 1886, the first being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffas, Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel. Tel Avivs White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzls Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including Herzliya and it was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for spring, symbolizing renewal, and tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a settlement on the sand dunes North of Jaffa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote, In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city. Since 1886, Jewish settlers had founded new neighborhoods outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv, the first was Neve Tzedek, built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche and inhabited primarily by Mizrahi Jews. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Achva, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa. The Second Aliyah led to further expansion, in 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society. The societys goal was to form a Hebrew urban centre in an environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Haifa, is the third-largest city in the State of Israel, with a population of 278,903 in 2015. The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area and it is also home to the Baháí World Centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a destination for Bahai pilgrims. Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the settlement has a history spanning more than 3,000 years, the earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam, a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age. In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center, over the centuries, the city has changed hands, being conquered and ruled by the Phoenicians, Persians, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Ottomans, British, and the Israelis. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haifa Municipality has governed the city, as of 2016, the city is a major seaport located on Israels Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres. It lies about 90 kilometres north of Tel Aviv and is the regional center of northern Israel. According to researcher J. Kis-Lev Haifa is considered a haven for coexistence between Jews and Arabs. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion, are located in Haifa, in addition to the largest k-12 school in Israel, the city plays an important role in Israels economy. It is home to Matam, one of the oldest and largest high-tech parks in the country, Haifa also owns the underground rapid transit system located in Israel. Haifa Bay is a center of industry, petroleum refining. Haifa formerly functioned as the terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan. With locals using it to refer to a tell at the foot of the Carmel Mountains that contains its remains. The name Efa first appears during Roman rule, some time after the end of the 1st century, Haifa is also mentioned more than 100 times in the Talmud, a work central to Judaism. Hefa or Hepha in Eusebius of Caesareas 4th-century work, Onomasticon, is said to be another name for Sycaminus, references to this city end with the Byzantine period. Following the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Haifa was used to refer to a site established on Tel Shikmona upon what were already the ruins of Sycaminon. Haifa is mentioned by the mid-11th-century Persian chronicler Nasir Khusraw, the Crusaders, who captured Haifa briefly in the 12th century, call it Caiphas, and believe its name related to Cephas, the Aramaic name of Simon Peter. Other spellings in English have included Caipha, Kaipha, Caiffa, Kaiffa and Khaifa.5 miles to the east. The new village, the nucleus of modern Haifa, was first called al-imara al-jadida by some, but others residing there called it Haifa al-Jadida at first, the ultimate origin of the name Haifa remains unclear
Hapoel Haifa F.C.
Hapoel Haifa Football Club is an Israeli football club located in Haifa. The club won one championship and 3 Israeli cups, the Team is also known as The Sharks. The clubs home since the early 1990s is the Kiryat Eliezer Stadium in Haifa, in which they have played since their departure from Kiryat Haim Stadium, the colours of the teams home kit are red throughout. The away colours are white shirts, and black shorts and socks, the beginning of the club was in a local organization founded in Haifa in 1924. This organization included several related to sports, in addition to branches related to worker movements. Their goal was to found the first ever football club in Palestine. The meeting was led by Yehoshua Sherpstein and Yair Aharony, on May 1,1924, Labor Day, was the first match, in which Hapoel Haifa beat 3–1 the train workers of Haifa. In the first years of the club it played friendly matches against different teams from Palestine, Europe. At the beginning Hapoel Haifa was included under the Maccabi union, two years later the club decided to leave Maccabi, and was among the founders of the new union, Hapoel. In 1928 the Israel Football Association was founded, and formal matches were scheduled, In the first 4 years only cup matches, during these years Hapoel Haifa did not win many trophies, yet it was still one of the leading teams in the country. In 1932 the team qualified to its first cup final, against the British Police, the referee was British, and some of the decisions he made were very controversial. During the match, when the score was 1–0 to Hapoel Haifa, after some decisions that the players of Haifa found very odd and unfair, as a result, Hapoel Haifa was disqualified. That year 5 of Haifas players made it to the Palestine squad, in 1950, after the War of Independence, the Israeli League returned to action, and Haifa finished in the 3rd place, after Maccabi and Hapoel Tel-Aviv. Two years later the cup matches were renewed and these years were direct continuation to the seasons before the state of Israel was established, when the team was one of the leaders, yet did not manage to win any trophies. Hapoel was very weak in the early sixties, the team finished 1962–63 one before last, and was supposed to relegate to the second division. But, due to suspicions about improper matches, the relegations were canceled, at this turning point, many talented young players promoted from the youth team, causing a significant improvement that started the clubs best period. In the same season, 1962–63, the won the Israel State Cup. In all of the seasons the team finished in the top third of the league
Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C.
Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club and part of the Maccabi Tel Aviv sports club. Founded in 1906 as the HaRishon Le Zion-Yafo Association, Maccabi Tel Aviv is the oldest, largest and most decorated club in Israel. With the establishment of the city of Tel Aviv in 1909, in 1922 they became the first Jewish football club to participate in local competitions. Maccabi Tel Aviv have won more titles than any other Israeli club, winning 22 League Championships,23 prestigious State Cups, the club is named after the Maccabees. Maccabi Tel Aviv FC invest a lot of money in the development, the clubs youth system operate football academies at three sites in the Tel Aviv area, working with over 750 children aged 6–15. The club also runs 17 youth teams with 400 players between 9 and 19 years old and these teams tend to compete very successfully in local and national leagues. Durims decided to establish the Palestine League, in the same year the State Cup was founded under the name People Cup. That same year, the first Tel Aviv derby was played, with Maccabi winning, Maccabi won their first State Cup in 1929 after beating Maccabi HaShmonai. Maccabi won the State Cup for a time in 1930, beating the 48th Regiment of Foot 2–1, and a third in 1933. In 1936 the club was invited to play in the United States, on their way, Maccabi played in France, losing, 2–0, to Racing Paris and 3–1 to Lille. In the United States, Maccabi defeated the All-star team of New York City in front of 50,000 in Yankee Stadium. Maccabi also defeated the American Soccer League team in Brooklyn and Philadelphia on their ground, 1–0, and also played in Canada. Maccabi continued their tour in the USA and lost, 3–2, to St. Louis Stars, after returning from the United States, Maccabi players went on strike because they had not been paid. In 1937, after a year of action, the Football Association accepted their demands. In that year, Maccabi Tel Aviv also won their first league title, in 1939, after the start of World War II, Maccabi won their second championship. At the end of the season, Maccabi went to another tour and they played 18 games, winning 11, losing 5 and drawing 2. The games were against State sides, regional sides and five tests against the Australian national team, winning one, drawing one, in 1941 Maccabi won their first double, Winning both the league and State Cup, beating Hapoel Tel Aviv, 2–1, in the final. Between 1941 and 1945 the league was suspended because of the war, in 1946, the league was still suspended but the State Cup returned with Maccabi beating Hapoel Rishon LeZion, 6–0, on aggregate in the final
Maccabi Petah Tikva F.C.
Maccabi Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. It is part of the Maccabi sports club and currently plays in the Israeli Premier League. In 1921, after the death of founder member Avshalom Gisin during the 1921 Palestine riots, the club added his name to the name. In 1927 the club moved to the Maccabi Petah Tikva Ground, in 1935 they won their first piece of silverware, beating Hakoah Tel Aviv 1–0 in the cup final. In 1939 they reached the final again, but lost 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, the following year they won the Haaretz tournament. The club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949, in the next season they finished as runners-up to champions Maccabi Tel Aviv and also won the State Cup, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0. In 1953–54 they also finished second with Eliezer Spiegel finishing as the top goalscorer on 16 goals from 22 matches. After several seasons of mid-table finishes, Maccabi finished bottom of the table in 1962–63 and were due to be relegated to Liga Alef, however, the Israel Football Association decided to expand the league from 12 to 15 clubs and they were spared demotion. However, the club was relegated at the end of the 1965–66 season after finishing second from bottom, after two seasons in Liga Alef the club returned to the top division in 1969. At the end of the 1970–71 season the club was relegated again after finishing second from bottom, although Maccabi finished bottom in 1974–75, they were again reprieved from relegation due to league expansion. However, after a performance in 1976–77 they did go down. After making another return to the top flight, the club maintained several mid-table finishes. In 1990 and 1991 the club won the Liga Artzit Toto Cup and they returned to the top division in 1991 and have remained there since. In 1995 the club won the top divisions Toto Cup for the first time, in 2001 the club reached the cup final for the first time in 49 years, losing 3–0 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 2003–04 they finished third, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, however, the home leg of their third qualifying round tie against SC Heerenveen was cancelled by UEFA due to a baggage handlers strike, and they lost the away leg 5–0. In 2004–05 the club finished second in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup again and this time they were more successful, beating Macedonian side FK Baskimi 11–0 on aggregate, before knocking out Partizan Belgrade. However, in the stage they finished bottom having lost all four matches. As of 1 February 201604 – Morad Megamadov, Center back, the club played at the Maccabi Petah Tikva ground between 1926 and the 1970s
Maccabi Haifa F.C.
