Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California Trojans football team, the facility has a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference. For Rams games, capacity is at 80,000, giving it the fourth-largest capacity in the NFL, the stadium is located in Exposition Park and across the street from USC. From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum, the Coliseum is the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1932 and 1984 and has been proposed to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The stadium was the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3,4. It was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game, called Super Bowl I, additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, and UCLA Bruins football.
It was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27,1984, under the lease the University has day-to-day management and operation responsibility for both the Coliseum and Sports Arena. The 98-year lease took effect on July 29,2013, and was signed by the parties on September 5,2013. The Coliseum is now primarily the home of the USC Trojans football team, Most of USCs regular home games, especially the alternating games with rivals UCLA and Notre Dame, attract a capacity crowd. The current official capacity of the Coliseum is 93,607, USCs women lacrosse and soccer teams use the Coliseum for selected games, usually involving major opponents and televised games. USC rents the Coliseum to various events, including soccer games, musical concerts. The Olympic Cauldron was built for the stadiums two Olympic Games and it is still lit during the fourth quarter of USC football games, and other special occasions. It was lit to honor the fallen Israeli Athletes from the 1972 Munich Olympics Games and it was lit for several days following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986.
The torch was lit for over a following the September 11 attacks in 2001. In 2004, the cauldron was lit non-stop for seven days in tribute to president Ronald Reagan and it was lit again in April 2005 following the death of Pope John Paul II, who had celebrated Mass at the Coliseum during his visit to Los Angeles in 1987. At the Los Angeles Dodgers 50th anniversary game on March 29,2008, charity ceremony, while Neil Diamonds Heartlight was played and the majority of the attendees turned on their complimentary souvenir keychain flashlights. It was lit for the duration of Special Olympics World Games held in Los Angeles from July 25,2015 to August 2,2015, the cauldron was most recently lit for the returning Los Angeles Rams first home game on September 18,2016 against the Seattle Seahawks. The Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I, the official ground breaking ceremony took place on December 21,1921 with work being completed in just over 16 months, on May 1,1923
Spokane is a city in the state of Washington, in the northwestern United States. It is the seat of Spokane County, and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Greater Spokane Area, the city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport,5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second largest city in Washington and the 102nd largest city in the United States. The first humans to live in the area, the Spokane people, known as the birthplace of Fathers Day, Spokane is officially nicknamed the Lilac City. David Thompson explored the area with the expansion and establishment of the North West Companys Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington, completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area, and that same year it was officially incorporated as a city with the name of Spokan Falls.
In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest, the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed Worlds Fair at Expo 74, many of the older Romanesque Revival-style buildings in the downtown area were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889. The city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, and the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes serves as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, and the private Presbyterian Whitworth University opened three years in north Spokane, in sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Indians in Minor League Baseball, Spokane Empire in arena football, as of 2010, Spokanes only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, has a daily circulation of over 76,000.
The first humans to live in the Spokane area arrived between 13,000 and 8,000 years ago and were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful game. The Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, when asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from up North. Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur. These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, the explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Companys Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs, after establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west.
He sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River in Washington and trade with the local Indians
Little Brown Stein
The Little Brown Stein is a rivalry trophy awarded to the winner of the college football game between the University of Idaho Vandals and University of Montana Grizzlies. The trophy is, as the name implies, a large mug with the results of all the games between the two painted on. The game was last played 14 years ago in 2003, the series is set to resume in 2018, when Idaho rejoins the Big Sky for football. Idaho and Montana first played 114 years ago in 1903 and have played 84 times, Idaho has dominated the overall series, which includes two Division I-AA playoff wins at home in the 1980s. Montana has had the hand since 1991, winning eight of the last ten. Since Idaho moved back up to Division I-A in 1996, the teams have met five times, the schools were the only public universities in their respective states for decades, and are about 200 miles apart. Moscow and Missoula are on sides of the lower Idaho Panhandle. Both were members of the old Pacific Coast Conference, Montana departed after the 1950 season, the universities were charter members of the Big Sky Conference in 1963, and their final season as conference opponents was in 1995.
