Gaelic Athletic Association
The Association promotes Irish music and dance, and the Irish language. It has more than 500,000 members worldwide, assets in excess of €2.6 billion, Gaelic football and hurling are the most popular activities promoted by the organisation, and the most popular sports in the Republic of Ireland in terms of attendances. Gaelic football is the largest participation sport in Northern Ireland, GAA Handball is the Irish governing body for the sport of handball, while the other Gaelic sport, rounders, is managed by the GAA Rounders National Council. And so, the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded, the architects and founding members were Michael Cusack of County Clare, Maurice Davin, Joseph K. Bracken, Thomas St George McCarthy, P. J. Ryan of Tipperary, John Wise-Power, and John McKay. Up to the century most of the members were farm labourers, small farmers. But from 1900 onwards a new type of person – those who were now being influenced by the Gaelic League — joined the movement and they tended to be clerks, school teachers or civil servants.
In 1922 it passed over the job of promoting athletics to the National Athletic, while some units of the Association outside Ireland participate in Irish competitions, the Association does not hold internationals played according to the rules of either Gaelic football or hurling. Compromise rules have been reached with two related sports, hurlers play an annual fixture against a national shinty team from Scotland. The venue alternates between Ireland and Australia, the Irish welcomed the All Australian team at the headquarters of the GAA on 21 November 2015. It was single one-off test match, which led the Irish to reclaim the Cormac McAnallen cup by a score of 56-52, the association has had a long history of promoting Irish culture. Through a division of the known as Scór, the Association promotes Irish cultural activities, running competitions in music. Rule 4 of the GAAs Official Guide states, The Association shall actively support the Irish language, traditional Irish dancing, music and other aspects of Irish culture.
It shall foster an awareness and love of the ideals in the people of Ireland. The group was founded in 1969, and is promoted through various Association clubs throughout Ireland. The Association has many stadiums scattered throughout Ireland and beyond, every county, and nearly all clubs, have grounds on which to play their home games, with varying capacities and utilities. The hierarchical structure of the GAA is applied to the use of grounds, the provincial championship finals are usually played at the same venue every year. Croke Park is the Associations flagship venue and is colloquially as Croker or Headquarters. With a capacity of 82,300, it ranks among the top five stadiums in Europe by capacity, having undergone extensive renovations for most of the 1990s, every September, Croke Park hosts the All-Ireland inter-county Hurling and Football Finals as the conclusion to the summer championships
The Kilkenny County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland and is responsible for Gaelic Games in County Kilkenny. The county board has its office and main grounds at Nowlan Park and is responsible for Kilkenny inter-county teams in all codes at all levels. The Kilkenny branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1887, Brian Cody has been manager of the Kilkenny senior hurling team since the 1999 championship. Mark Bergin will be senior hurling captain for the 2017 season, in 1922 Kilkenny won their sixteenth Leinster title before lining out in the All-Ireland final against Tipperary. In an exciting game Tipperary were winning by three points with three minutes to go, but Kilkenny fought back to two goals to secure the victory. It would be years before Kilkenny would beat Tipperary in the championship again. Further Leinster titles soon followed, Galway accounted for ‘the Cats’ in the All-Ireland semi-finals, in 1926 Kilkenny faced Cork on a snow-covered Croke Park in the All-Ireland final, victory on that occasion went to ‘the Rebels’.
The 1930s proved to be one of Kilkenny’s most successful decades, the 1930s saw ‘the Cats’ battle it out with Limerick for the title of team of the decade. In 1931 Kilkenny were back as Leinster champions before squaring up to Cork in the All-Ireland final, at half-time Cork lead, Kilkenny fought back to secure a draw. The replay saw Lory Meagher give one of his most outstanding displays on the hurling field, once again Cork lead at half-time, Kilkenny fought back to force a second draw. In the third game of the thrilling series Kilkenny were without the services of Meagher. On that occasion Cork secured the victory by seven points,1932 saw Kilkenny back in the All-Ireland final. Clare, surprise winners in Munster, provided the opposition, in an exciting game ‘the Cats’ won by a goal and claimed their first championship in a decade. The following year Kilkenny were back in their third championship decider. Once again, the game was an affair, however. In 1935 Kilkenny regained their Leinster crown before lining out in the All-Ireland final, Limerick provided the opposition once again.
