University of Montana
The University of Montana is a public research university in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the second largest of the Montana University System, second to Montana State University, the main campus is at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the hill bearing Missoulas most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter M. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among universities in producing Rhodes Scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars,14 Goldwater Scholars and 40 Udall Scholars to its name, the University of Montanas Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the most scenic campus in America and Outside magazine called it among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality, an act of Congress of February 18,1881 dedicated 72 sections in Montana Territory for the creation of the University. Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8,1889, the cities bids were supported by the rival Copper Kings, William A.
Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively. Missoula won the vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893. The University was formally opened in 1895, while plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School. The South Missoula Land Company, owned by A. B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, in June 1898 the cornerstone for A. J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became the University City, the University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools, College of Humanities & Sciences, Phyllis J. The Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments, in 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association. For the fall 2014 term, University of Montana offered admission to 4,956 freshmen out of 5,345 applicants, the first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895.
Since that time, various plans and architectural styles have been used. Today the campus consists of 220 acres and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel, landmarks include, The Oval A3 acres swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting paths, though originally the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, the original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this proved difficult. On the western extreme of the Oval is a grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California Trojans football team, the facility has a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference. For Rams games, capacity is at 80,000, giving it the fourth-largest capacity in the NFL, the stadium is located in Exposition Park and across the street from USC. From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum, the Coliseum is the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1932 and 1984 and has been proposed to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The stadium was the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3,4. It was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game, called Super Bowl I, additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, and UCLA Bruins football.
It was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27,1984, under the lease the University has day-to-day management and operation responsibility for both the Coliseum and Sports Arena. The 98-year lease took effect on July 29,2013, and was signed by the parties on September 5,2013. The Coliseum is now primarily the home of the USC Trojans football team, Most of USCs regular home games, especially the alternating games with rivals UCLA and Notre Dame, attract a capacity crowd. The current official capacity of the Coliseum is 93,607, USCs women lacrosse and soccer teams use the Coliseum for selected games, usually involving major opponents and televised games. USC rents the Coliseum to various events, including soccer games, musical concerts. The Olympic Cauldron was built for the stadiums two Olympic Games and it is still lit during the fourth quarter of USC football games, and other special occasions. It was lit to honor the fallen Israeli Athletes from the 1972 Munich Olympics Games and it was lit for several days following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986.
The torch was lit for over a following the September 11 attacks in 2001. In 2004, the cauldron was lit non-stop for seven days in tribute to president Ronald Reagan and it was lit again in April 2005 following the death of Pope John Paul II, who had celebrated Mass at the Coliseum during his visit to Los Angeles in 1987. At the Los Angeles Dodgers 50th anniversary game on March 29,2008, charity ceremony, while Neil Diamonds Heartlight was played and the majority of the attendees turned on their complimentary souvenir keychain flashlights. It was lit for the duration of Special Olympics World Games held in Los Angeles from July 25,2015 to August 2,2015, the cauldron was most recently lit for the returning Los Angeles Rams first home game on September 18,2016 against the Seattle Seahawks. The Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I, the official ground breaking ceremony took place on December 21,1921 with work being completed in just over 16 months, on May 1,1923
University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band
The University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band is the school band of the University of Montana. As of 2015, the band had about 140 members, the band was started in the late 1800s. It largely specializes in contemporary corps-style outdoor marching, playing at home game. The group travels to several games in the Northwest and has accompanied the football team to four Division I-AA National Championships. In addition to the entertainment, it makes several appearances in the community each season. University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band website Videos of Grizzly Marching Band in 2008 season
Little Brown Stein
The Little Brown Stein is a rivalry trophy awarded to the winner of the college football game between the University of Idaho Vandals and University of Montana Grizzlies. The trophy is, as the name implies, a large mug with the results of all the games between the two painted on. The game was last played 14 years ago in 2003, the series is set to resume in 2018, when Idaho rejoins the Big Sky for football. Idaho and Montana first played 114 years ago in 1903 and have played 84 times, Idaho has dominated the overall series, which includes two Division I-AA playoff wins at home in the 1980s. Montana has had the hand since 1991, winning eight of the last ten. Since Idaho moved back up to Division I-A in 1996, the teams have met five times, the schools were the only public universities in their respective states for decades, and are about 200 miles apart. Moscow and Missoula are on sides of the lower Idaho Panhandle. Both were members of the old Pacific Coast Conference, Montana departed after the 1950 season, the universities were charter members of the Big Sky Conference in 1963, and their final season as conference opponents was in 1995.
