Argentine passports are issued to citizens of Argentina by the National Registry for People. They were issued by the Argentine Federal Police up to 2011, their primary use is to facilitate international travel. Argentine passports are valid for travel all over the world. For traveling within South America, Argentines do not need to use a passport, as they may use their National Identity Document. On June 15, 2012, the Argentine Interior Ministry announced the immediate introduction of biometric passports; the new passports will have unique numbers, a significant change from the current policy, where passport numbers were the national ID number of the holders. In accordance with Presidential Decree 2015/66, in order to get an Argentine passport, a person must go to the nearest Civil Registry and present his/her National Identity Document, birth certificate and a proof of marital status. If the person is an Argentine citizen by naturalisation rather than by birth, a Citizenship Certificate must be presented.
Citizens under the age of 18 may only get a passport with parental authorization. Argentines living outside the country must follow the same procedure at an Argentine Embassy or Consulate. Regular Passport price is 550 ARS. Applicants receive their passports via postal mail within 15 days. There is an express service for 1250 ARS and an ultrafast passport for 3675 ARS, only available at Ministro Pistarini International Airport in Buenos Aires, with the possibility of getting a passport in only 15 minutes, if there are any proofs of an international flight for that same day. Since January 2011, in all cases, Argentine passports are valid for 10 years. Beforehand, they were only given in 5-year-periods. Passports are not issued to persons who are under arrest because of criminal offenses, or to those who appear as'dangerous' in accordance with the South American Police Agreement of 1920. In accordance with Mercosur regulations, it is blue-covered, with the legend MERCOSUR written on its top, followed by the country's name in Spanish, the national coat of arms and the word PASAPORTE.
A biometric passport has the e-passport symbol at the bottom. It has a digital photograph of the passport holder. All the information is written in English. Photograph Type of document Country code Passport number Surname Given names Nationality Date of Birth DNI number Gender Place of Birth Issuing date Expiration date Signature FingerprintThe previous version included: Passport copy Marital Status Police-registry Number A map of South America appears on the back of Argentine passports, showing the country's location within the continent and within Mercosur, together with the Argentine Antarctic Claim. In the map, half of the Chilean Magallanes Region isn't shown, including the Strait of Magellan, the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego in which 61.43% of the total area, belongs to Chile and all the southern islands of the Beagle Channel. Passports of many countries contain a message addressed to authorities of other countries identifying the bearer as a citizen of the issuing country, requesting that he or she be allowed to enter and pass through the other country, requesting that, when necessary, he or she be given assistance consistent with international norms.
In Argentine passports, the message is in Spanish, English and French. The message is: In Spanish: En nombre del Gobierno de la República Argentina, la autoridad que expide el presente pasaporte ruega y solicita a todos aquellos a quienes puede concernir, dejen pasar libremente a su titular y prestarle la asistencia y protección necesaria. In English: The Government of the República Argentina hereby requests all whom it may concern, to permit the bearer to pass without delay or hindrance and in case of need, to give all lawful aid and protection. In Portuguese: Em nome do Governo da República Argentina, a autoridade que concede o presente passaporte roga e solicita às autoridades competentes, deixar passar livremente o titular e prestar-lhe toda a assistência e proteção necessária. In French: Au nom du Gouvernement de la République Argentine, l'autorité qui délivre le présent passeport demande à tous ceux qui pourraient être concernés, de laisser passer librement son titulaire et lui prêter l'assistance et la protection nécessaire.
The Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues diplomatic passports to Argentine diplomats acreditad overseas and their eligible dependants, to citizens who reside in Argentina and travel abroad for diplomatic work. The Ministry issues official passports to Government employees assigned overseas, either permanently or temporarily, their eligible dependents, to members of Congress who travel abroad on official business. Under special circumstances, if a woman is stateless but married to an Argentine citizen, the Federal Police will issue a Pasaporte de Esposa de Argentino in order to leave the country; the same applies for persons under the age of 18. List of passports Visa requirements for Argentine citizens Visa policy of Argentina Documento Nacional de Identidad Documentación Personal - Policía Federal
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29, 1854, pursuant to Articles 46 to 54 of the 1853 Constitution. There are three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the number of senators per province was raised from two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, the change took effect following the May 14, 1995, general elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms by direct election on a provincial basis, with the party with the most votes being awarded two of the province's senate seats and the second-place party receiving the third seat. Senators were indirectly elected to nine-year terms by each provincial legislature; these provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001. One-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years.
