James R. Ludlow Lud Wray was a professional American football player, and co-founder, with college teammate Bert Bell, of the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League. He was the first coach of the Boston Braves in 1932 and of the Eagles and his career coaching record was 13–25–3. Wray played his football at the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned All-American honors. He played the position of center for the Buffalo Niagaras, Buffalo Prospects, in 1920 and 1921, Buffalo was a member of the National Football League
St. Louis Gunners
They won their first game against the Pittsburgh Pirates 6–0, but lost the last two to the Detroit Lions and the Green Bay Packers. Six of the Reds players joined the team for the last two games, the team was headquartered at the St. Louis National Guard Armory, which accounts for its nickname the Gunners. In 1931, the 128th Field Artillery of the Missouri National Guard, the club was originally called the Batter A Gunners from its association with the Guard. Future Hall-of-Famer Jimmy Conzelman, was named the teams first head coach, Bud Yates was named the teams general manager. The Gunners posted a 5–2–1 record in 1931, however they lost to the NFLs Chicago Cardinals, 26–6. After the game, Cardinals captain, Ernie Nevers, called the Gunners the best independent club we have ever faced. A game against a second NFL team, the New York Giants, was scheduled but canceled that season, for the teams second season, Bullet Baker was named the teams new coach. While most of the core of the team was kept intact, Yates left the team for the season, for a position with the cross-town St.
Louis Veterans. The 1932 Gunners posted a 7–4–1 record, the team was able to play its rival, the Memphis Tigers, to a standoff in three games, St. Louis winning 6–0, Memphis winning 12–0, and the third game ending in a scoreless tie. Later that year, the Tigers and the Oklahoma City Chiefs each laid some claim to a mythical independent championship, two of the teams losses that season came against NFL caliber opponents, the Cardinals, 20–7, and the Portsmouth Spartans, 12–0. By 1933, the team had been renamed the St. Louis Gunners, most of the ties the team had with the National Guard had been severed. For example, the players were no longer required to stay at the Battery A barracks, Dick Frahm, Babe Lyon, and Charley Malone were signed from the Washington Redskins. The team posted an 11–2–3 record in 1933 and this year, however, it managed to defeat many of the NFL teams it faced. The Gunners defeated the NFLs Brooklyn Dodgers 21–2, and the Chicago Cardinals 28–7, the team held the Chicago Bears to a scoreless tie.
The teams only two NFL losses of the year came against the Green Bay Packers and the Cincinnati Reds, the team had managed to outscore its opponents 297–72. On August 8,1934, before the start of the NFL season, however the Gunners needed the other league owners to approve the sale. Only would the Gunners would be official members, the Gunners declined membership in the minor league American Football League. As a result, the new league decided to form the St. Louis Blues, Gunners GM Bud Yates was credited with founding the team
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. The Bears have won nine NFL Championships and one Super Bowl and hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, the Bears have recorded more victories than any other NFL franchise. The franchise was founded in Decatur, Illinois, in 1919 and it is one of only two remaining franchises from the NFLs founding. The team played games at Wrigley Field on Chicagos North Side through the 1970 season, they now play at Soldier Field on the Near South Side. The Bears have a rivalry with the Green Bay Packers. The team headquarters, Halas Hall, is in the Chicago suburb of Lake Forest, the Bears practice at adjoining facilities there during the season. They hold their training camp from late July to mid-August at Ward Field on the campus of Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois.
Originally named the Decatur Staleys, the club was established by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur and this was the typical start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired George Halas and Edward Dutch Sternaman in 1920 to run the team, the 1920 Decatur Staleys season was their inaugural regular season completed in the newly formed American Professional Football Association. Full control of the team was turned over to Halas and Sternaman in 1921, official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL. The team relocated to Chicago in 1921, where the club was renamed the Chicago Staleys, under an agreement reached by Halas and Sternaman with Staley, Halas purchased the rights to the club from Staley for US$100. In 1922, Halas changed the name from the Staleys to the Bears. The team moved into Wrigley Field, which was home to the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise, as with several early NFL franchises, the Bears derived their nickname from their citys baseball team.