After the 2000 season, the Big West dropped football, Idaho became a football-only member of the Sun Belt Conference in 2001 while remaining a full Big West member. Idaho joined the WAC for all sports in 2005 as part of a major NCAA conference realignment, after the WAC experienced a near-complete membership turnover in the early 2010s, it dropped football after the 2012 season. Idaho football was an FBS independent for one season in 2013, Idaho returned to the Big Sky in 2014 except for football, which rejoined the Sun Belt. Idaho will drop back to FCS in 2018 and resume football membership in the Big Sky
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States and the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 684,451 residents as of 2015, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. In July 2013, it was the major city in the United States. The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border, a major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015. The Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named Seattle in 1852, after Chief Siahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Logging was Seattles first major industry, but by the late-19th century, growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing.
The Seattle area developed as a technology center beginning in the 1980s, in 1994, Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle. The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District, to the Central District, the jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock subgenre grunge, archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay, the first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River.
Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party, members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28,1851. The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, after a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, david Swinson Doc Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Sealth of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name Seattle appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23,1853, in 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14,1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of managing the city
Pacific Coast Conference
The Pacific Coast Conference was a college athletic conference in the United States which existed from 1915 to 1959. The name Pacific Coast Conference is now used by a San Diego area community college established in 1982. Established on December 2,1915, its four members were the University of California, the University of Washington, the University of Oregon. Among other complaints, he disdained the quality of education in the Oregon schools, pauley felt that University of California campuses deserved to play against colleges with comparably high academic standards. The PCC had a commissioner, an elaborate constitution, a formal code of conduct. Following the submission of his report, Atherton was promptly hired as commissioner in 1940, the conference was wracked by scandal in 1951. Charges were made and confirmed that University of Oregon football coach Jim Aiken had violated the code for financial aid. After Aiken was compelled to resign, Oregon urged the PCC to look at similar abuses by UCLA football coach Red Sanders, the conference spent five years attempting to reform itself.
In 1956, the scandal became public, the scandal first broke in Washington, when in January 1956, several discontented players staged a mutiny against their coach, John Cherberg. After the coach was fired, the PCC followed up on charges of a slush fund, the PCC found evidence of the prohibited activities of the Greater Washington Advertising Fund run by Roscoe C. Torchy Torrance, and in May imposed sanctions, in March, allegations of prohibited payments made by two booster clubs associated with UCLA, the Bruin Bench and the Young Mens Club of Westwood, were published in Los Angeles newspapers. UCLA refused for ten weeks to allow PCC officials to proceed in their investigation and this same alumnus blew the whistle on Cals phony work program for athletes known as the San Francisco Gridiron Club, with an extension in the Los Angeles area known as the South Seas Fund. The first major reaction came from the University of California system, for Sproul the PCC dispute was not just about athletics, at stake was the ideal of a unified University of California that enjoyed statewide support.
This ideal collided with aspirations of UCLA alumni who believed that Sprouls vision would always favor the Berkeley campus at the expense of the younger UCLA campus. Oregon State College president August Leroy Strand wrote, The reasons for California and UCLA dropping out are as different as night, the significance of the whole affair was the union of Berkeley and UCLA. Admissions and scholarship had nothing to do with the withdrawals, the PCC was falling apart, leading to the decision to dissolve after the 1958-59 season. Soon after the PCC was dissolved, five of its nine members created the Athletic Association of Western Universities for the 1959 season, after initially being blocked from admission, three of the four remaining schools would eventually join, but members were not required to play other members. Tensions were high between UCLA and Stanford, as Stanford had voted for UCLAs expulsion from the PCC, Idaho was not involved in the scandals but had become noncompetitive in the PCC