Maccabi Haifa Football Club is an Israeli professional football club, based in City of Haifa, a section of Maccabi Haifa sports club. The club plays in the Israeli Premier League, Maccabi Haifa home games are played at Sammy Ofer Stadium. The stadium, which is shared with rivals Hapoel Haifa, is the second largest in Israel football, Maccabi Haifa is one of four clubs in the Big Four in Israeli football. It has won twelve League titles, Six State Cups and four Toto Cups, Maccabi has won the championship and the cup in the same season one time, and was the First Israeli club to qualify for the group stage of the UEFA Champions League. Maccabi Haifa Football Club was established in 1913 in the city of Haifa. It was a small, struggling club that spent most of its time shifting between Liga Leumit and the lower leagues, the club was overshadowed by its city rival Hapoel Haifa. But even in its first years the club adapted a very adventurous and offensive style of play based on technique, in 1942, the club reached the Israel State Cup final, but was defeated 12–1 by Beitar Tel Aviv in the final. In 1962, the team defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 5–2 in the State Cup final, in 1963 it reached the final again, but lost to Hapoel Haifa 1–0 in the first Haifa derby in State Cup final. In the 1980s Maccabi Haifa finally entered the Israeli champions club, in the 1983–84 season Maccabi Haifa won its first ever championship, under coach Shlomo Sharf and general manager Yochanan Vollach, overcoming Beitar Jerusalem and Hapoel Tel Aviv. The Yerukim were known for their all-around-offense and flashy technique football style, often resulting in bad defensive formation, a year later, Maccabi Haifa won a second championship in a decisive performance. In 1986 Maccabi lost the championship in a final match against runners-up Hapoel Tel Aviv. Due to poor TV coverage, the issue has never been resolved, in 1988, Maccabi Haifa decimated Maccabi Tel Aviv 10–0 to earn its biggest win ever. That game, one of the famous in Israelis football lore. Furthermore, it probably was the beginning of the rivalry between the two clubs. In 1989, under the hands of Amazzia Levkovic, the club won another championship. In 1990 Maccabi Haifa established itself as a dominant club in Israel, in 1992 Maccabi Haifa was purchased by Yaakov Shahar, who became the owner and president of the club. Under Shahars management, Maccabi Haifa enjoyed financial stability and professional working regulations on a par with European football clubs standards, Maccabi Haifas highlight season was 1993–94. After winning the 1993 cup, Maccabi Haifa gave a performance in the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, beating Torpedo Moscow 3–1 and Parma 1–0 in the last 16
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club is an Israeli football club in Liga Leumit. Hapoel plays at Teddy Stadium in Malha, Jerusalem, Hapoel Jerusalem Club was established in 1926 and played in the inaugural season of the EIFA league, playing the leagues first match against local rivals Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem. The club played in the league for its first three seasons, however, the club was restricted to playing mainly in the Jerusalem area due to travelling difficulties. The club participated occasionally in the Palestine Cup, reaching the cup final in 1943, after the establishment of Israel, the club registered to play in the makeshift second tier league, Liga Meuhedet, in the Jerusalem-Central division, which the club won. The club continued to play in the division, until it was promoted to the top division at the end of the 1956–57 season. Following the promotion, the club stayed in the top division for 21 seasons, achieving its best position, 3rd, in 1971–72 the club reached the State Cup final, losing to Hapoel Tel Aviv 0–1. A season later, the reached the cup final again. The club was relegated to the division in 1979. The club continued to yo-yo between the two top divisions in the seasons, playing his last season at the top division in 1999–2000. In 1998, the club reached its fourth cup final, in the early 1990s, the club was transferred to businessmen Yossi Sassi and Victor Yona. The two ran the team together until falling out, leading to a business and legal dispute which lasted until 2009. The fan-based club was established in 2009 and progressed to the Liga Leumit in 2013–14, the club currently plays in second tier Liga Leumit, to which it promoted from Liga Alef in 2010–11. Katamon Stadium was razed in 1982, with the intention to build a modern stadium in its place. The new stadium in Katamon was never built, and instead Teddy Stadium was built in the Malha neighborhood, during the early years, support of the club came mostly from the labour organizations in Israel. City rivals Beitar were identified with the right-wing nationalist organizations, all this played out to create the Jerusalem derby. To this day the rivalry exists, though it is not nearly as heated as both clubs played in the top division of Israeli football. In 2007 a large majority of fans, unhappy with the management of the club, as to 11 February 2017 Club website Hapoel Jerusalem Israel Football Association