Halas liked the bright colors of his alma mater, the University of Illinois. The Staleys/Bears dominated the league in the early years and their rivalry with the Chicago Cardinals, the oldest in the NFL, was key in four out of the first six league titles. During that span, the Bears posted 34 shutouts, the Bears rivalry with the Green Bay Packers is one of the oldest and most storied in American professional sports, dating back to 1921. The franchise was a success under Halas, capturing the NFL Championship in 1921
Brooklyn Dodgers (NFL)
The Brooklyn Dodgers were an American football team that played in the National Football League from 1930 to 1943, and in 1944 as the Brooklyn Tigers. The team played its games at Ebbets Field of. the baseball National Leagues team. Another NFL team that played in the Brooklyn borough was the Brooklyn Lions in 1926, the team began play in 1930 after two Brooklyn businessmen bought the Dayton Triangles for $2,500 and moved the team into Ebbets Field. These two individuals were Bill Dwyer, a past owner of the New York Americans and Pittsburgh Pirates of the National Hockey League, and Jack Depler and Depler renamed the Triangles the Brooklyn Dodgers, borrowing the name of Brooklyns major league baseball team. The 1930 Dodgers, built largely from the roster of the 1929 Tornadoes, the high point of their season consisted of a 7–6 upset over the New York Giants at the end of November. The Dodgers star back was Jack McBride, a former Giant and he led the league in scoring with a total of 56 points in 1930.
However the 1931 season saw the Dodgers post a 2–12 record, once the season ended, Benny Friedman was brought in as the teams new player-coach. The 1932 season started off promising with wins over the Staten Island Stapletons, however the team soon hit a five-game losing streak. The streak ended with a 3–0 win over the Chicago Cardinals, the Dodgers ended their season 3–9. At the end of the 1932 season, Bill Dwyer had enough of professional football and his three years with the Dodgers had cost him an estimated $30,000. The Dodgers were purchased by two former New York Giants players, Chris Cagle and John Simms Kelly for $25,000. Cap McEwen, a college football coach, was brought in to replace Friedman. The 1933 season saw the NFL split into two divisions, the Dodgers were placed in the Eastern Division. Dodgers had a chance for first place, by posting a 5–2–1 record, the following season Dan Topping bought Chris Cagles half of the team. Topping would become an owner and president of baseballs New York Yankees, Cagle continued to play in the Brooklyn backfield.
However the only story to come out of the season for Brooklyn was the signing of Ralph Kercheval. Kercheval would go on to one of the great NFL kickers. He returned to play for Brooklyn for the seven seasons
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Line of scrimmage
In American and Canadian football, a line of scrimmage is an imaginary transverse line beyond which a team cannot cross until the next play has begun. Its location is based on the spot where the ball is placed after the end of the most recent play, a line of scrimmage is parallel to the goal lines and touches one edge of the ball where it sits on the ground prior to the snap. Under NFL, NCAA, and NFHS rules, there are two lines of scrimmage at the outset of each play, one restricts the offense. The area between the two lines is called the neutral zone, only the center, the offensive player who snaps the ball, is allowed to have any part of his body in the neutral zone. In Canadian football, the team on defense must line up no nearer than a yard to the line of scrimmage, in American football, they must only be beyond the line. Many fans and commentators refer colloquially to the neutral zone as the line of scrimmage. Others use the term to refer specifically to the defensive line of scrimmage.