After the 2000 season, the Big West dropped football, Idaho became a football-only member of the Sun Belt Conference in 2001 while remaining a full Big West member. Idaho joined the WAC for all sports in 2005 as part of a major NCAA conference realignment, after the WAC experienced a near-complete membership turnover in the early 2010s, it dropped football after the 2012 season. Idaho football was an FBS independent for one season in 2013, Idaho returned to the Big Sky in 2014 except for football, which rejoined the Sun Belt. Idaho will drop back to FCS in 2018 and resume football membership in the Big Sky
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Carroll Fighting Saints football
The Carroll Fighting Saint football program represents Carroll College of Helena, Montana in college football. The team competes in the Frontier Conference, which is affiliated with the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the Carroll Fighting Saints football team began playing in 1920 and is one of the most successful programs in the NAIA division of college football. The program has won six NAIA Football National Championships and 40 conference championships,14 while a member of the Montana Collegiate Conference and 26 as a member of the Frontier Conference. The team is coached by Mike Van Diest who in his 17th season at Carroll, has compiled a career record of 194–36. The Carroll College Fighting Saints plays their games on campus at Nelson Stadium. Brandon Day, a linebacker on the team in 2007, made the December 24,2007 cover of Sports Illustrated, the team is currently coached by Mike Van Diest and plays its home game on campus at Nelson Stadium
Bunny Oakes was an American football player and coach. Oakes was born September 15,1898 in Fort Wayne, Oakes grew up in the Chicago area and played high school football at Proviso High School in Maywood, Illinois. Oakes enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1917, and he saw combat action with the 5th Marines in a number of major engagements and was wounded on October 4,1918. Staying with his following the armistice, Oakes played football with the championship 2nd Battalion. Following the war, Oakes enrolled at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, as a senior at Illinois in 1923, he played on the national championship-winning Fighting Illini football team and participated in the first game at the Memorial Stadium in Champaign, Illinois. Following graduation from Illinois, Oakes was named the line coach at the University of Tennessee under head coach M. B. Banks. In 1926, Oakes was named the coach at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln under Ernest Bearg. Oakess first head coaching assignment came in 1931 when he was named as the football coach at the University of Montana.
During his tenure at Montana, Oakes wrote and had published his book, the book quickly became an important text for coaches and players throughout the country. It was during this period in his career that he received several patents for football blocking equipment. His dummies were the earliest mobile blocking equipment available to schools, in 1934, Oakes was named the head football coach at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His teams at Colorado won Rocky Mountain Conference titles during the 1935 and 1937 seasons, the 1939 Colorado team placed first in the Mountain States Conference. Oakess record for the five years at Colorado was 25–15–1 with a mark of 24–6–1. Oakes returned to the University of Illinois in 1940, where he earned a Master of Science degree, in April 1941, Oakes took over as the head football coach at the University of Wyoming. With the onset of World War II, intercollegiate athletics were suspended in 1943 and Oakes concentrated on training of Army. Following the war, Oakes resumed his position as coach for the 1946 season.
Oakes completed his collegiate coaching career at Grinnell College in Grinnell. Assuming duties as head coach and athletic director at Grinnell in 1947
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
Butte /ˈbjuːt/ is a city in, and the county seat of Silver Bow County, United States. In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the entity of Butte-Silver Bow. As of the 2010 census, Buttes population was approximately 34,200, Butte is Montanas fifth largest city. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Butte experienced every stage of development of a town, from camp to boomtown to mature city to center for historic preservation. Unlike most such towns, Buttes urban landscape includes mining operations set within residential areas, despite the dominance of the Anaconda Company, Butte was never a company town. It prided itself on architectural diversity and an ethos of rough-and-tumble individualism. In the 21st century, efforts at interpreting and preserving Buttes heritage are addressing both the historical significance and the continuing importance of mining to its economy and culture. Butte was one of the largest cities in the Rocky Mountains in the late 1800s, Silver Bow County had 24,000 people in 1890, and peaked at 100,000 in 1920.
The population steadily declined with falling copper prices after World War I, eventually dropping to 34,000 in 1990, in 2013, the population remains at 34,200. The documentary Butte, depicts its history as a producer and the issues of labor unionism, economic rise and decline. The city is served by Bert Mooney Airport with airport code BTM, Butte began as a mining town in the late 19th century in the Silver Bow Creek Valley, a natural bowl sitting high in the Rockies straddling the Continental Divide. At first only gold and silver were mined in the area, but the advent of electricity caused a demand for copper. The small town was called the Richest Hill on Earth. It was the largest city for hundreds of miles in all directions. Among the migrants, many Chinese workers moved in, and amongst them set up businesses that led to the creation of a Chinatown in Butte, the Chinese migrations stopped in 1882 with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The business owners fought back by suing the unions and winning, the history of the Chinese migrants in Butte is documented in the Mai Wah Museum.
The influx of miners gave Butte a reputation as a town where any vice was obtainable. The citys famous saloon and red-light district, called the Line or The Copper Block, was centered on Mercury Street, behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called cribs