A walkover or W. O. is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can apply to elections. The word is used generally by extension, particularly in politics. The strict and extended meanings of walkover as a word are both found from 1829. The word originates from horseracing in the United Kingdom, where an entrant in a race run under Jockey Club rules has at least to walk over the course before being awarded victory. This outcome was quite common at a time there was no guaranteed prize money for horses finishing second or third so there was no incentive to run a horse in a race it could not win. The term is used in tennis, in reference to a players unopposed victory as a result of the opponents failing to start the match for any reason. The only Olympic Games walkover for a medal was at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The only time it has happened at the FIFA World Cup was in the 1938 edition, after the England team declined to take Austrias entry, FIFA gave Sweden a walkover. A walkover is usually the sign of a strong mandate or unanimous support. It can, however, be interpreted by critics of the faction the walkover is awarded to as a sign of electoral fraud or gerrymandering to prevent other candidates from participating. The circumstances of such an interpretation are usually controversial, walkovers can thus often be a sign of an illiberal democracy. Many liberal democracies in history, including the United States, have had uncontested elections because support for one candidate was so strong. In the 1820 election, James Monroe also ran unopposed, though New Hampshire elector William Plumer cast a vote for John Quincy Adams as a symbolic measure, walkovers are called acclamation in Canada. Other multi-party systems that have held uncontested presidential elections include Germany, Singapore, Ireland, Algeria, Iceland, running without opponents is not always a guarantee of winning. Many elections require that the winner has not only the most votes of all candidates but a fraction of all votes cast. In this case electors may be able to cast a vote or none of the above vote, spoil their papers. In such cases, the members of the body usually appoint someone to the vacant seat
1932 Maccabiah Games
The 1st Maccabiah was the first edition of the Maccabiah, which was held in Mandatory Palestine from March 28 to April 2,1932. The games were in commemoration of the 1800th anniversary of the Bar Kokhba revolt, despite many obstacles and setbacks, the first Maccabiah was regarded as a great success. The 1st Maccabiah was the result of almost two decades of attempt by Yosef Yekutieli to allow Jews in Eretz Yisrael to participate in athletic competitions. It wasnt until the Maccabi World Congress in 1929 that his proposal was accepted, the games officially opened on March 28,1932. Due to severe lack of funds, the construction of the Maccabiah Stadium did not start until a few weeks prior to the opening ceremony. The land of the stadium was allocated by the British Government which loaned it to Maccabi, the stadium was completed on the night before the opening ceremony. Hosts also helped out by taking their guests to their events,1, 000s flowed to the Maccabiah, many via cars, bikes, and on foot. Many of the spectators came wearing white suits and blue hats - as one of the largest Zionist events in history, a large ball was held in Beit Haam on Ben Yehuda Street in Tel Aviv. 390 athletes from 27 countries participated in the first Maccabiah, the municipality of Tel Aviv decorated the streets with greenery and flowers. The city was coated with blue and white banners of the Maccabiah, the parade started off with the participants at the Herzliya Gymnasium marching toward the stadium north of the city. At the stadium, they were greeted by the High Commissioner Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope, the parade was led by a convoy of horse riders, including Avraham Shapira. Among those riders was Tel Avivs mayor, Meir Dizengoff, who rode on a white horse. 20,000 spectators were at the opening ceremony, the Maccabiah became known as the White Horse Olympics due to him. Following the parade of nations, a display of athletics took place with over 2,500 athletes taking part. 120 white pigeons were released - each ten representing one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, events in the first Maccabiah included, The first Maccabiah hosted a large number of competitions despite the large of venues and equipments. In 1932 Tel Aviv still did not have any swimming pools, the swimming competitions, spectators watched the swimming competitions from floating rafts on the water. There was no serviceable gymnastic hall, competitions were held on a platform in Rina Garden located on Shalom Aleichem Street in Tel Aviv. The 5,000 and 10,000 meter races took place on the streets of Tel Aviv - a race took place on mostly unpaved
Maccabi World Union