The Vice President of the Republic is ex officio President of the Senate, with a casting vote in the event of a tie. In practice, the Provisional President presides over the chamber most of the time; the Senate must obtain this being an absolute majority. It has the power to approve bills passed by the Chamber of Deputies, call for joint sessions with the Lower House or special sessions with experts and interested parties, submit bills for the president's signature; the Senate must introduce any changes to federal revenue sharing policies, ratify international treaties, approve changes to constitutional or federal criminal laws, as well as confirm or impeach presidential nominees to the cabinet, the judiciary, the armed forces, the diplomatic corps, among other federal posts. There are twenty-four standing committees made up of fifteen members each, namely: Agreements Constitutional Affairs Foreign Affairs and Worship Justice and Criminal Affairs General Legislation Budget and Finance Administrative and Municipal Affairs National Defense Domestic Security and Drug Trafficking National Economy and Investment Industry and Trade Regional Economies, Micro and Medium Enterprises Labor and Social Security Agriculture, Cattle Raising and Fishing Education, Culture and Technology Rights and Guarantees Mining and Fuels Health and Sports Infrastructure and Transport Systems and Freedom of Speech Environment and Human Development Population and Human Development Federal Revenue Sharing Tourism.
According to Section 55 of the Argentine Constitution, candidates for the Argentine Senate must: be at least 30 years old have been a citizen of Argentina for six years be native to the province of his office, or have been a resident of that province for two years. See List of current members of the Argentine SenateAll data from official website; the current members of the Senate were elected in 2013, 2015 and 2017. The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina. However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President. Current leadership positions include: List of current Argentine senators Argentine Chamber of Deputies List of former Argentine Senators List of legislatures by country senado.gov.ar – Senate of Argentina
The Concordancia was a political alliance in Argentina. Three Presidents belonging to the Concordance were in power from 1931 to 1943, a period known in Argentina as the "Infamous Decade." A coup d'état deposed the aging President Hipólito Yrigoyen on September 6, 1930. His country's first leader elected via universal suffrage, Yrigoyen had strained alliances within his own centrist Radical Civic Union through frequent interventions against unwillful governors and had set business powerhouses such as Standard Oil against him through his support of YPF, the state-owned oil concern founded in 1922. Staging its first coup since 1861, the Argentine military dominated by conservative, rural interests, called on José Félix Uriburu, a retired general and member of the Supreme War Council, to assume the role of Provisional President; the ailing Uriburu called general elections for November 1931. Yrigoyen's opponents within the UCR during the 1920s, who referred to themselves as "Antipersonalists" became divided by the 1930 coup.
Opponents of the coup itself would support former President Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear, while more conservative UCR figures supported former Senate President Leopoldo Melo. These latter, in turn, joined Conservative and Democratic leaders following a meeting in the Hotel Castelar in downtown Buenos Aires, the resulting agreement became known as the "Concordance."Enjoying President Uriburu's support, the Concordance did not run as such, but rather on the National Democratic ticket, as well as a number of smaller ones. Rejected by Yrigoyen's supporters and moderates alike, National Democrats defended the 1930 coup, arguing that the country's social and institutional fabric had been at risk of unraveling, their opposition rallied behind Alvear's UCR Renewal Front. Uriburu, had him deported, with his supporters' boycott of the election, opposition to the Concordance organized behind the Civil Alliance. Melo and other Concordance chose as their standard-bearer General Agustín Justo, not from the landed oligarchy to which most Concordance leaders belonged, had been President Alvear's War Minister.
Uriburu employed less pretense and established the Argentine Civic Legion, an armed fascist organization, to intimidate the opposition. Amid widespread irregularities, Justo was elected, took office in February 1932. Much of Justo's cabinet reflected the alliances that had created the Concordance: Former Córdoba Governor Julio Roca was the son of the late PAN leader, Julio A. Roca, had led the Democratic Party, he would now serve as Vice President. Leopoldo Melo, the Antipersonalist leader, was handed the powerful Interior Ministry, which oversaw law enforcement and the administration of elections, among other key functions. Ramón Castillo, a feudal landowner and old-line PAN Conservative, was named Minister of Justice. Antonio de Tomaso and Federico Pinedo, founders of the splinter Independent Socialist Party, were appointed ministers of Agriculture and the Economy, respectively; the Concordance was organized by leaders with agricultural interests, owed its existence in no small measure to Standard Oil and other trusts.
The regime's economic policies were more pragmatic than these ties might have suggested and reflected both nationalism, as well as a priority on recovering the Argentine economy from the effects of the Great Depression. Tax and trade policies were formulated to reduce the public debt, to discourage the import of consumer goods, to secure bilateral trade agreements with nations best positioned to supply Argentina with the capital goods needed for industrialization; the goal of import substitution industrialization guided these and other domestic policies, including a more conciliatory stance towards labor unions than had been expected when Uriburu left office. Uriburu's deep cuts in public works and other spending were reversed; the National Highway Bureau, commodity Regulatory Boards and the Central Bank were established. The economy recovered from the depression, albeit and by 1943, value added by manufacturing exceeded that of agriculture for the first time in the agrarian country's history.