Referees, when explaining a penalty, will refer to the spot instead of the line of scrimmage in order to avoid confusion. Modern video techniques enable broadcasts of American football to display a visible line on the screen representing the line of scrimmage, the line is tapered according to camera angle and gets occluded by players and other objects as if the line were painted on the field. The line may represent the line of scrimmage or the distance that the ball must be moved for the offensive team to achieve a first down. Scrummage Glossary of American football Walter Camp, formal creator of the line of scrimmage in 1880 Comparison of Canadian and American football
George Stanley Halas Sr. nicknamed Papa Bear and Mr. Everything, was a player and owner involved with professional American football. He was the founder and owner of the National Football Leagues Chicago Bears and he was lesser known as an inventor, radio producer, philanthropist and Major League Baseball player. He was one of the co-founders of the National Football League in 1920, Halas was born in Chicago, into a family of Czech-Bohemian immigrants. His parents were migrants from Pilsen, Austria-Hungary, George had a varied career in sports. In 1915, Halas worked temporarily for Western Electric, and was planning on being on the SS Eastland and he was running late, however, as he was attempting to gain weight to play Big Ten football and missed the capsizing. He became a member of Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity and he helped Illinois win the 1918 Big Ten Conference football title. Serving as an ensign in the Navy during World War I, he played for a team at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station, and was named the MVP of the 1919 Rose Bowl.
Afterward, Halas played minor league baseball, eventually earning a promotion to the New York Yankees, however, a hip injury effectively ended his baseball career. The popular myth was that Halas was succeeded as the Yankees right fielder by Babe Ruth, that year, Halas played for the Hammond Pros and received about $75 per game. After one year with the Pros, Halas moved to Decatur, Illinois to take a position with the A. E. Staley Company, a starch manufacturer. He served as a sales representative, an outfielder on the company-sponsored baseball team. Halas selected his alma maters colors—orange and navy blue—for the teams uniforms, in 1920, Halas represented the Staleys at the meeting which formed the American Professional Football Association in Canton, Ohio. After suffering financial losses despite a 10–1–2 record, company founder, Halas moved the team to Chicago and took on teammate Dutch Sternaman as a partner. Halas was given a $5,000 bonus for the move to Chicago provided that he keep the Staleys franchise name for the 1921 season, the newly minted Chicago Staleys maneuvered their schedule to win the NFL championship that year.
They took the name Bears in 1922 as a tribute to baseballs Chicago Cubs, Halas was not only the teams coach, but played end and handled ticket sales and the business of running the club. However, severe financial difficulties brought on by the Great Depression put the Bears in dire financial straits even though Jones led them to the NFL title in 1932, Halas returned as coach in 1933 to eliminate the additional cost of paying a head coachs salary. He coached the Bears for another ten seasons and his 1934 team was undefeated until a loss in the championship game to the New York Giants. Every other team in the league immediately began trying to imitate the format, the Bears repeated as NFL champions in 1941, and the 1940s would be remembered as the era of the Monsters of the Midway
Paul J. Schissler
Paul J. Schissler was an American football and baseball coach in the United States. He coached football at the school and professional levels. Schissler first coaching position was as the football coach at Hastings High School in Hastings. He had been an athlete at HHS, graduating in 1911. He coached there for two seasons, from 1913 to 1914, schisslers first collegiate position was as the head coach at Doane College in Crete, Nebraska. He only coached one season with Doane College during the 1915 season, Schissler left Doane to become the head football coach at St. Viator College in Bourbonnais, Illinois where he coached again for only one season in 1916. Schissler was the 16th head coach for the Doane College Tigers located in Crete and his coaching record at Doane was 5–3. As of the conclusion of the 2007 season, this ranks him 14th at Doane in total wins, in 1919, Schissler went to the University of Nebraska. There he was an assistant football coach, the basketball coach. Schissler was the coach of the basketball team for two seasons, posting a 37–5 overall record.
As the head coach at Nebraska, Schissler posted a three-year record of 20–14. Schissler was the football coach for Oregon State from 1924 to 1932. During his nine-year tenure, he compiled a 48–30–2 record and he led the Beavers to three seven-win seasons in 1925,1926, and 1930. He was known for opening seasons strong, having had a 76–0 win against Willamette University, a 67–0 win against Multnomah Athletic Club, Schissler first foray in to coaching in the NFL was with the Chicago Cardinals from 1933 to 1934. In his time as the Cardinals head coach he posted a record of 6–15–1, from 1935 to 1936, he was the head coach for the Brooklyn Dodgers NFL team in New York City, compiling a record of 8–14–2. Schissler owned and coached the Hollywood Bears football team of the Pacific Coast Pro Football League, there he coached and played with Kenny Washington before Washington was allowed to play in the NFL. Schissler sold Washingtons contract to the Los Angeles Rams in 1946, Schissler coached the NFLs Chicago Cardinals and the Hollywood Stars of the California Pro Football League, and during World War II served in the military where he coached a football team.