The Maccabi World Union is an international Jewish sports organisation spanning 5 continents and more than 50 countries, with some 400,000 members. Maccabi World Union organises the Maccabiah Games, a prominent international Jewish athletics event, the movement is named after the Maccabees who were a Jewish national liberation movement that fought for and won independence from Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Ironically, at the time the Maccabees were staunchly opposed to athletic competitions, athletic competitions held in Jerusalem under the Seleucid rule were terminated once the Maccabees took over the city. However, the modern Zionists who took up the name were mainly interested in the Maccabees as militant Jewish heroes whose example Zionism sought to emulate, the Maccabi World Union was created at the 12th World Jewish Congress in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia in 1921. It was then decided by the secretariat of Jewish sport leaders to form one organization for all Jewish sports associations. In 1960, the International Olympic Committee officially recognized the Maccabi World Union as an Organization of Olympic Standing, as early as the 19th century, Jewish sports clubs were founded in Eastern and Central Europe. Two years later, haGibor was formed in Philipopolis, Bulgaria, other clubs that followed were named after “Bar Kochba” or Hebrew names such as “Hakoah” or “Hagibor” that symbolized strength and heroism. One of the premises behind the founding of these clubs was Jewish Nationalism. This political opposition exacerbated their athletic rivalry between fans and players, to the point that matches between the two teams were referred to as a Holy War. In 1906, the first Jewish gymnastics club was formed in Palestine, clubs later would spring up in other cities. By 1912, all of them joined the Maccabi Federation of Israel and that same year, the first relations were established between them and their European counterparts, when a decision was taken at the Maccabi Conference in Berlin to begin group trips to Palestine. Maccabi GB is a member of the English National Council for Voluntary Youth Services because of its work promoting the personal and social development of young people. S, Maccabi Canada Maccabi European Maccabi Confederation Maccabi Hungary Maccabi Australia Maccabi Italia Maccabi GB Makkabi Germany Maccabi France Maccabi Warsaw
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index. Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Israel national football team
The Israel national football team is the national football team of Israel, governed by the Israel Football Association. Israels national team is the successor of the Mandatory Palestine/Eretz Israel national team. The Israeli side qualified for their only FIFA World Cup to date in 1970, Israel also hosted and won the AFC Asian Cup in 1964, and was finalist in 1956 and in 1960. Football has a tradition in Israel. The game was introduced during the time of the Ottoman Empire. The British Mandate of Palestine national team made its debut against Egypt in 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, the team played five international matches, including a friendly match against Lebanon, until the British Mandate for Palestine was dissolved. Upon the creation of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Israel national teams first match as an independent nation was on 26 September 1948, against the USA Olympic Team. The game was won by the USA 1–3, and in the 20th minute of the game Shmuel Ben-Dror scored the first goal after the creation of the State of Israel, Israel competed in the Asian Football Confederation between 1954 and 1974. Due to the Arab–Israeli conflict, several Muslim states refused to compete against Israel, Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. In 1968, Israel went to their first Olympic Games and lost to Bulgaria in the quarterfinals. In 1969, Israel qualified for its first and only FIFA World Cup, via Asia/Oceania, in 1976, Israel went to its second Olympic Games and lost in the quarterfinals again, this time against Brazil. In 1972 and 1977, it attempted World Cup qualification as part of Asia, in 1974, Israel was excluded from AFC competitions, as a result of a proposal by Kuwait which was adopted by a vote of 17 to 13 with 6 abstentions. The vote coincided with the 1974 Asian Games, where the competition was marred by the refusal of both North Korea and Kuwait to play second-round matches against Israel. During the 1980s, it played the majority of its matches against European teams, for the next two tournaments, it entered Oceanias qualification stage. In 1989, Israel made it to the CONMEBOL–OFC play-offs for the 1990 World Cup to play against Colombia, which qualified from the South American group, but lost. In 1991, Israeli clubs began participating in European club competitions, in 1994, Israel received full UEFA membership,20 years after it had left Asia. Within Europe, Israel has been a minor nation, though with some successes, notably winning 3–2 in Paris against France in 1993. That year, Israel made it to the playoffs of UEFA Euro 2000, the Swiss had a better goal difference, though, and advanced to the qualification play-off