The Concordance administration practiced client politics for traditionally powerful interests in Argentina, however. Railways and abattoirs with ties to the government were left unregulated, national interests were to some extent subordinated to those of the British Empire. Among the era's most controversial policies in this regard was the Roca-Runciman Treaty, which exempted British imports from protectionist barriers applied to other suppliers', penalized local competitors of the Anglo-Argentine Tramway service, mandated the deposit, in escrow at the Bank of England, of any Argentine surpluses earned in the bilateral trade, while freeing restrictions on the repatriation of factor income earned by British firms in Argentina; the regime was authoritarian in numerous ways. The chief party in opposition in the regime's early years, the Democratic Progressive Party, was denied victories at the provincial and congressional level alike. Certain abuses, such as the use of presidential "intervention" to remove opposition governors, had become routine in Argentine politics.
1854 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1854 was held on 20 February to choose the first president of the Argentine Confederation for the period 1854-1860. Justo José de Urquiza was elected president by a wide margin, it was the first presidential election after the unification of the country in 1852, after Justo José de Urquiza defeated Juan Manuel de Rosas at the Battle of Caseros on 3 February 1852. The State of Buenos Aires seceded on 11 September 1852 and did not participate in elections until 1862. Congreso General Constituyente de la Confederación Argentina - Sesión de 1852-54. Buenos Aires: Imprenta del Orden. 1871. Pp. 405–409. Barreto Constantín, Ana María. Vida de un Caudillo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Dunken. P. 48. ISBN 978-9870276968. Lorenzo, Celso Ramón. Manual de Historia Constitucional Argentina, Volumen 2. Rosario: Editorial Juris. P. 228. ISBN 950-817-064-6. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
Visa policy of Argentina
Visitors to Argentina must obtain a visa from one of the Argentinian diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. Holders of passports of the following 87 jurisdictions can visit Argentina without a visa for up to 90 days: ID - May enter with the ID card if arriving from a MERCOSUR country1 - not applicable to holders of British subject or British Protected Person passport holders.2 - For a stay of up to 30 days. Holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Albania, Angola, Belize, Cuba, Dominican Republic, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Qatar and Vietnam do not require a visa. Holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Australia, Canada and United States require a visa. Visa waiver for Venezuela was suspended for an indefinite period from 10 January 2019. Citizens of 71 countries who hold a valid B2 visa issued by the United States or a Schengen visa can obtain an Electronic Travel Authorization at a cost of US$50 prior to travelling to Argentina.
The validity of U. S. or Schengen visas must be more than 3 months. The processing time is 10 business days. Holders of passports of the following jurisdictions must use a Travel Certificate issued by Argentina instead of a visa when travelling: Visa requirements for Argentine citizens Dirección Nacional de Migraciones of Argentina
2011 Argentine general election
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, 23 October 2011. Incumbent president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner secured a second term in office after the Front for Victory won just over half of the seats in the National Congress. Mercosur Parliamentarians were popularly elected for the first time. Another novelty was the introduction of open and mandatory primaries; these took place 14 August 2011 to select the candidates of each political coalition. The nation's myriad parties forged seven coalitions, of which five became contenders for a possible runoff election: Front for Victory: the ruling party, led by President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, allies, including the New Encounter; the FpV is based on the center-left Justicialist Party factions that support the current government. Federal Peronism, or Dissident Peronism: centrist or conservative PJ figures opposed to the government and allies, including the Republican Proposal; this coalition remained divided between Eduardo Duhalde's Popular Front and Alberto Rodríguez Saá's Federal Commitment both before and after the August primaries.
Union for Social Development: the Radical Civic Union, led by Congressman Ricardo Alfonsín, allies, which included Federal Peronist Francisco de Narváez. Broad Progressive Front: the Socialist Party, led by Governor Hermes Binner, allies, including GEN and the New Party. Proyecto Sur had joined this coalition. Civic Coalition: the party, led by Congresswoman Elisa Carrió, had been part of the Civic and Social Agreement, but separated from the latter in August 2010. Other coalitions of note include the Workers' Left Front, led by Jorge Altamira, Proyecto Sur, led by Pino Solanas; the Civic and Social Agreement was an alliance between the UCR and most of what became the Progressive Ample Front and the Civic Coalition, with other, minor allies. This coalition proved unwieldy as the 2011 campaign progressed, though various forms of it will be retained in certain provinces for strategic purposes; the Front for Victory candidate for the Justicialist Party primaries was current President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.