In a close game Kilkenny beat the Munster men by a single point,1936 saw an All-Ireland rematch between Kilkenny and Limerick, however, on this occasion Limerick had the measure of ‘the Cats’ and trounced them by 5–6 to 1–5. The following year Kilkenny had a chance to redeem themselves in their third championship decider
The Limerick County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Limerick GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Limerick. The county board is responsible for the Limerick inter-county teams. Several books tell the story of Limerick GAA Limerick has a long, in 1897, its first outright success was achieved in hurling when a Kilfinane side defeated Tullaroan of Kilkenny in the final. The county team won the All-Ireland in 1918, a feat repeated in 1921 when they won the inaugural Liam MacCarthy Cup. The sides that achieved those wins contained many players who were on Limerick teams that contested seven Munster finals in a row, the 1930s were the salad days of Limerick hurling, an era in which the county won five National Leagues in a row, a record still unequalled. They won four Munster Championships in a row, and remain the only county other than Cork to have done so, after winning All-Irelands in 1934 and 1936, another outright success was achieved in 1940.
Victory in 1940 left Limerick, with six All-Irelands, as the county outside of the big three, to have won more than one All-Ireland hurling title. Dublin had six All Ireland Senior Hurling at that time, the county fell on quieter times and has won only one Senior All Ireland title, in 1973. However six National Leagues were won between 1947 and 1995, and three Under-21 All Irelands in a row in the early 2000s. In 2007 Limerick beat Tipperary in a thrilling Munster Senior Hurling Championship Semi-Final which is now known as the Trilogy, the final score line of the 2nd replay was 0.22 to 2.13. 30,608 fans witnessed this now historic occasion as Limerick had not beaten Tipperary since 1996, Limerick subsequently lost the Munster Final to Waterford on 8 July in Thurles. They regrouped and beat Clare in the All-Ireland Quarter-Final on 29 July, Andrew OShaughnessy picked up the Man of the Match award in this match. On 12 August, they played Waterford in the Semi-Final, a rematch of the Munster Final a month previously.
Fortunately for Limerick though, the result was not to be the same, a scoreline of 5,11 -2,15 was enough to defeat the Deise Men. The goals came from Donie Ryan, Andrew OShaughnessy and Brian Begley, O Shaughnessy once again picked up the MotM award for his fine display. On 2 September 2007 in Croke Park, Limerick played in the All-Ireland Hurling Final, lady Luck did not strike twice however and it was to be Kilkennys day. Final score, Kilkenny 2-19 - 1-15 Limerick, in 2008, with many predicting that Limerick would secure Munster and All-Ireland titles, the county was drawn against Clare in the first round of the championship. Clare defeated them on a score-line of 4-12 to 1-16 and this meant that Limerick were now entered in a newly revised All-Ireland qualifying system against Offaly
For more details of Offaly GAA see Offaly Senior Football Championship or Offaly Senior Hurling Championship. The Offaly County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Offaly GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, separate county boards are responsible for the Offaly inter-county teams. As a result, the county won six Leinster titles in the 1980s, the county has since gone on to win three other All-Irelands. Perhaps Offalys most famous win came in the All-Ireland Final of 1994 in what has come to be remembered as the five minute final. Limerick looked set to win their first All-Ireland title since 1973 until Offaly staged one of the greatest comebacks of all time and they defeated Limerick by 3-16 to 2-13. The Vocational Schools team has made it to 12 All-Ireland Vocational Schools Championship finals but have never won one. The match was a repeat of the years final, not only that. Kerry were winning by two points with two minutes to go when Séamus Darby came on as a substitute and scored one of the most famous goals in Gaelic football of all time.
Kerry fumbled the counterattack which allowed Offaly to win by one point with a score of 1-15 to 0-17. Offaly won their first major titles in 2002 when they won the second division of the National Camogie League. Drumcullen reached the final of the All Ireland club junior championship in 2003, kinnity owon the Division 3 shield at Féile na nGael in 1997, Drumcullen won the Coiste Chontae an Chláir Shield in 1997. Notable players include soaring star award winners Karen Brady, Elaine Dermody, Audrey Kennedy, Michaela Morkan, Fiona Stephens, miriam O’Callaghan served as president of the Camogie Association). Under Camogie’s National Development Plan 2010-2015, “Our Game, Our Passion, ” five new camogie clubs are to be established in the county by 2015
Christy Ring Cup
The Christy Ring Cup is the second tier senior inter-county championship in hurling after the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. Each year, the team in the Christy Ring Cup is promoted to the All-Ireland Championship. The Christy Ring Cup was introduced for the 2005 season and it replaced the All-Ireland Senior B Hurling Championship. The winners of the championship receive the Christy Ring Cup, named after former Cork hurler Christy Ring who many regard as the greatest hurler of all time, in the 2016 season and Antrim tied in the final. For history before 2004, see All-Ireland Senior B Hurling Championship In 2003 the Hurling Development Committee was charged with restructuring the entire hurling championship. The committee was composed of chairman Pat Dunny, Liam Griffin, P. J. OGrady, Ger Loughnane, Cyril Farrell, Jimmy OReilly, Willie Ring, Pat Daly and Nicky English. Over the course of three months they held discussions with managers and officials, while taking a submission from the Gaelic Players Association.