Later, Schissler helped start the Pro Bowl in 1951 while working for the Los Angeles Times, Schissler died in Hastings, Nebraska, on April 16,1968, at the age of 74
Steve Owen (American football)
Stephen Joseph Owen was an American football player and coach. He earned a place in the Pro Football Hall of Fame as head coach of the National Football Leagues New York Giants from 1930 to 1953 and his personal style was memorable for the odd congruence of gravelly voice and easy disposition to go with his perpetual tobacco chewing. While working on a ranch, he attended Phillips University in Enid. He supplemented his income at that time as a wrestler under the pseudonym Jack OBrien. Owen served in the U. S. Army training corps in World War I and he started to play pro football in 1924, at $50 a game, for the NFLs Kansas City Cowboys. After playing for the Cowboys and the Cleveland Bulldogs in 1925, he was sold to the New York Giants in 1926 for $500, joining his brother Bill. After a futile attempt to get a cut of the price from Kansas City coach Leroy Andrews, he said of the sale. But in those days, a fat hog was a lot more valuable than a fat tackle, I was going to New York even if I had to walk there.
His leadership became clearly evident during the 1927 season as captain of a team outscored opponents 197–20, went 11–1–1. In 1930, he was promoted to co-player-coach for the two games of the season with another future Hall of Famer, Benny Friedman. The 2–0 finish was a premonition of Owens future long-term success as head coach starting the following season. In an unusual move for the time, he didnt sign a contract with owner Tim Mara. He would coach the next 23 years on a handshake, the team slipped to 8–5 in 1934, but still made the NFL championship game again. Facing the 13–0 Chicago Bears, the Giants came in as huge underdogs, the icy conditions and 9 °F weather led to an adjustment between halves that became a memorable part of National Football League lore. More than seven decades later, the contest is still remembered as the sneakers game, New York appeared in four more season-ending NFL title clashes under Owen, but lost them all. An early World War II Three Stooges short referred to them when Moe sarcastically asked a hulking adversary, Owen was the host of Pro Football Highlights on the DuMont Television Network from 1951 to 1953.
After the Giants slipped to 3–8 in 1953, Owen announced his retirement as head coach days before the end of the regular season, ending his 28 years at field level with the Giants. As the final minutes ticked away in his last game as Giant coach and his record as head coach was 150–99–17 and his 150 wins are still the most in franchise history
George Clark (American football coach)
George M. Potsy Clark was an American football and baseball player and athletics administrator. Clark was the coach of the National Football Leagues Portsmouth Spartans/Detroit Lions and Brooklyn Dodgers. Clarks 1935 Detroit Lions team won the NFL Championship, from 1945 to 1953, Clark served as the athletic director at Nebraska. List of college football coaches with non-consecutive tenure George Clark at the College Football Data Warehouse
Charles Francis Chile Walsh was an American football player and executive. He played college football at the University of Notre Dame from 1925 to 1927 and served as the football coach at Saint Louis University from 1930 to 1933. Walsh was a coach in the National Football League for the St. Louis Gunners in 1934. In 1944, Walsh became the general manager and named Aldo Donelli as head coach. However, by 1945 Donelli had joined the military, and Walsh replaced him with his brother, Adam. The Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945, just before the 1945 NFL Championship Game against the Washington Redskins, Walsh paid $7,200 for 9,000 bales of hay to prevent the field at Cleveland Stadium from freezing over. A year the team relocated to Los Angeles, Walsh signed Kenny Washington, one of the first African-Americans to play in the National Football League after World War II. Archived from the original on 2010-11-27