1896 United States presidential election in California
The 1896 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1896 United States presidential election. California narrowly voted for the Republican nominee, Ohio Governor William McKinley, over the Democratic nominee, former Nebraska representative William Jennings Bryan. One elector cast a vote for Bryan
John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner IIII, known among his contemporaries as "Cactus Jack", was an American Democratic politician and lawyer from Texas. He was the 32nd vice president of the United States, serving from 1933 to 1941, he was the 39th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1931 to 1933. Along with Schuyler Colfax, Garner is one of only two individuals to serve as Vice President of the United States and Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. Garner began his political career as the county judge of Texas, he served in the Texas House of Representatives from 1898 to 1902 and won election to represent Texas in the United States House of Representatives in 1902. He represented Texas's 15th congressional district from 1903 to 1933. Garner served as House Minority Leader from 1929 to 1931, was elevated to Speaker of the House when Democrats won control of the House following the 1930 elections. Garner sought the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1932 presidential election, but he agreed to serve as Franklin D. Roosevelt's running mate at the 1932 Democratic National Convention.
Roosevelt and Garner won the 1932 election and were re-elected in 1936. A conservative Southerner, Garner opposed the sit-down strikes of the labor unions and the New Deal's deficit spending, he broke with Roosevelt in early 1937 over the issue of enlarging the Supreme Court, helped defeat it on the grounds that it centralized too much power in the President's hands. Garner again sought the presidency in the 1940 presidential election, but Roosevelt won the party's presidential nomination at the 1940 Democratic National Convention. Garner was replaced as Vice President by Henry A. Wallace and retired from public office in 1941. Garner was born on November 22, 1868, in a log cabin near Detroit in Red River County to John Nance Garner III and his wife, Sarah Guest Garner; the mud-chinked log cabin that Garner was born in no longer exists but the house that he grew up in survives and is located at 260 South Main Street in Detroit, Texas. It is a large, two-story house. Garner attended Vanderbilt University in Nashville, for one semester before dropping out and returning home.
He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1890, began practice in Uvalde, Uvalde County, Texas. In 1893, Garner entered politics. At that time, Democrats dominated politics in Texas, Garner's winning of the Democratic nomination rendered his election all but inevitable. Garner was opposed in the county judge primary by a woman -- a rancher's daughter. Two years on November 25, 1895, she married Garner in Sabinal, Texas, they had a son, Tully Charles Garner. Garner was elected county judge and served until 1896. Garner was elected to the Texas House of Representatives in 1898, re-elected in 1900. During his service, the legislature selected a state flower for Texas. Garner fervently supported the prickly pear cactus for the honor, thus earned the nickname "Cactus Jack". In 1901 Garner voted for the poll tax, a measure passed by the Democratic-dominated legislature to make voter registration more difficult and reduce the number of black and poor white voters on the voting rolls; this disfranchised most minority voters until the 1960s, ended challenges to Democratic power.
In 1902, Garner was elected to the United States House of Representatives from the newly created 15th congressional district, a narrow strip reaching south to include tens of thousands of square miles of rural areas. He was elected from the district 14 subsequent times, serving until 1933, his wife was worked as his private secretary during this period. Garner was chosen to serve as minority floor leader for the Democrats in 1929, in 1931 as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, when the Democrats became the majority. Garner supported passage of the federal income tax but opposed most tariffs except for those on wool and mohair, which were important to his Texas base, he believed in rural investment, bringing taxpayer dollars to farmers of the Brush Country region of South Texas. Garner was popular with his fellow House members in both parties, he held what he called his "board of education" during the era of Prohibition, a gathering spot for lawmakers to drink alcohol, or as Garner called it, "strike a blow for liberty."
In 1932, Garner ran for the Democratic presidential nomination. It became evident that Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Governor of New York, was the strongest of several candidates, but although he had a solid majority of convention delegates, he was about 100 votes short of the two-thirds required for nomination. Garner cut a deal with Roosevelt. Garner was re-elected to the 73rd Congress on November 8, 1932, on the same day was elected Vice President of the United States, he was the second man, Schuyler Colfax being the first, to serve as both Speaker of the House and President of the Senate. Garner was re-elected Vice President with Roosevelt in 1936, serving in that office in total from March 4, 1933, to January 20, 1941. Like most vice presidents in this era, Garner had little to do and little influence on the president's policies, he famously described the vice presidency a
1964 United States presidential election in California
In the 1964 United States presidential election, the state of California voted for the incumbent Democratic President, Lyndon B. Johnson, in a landslide over the Republican nominee, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona; as Johnson won nationally in a massive landslide, taking 61.05 percent of the vote nationwide, dominating many Northeastern and Midwestern states by record landslide margins, California weighed in as about 4 percent more Republican than the national average in the 1964 election. Johnson dominated in more liberal Northern California, breaking 60% in many counties and breaking 70% in Plumas County and the city of San Francisco. However, the Western conservative Goldwater, from neighboring Arizona, did hold some appeal in more conservative Southern California, where Johnson failed to break his nationwide vote average in a single county. Goldwater indeed won six congressional districts in suburban areas of Los Angeles and San Diego counties, carried two populated Southern California counties outright: Orange County and San Diego County, thus holding Johnson below the 60% mark statewide.
Although California has become a Democratic state in recent elections, this was the only presidential election between 1952 and 1988 where the state was carried by a Democrat. Johnson is the last Democrat to carry the counties of Calaveras, Glenn, Kern and Tulare, the last to win the majority of the vote in Butte, El Dorado, Mariposa and Tuolumne counties, although one or more of Hubert Humphrey, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton have won a plurality in those counties; this was the last election in which California did not register the most votes cast by state
1864 United States presidential election in California
In the 1864 United States presidential election, California voted for the Republican incumbent, Abraham Lincoln, over the Democratic challenger, Union Army Major General George B. McClellan
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
1852 United States presidential election in California
In the 1852 United States presidential election, its first election after becoming a state in 1850, California voted for the Democratic nominee, New Hampshire Senator Franklin Pierce, over the Whig nominee, United States Army general Winfield Scott