Her husband and predecessor, Néstor Kirchner, was considered a top candidate to succeed Fernández until his death on 27 October 2010. Fernández had suffered a significant decline in approval during the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector and the subsequent recession, the ruling Front for Victory lost its absolute majority in both houses of Congress during the June 2009 mid-term elections; the economy, her approval ratings, recovered during 2010, the 2011 electoral season began with Fernández' job approval at around 58 percent, with polling indicating that she would be reelected in the first round. Fernández avoided committing herself to running for a second term during the early months of 2011. Two days before the 23 June deadline, she announced her decision to run for reelection, she nominated Amado Boudou, as her running mate on 25 June. Their ticket won a landslide victory in the 14 August primaries, obtaining just over 50% and besting the runner-up by nearly 38%.
Support for Fernández was strongest among the poor and those aged 30 to 44. Her support was weakest among the upper middle class, though she remained over 24% ahead of the runner-up among those polled within that segment; the leaders of the center-right Federal Peronism were torn between running for primary elections within the PJ against the Front for Victory, or running instead in the general election through another political alliance. Former President Eduardo Duhalde was the first to informally start his pre-candidacy campaign, announcing hypothetical cabinet picks as early as December 2009; the Governors of Chubut, Mario Das Neves, of San Luis, Alberto Rodríguez Saá, as well as former Governor of Buenos Aires Province Felipe Solá stated their intention to run for president. Das Neves became the first Federal Peronist to drop out, while Solá boosted his own prospects by securing an alliance with the conservative Republican Proposal on 16 May. Duhalde narrowly defeated Rodríguez Saá in a Buenos Aires Federal Peronism primary held on 22 May, though both men remained front-runners for their party's nomination.
Each ran on separate Federal Peronist tickets. Duhalde formally announced his Popular Union candidacy on 9 June, nominating Das Neves as his running mate. Rodríguez Saá, in turn, nominated former Santa Fe Governor José María Vernet as his running mate on his Federal Commitment ticket. Solá, who struggled in the polls, withdrew on 11 June, encouraging local candidates in his fold to form alliances with Duhalde and the party's candidate for Buenos Aires Governor, Francisco de Narváez. De Narváez endorsed Rodríguez Saá. Support for Duhalde was strongest among weakest among young voters. Rodríguez Saá polled best among upper middle class voters and those age 30 to 44; the center-left Radical Civic Union had scheduled primaries for 28 April. Both Ricardo Alfonsín, son of the late former President Raúl Alfonsín, current party leader Ernesto Sanz started pre-candidacy campaigns. Vice President Julio Cobos, considered a UCR primary candidate, had stated his intention to run only in August, during the coalition primaries.
The UCR and the Socialist Party (partners in the Civic and
National Congress of Argentina
The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. Its composition is bicameral, constituted by a 72-seat Senate and a 257-seat Chamber of Deputies; the Congressional Palace is located at the western end of Avenida de Mayo. The Kilometre Zero for all Argentine National Highways is marked on a milestone at the Congressional Plaza, next to the building; the Argentine National Congress is the Chamber of Deputies. The ordinary sessions span is from March 1 to November 30. Senators and deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity during their mandates, which may be revoked by their peers if a senator or deputy is caught in flagrante, in the midst of committing a crime; the Congress is in charge of setting customs, which must be uniform across the country. It rules the Central Bank of Argentina, manages internal and external debt payment, the value of national currency, it rules the legal codes on Civil, Penal, Minery and Social Welfare affairs, all of which cannot be in contradiction with the respective provincial codes.
Any changes on national or provincial limits, or the creation of new provinces, ought to be allowed by the Congress. The Congress is entitled to approve or reject every international treaty that Argentina signs with other states or international organizations; when approved, the treaties acquire priority over ordinary legislation. Declarations of war and the signing of peace, as well as the mobilization of the national troops, within or outside of the Argentine territory must be allowed by the Congress. From 1976 to 1983, the Congressional Palace of Argentina housed the CAL, a group of officers from the three Armed Forces. Commissioned to review and discuss laws before they were issued by the Executive Branch, they served a succession of de facto military presidents during the National Reorganization Process. In practice, this became a mechanism to detect and discuss the differences between the three commanders-in-chief of the Army and Air Force regarding a specific project; the CAL was established by the Acta del Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the guiding document for the military government established after the coup d'état of March 24, 1976.
Following a 1994 reform of the Constitution, the Senate was expanded from 48 members to 72 members, whereby the party garnering second place in elections for Senator would be assured the third seat for the corresponding province. Opening of regular sessions of the National Congress of Argentina Argentine National Congress Palace List of current Argentine Senators List of current Argentine Deputies Politics of Argentina List of legislatures by country "National Constitution of Argentina". Constitution of Argentina. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17; the official website of Congress Satellite picture by Google Maps