The basic tenet of the proposals was to structure the hurling championship into three tiers in accordance with 2004 National Hurling League status. The top tier was confined to 12 teams, while the ten teams would contest the second tier which was to be known as the Christy Ring Cup. There would be promotion-relegation play-offs between the three championship tiers, the HDC suggested that these games would be played as curtain raisers to All-Ireland quarter-finals and semi-finals. The proposal were accepted at the 2005 GAA Congress, the Christy Ring Cup and the Nicky Rackard Cup competitions were launched at Croke Park on 8 December 2004. The ten participating teams were divided into two groups of five and played in a round-robin format, each team was guaranteed at least four games each. The eventual group winners and runners-up qualified for the knock-out semi-finals of the competition, the bottom two teams of both groups were involved in a four-way relegation play-off with the eventual loser being relegated to the Nicky Rackard Cup.
In 2006 the relegation play-off was limited to just the teams in both groups, while in 2007 there was no relegation. The competition was expanded to twelve teams. The participating teams were divided into four groups of three and played in a format, thus limiting each team to just two games each. The eventual group winners and runners-up qualified for the knock-out quarter-finals of the competition, the bottom team in each group went into the relegation play-offs. The eventual losers were relegated to the Nicky Rackard Cup, however, in 2009 a double elimination format was introduced, thus guaranteeing each team at least two games before being eliminated from the competition
Croke Park is a GAA stadium located in Dublin, Ireland. Named in honour of Archbishop Thomas Croke, it is often called Croker by some GAA fans and it serves both as the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Since 1884 the site has been used primarily by the GAA to host Gaelic games, most notably the annual All-Ireland finals in football and hurling. Both the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special Olympics, during the construction of the Aviva Stadium, Croke Park hosted games played by the Ireland national rugby union team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. The area now known as Croke Park was owned in the 1880s by Maurice Butterly and known as the City and Suburban Racecourse, from 1890 it was used by the Bohemian Football Club. In 1901 Jones Road hosted the IFA Cup football final when Cliftonville defeated Freebooters, recognising the potential of the Jones Road sports ground a journalist and GAA member, Frank Dineen, borrowed much of the £3,250 asking price and bought the ground in 1908.
In 1913 the GAA came into ownership of the plot when they purchased it from Dineen for £3,500. The ground was renamed Croke Park in honour of Archbishop Thomas Croke, in 1913, Croke Park had only two stands on what is now known as the Hogan stand side and grassy banks all round. In 1917, a hill was constructed on the railway end of Croke Park to afford patrons a better view of the pitch. This terrace was known as Hill 16 as it was built from the ruins of the 1916 Easter Rising, in the 1920s, the GAA set out to create a high capacity stadium at Croke Park. Following the Hogan Stand, the Cusack Stand, named after Michael Cusack from Clare, was built in 1927,1936 saw the first double-deck Cusack Stand open with 5,000 seats, and concrete terracing being constructed on Hill 16. In 1952 the Nally Stand was built in memorial of Pat Nally, seven years later, to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the GAA, the first cantilevered New Hogan Stand was opened. The highest attendance recorded at an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was 90,556 for Offaly v Down in 1961.
Since the introduction of seating to the Cusack stand in 1966, during the Irish War of Independence on 21 November 1920 Croke Park was the scene of a massacre by the Royal Irish Constabulary. The Police, supported by the British Auxiliary Division entered the ground, the dead included 13 spectators and Tipperary player, Michael Hogan. Posthumously, the Hogan stand built in 1924 was named in his honour, in 1984 the organisation decided to investigate ways to increase the capacity of the old stadium. The design for an 80,000 capacity stadium was completed in 1991, Gaelic sports have special requirements as they take place on a large field. A specific requirement was to ensure the spectators were not too far from the field of play and this resulted in the three-tier design from which viewing games is possible, the main concourse, a premium level incorporating hospitality facilities and an upper concourse
Provinces of Ireland
Ireland has historically been divided into four provinces, Leinster and Ulster. The provinces of Ireland serve no administrative or political purposes, a king of over-kings, a rí ruirech was often a provincial or semi-provincial king to whom several ruiri were subordinate. Entities belonging to the 1st and 2nd millennia are listed and these do not all belong to the same periods. Over the centuries, the number of provincial kings varied between three and six, no more than six genuine rí ruirech were ever contemporary, with the average being three or four. Also, following the Norman invasion, the situation became more condensed and complicated than previously. The Norman invasion began in 1169, and the Normans went on to occupy Ireland until 1541, in the early Irish annals these five ancient political divisions were referred to as cúigí such as the fifth of Munster, the fifth of Ulster and so on. Later record-makers dubbed them provinces, in imitation of the Roman imperial provinciae, in modern times they have become associated with groups of counties, although they have no legal status.
The provinces were supplanted by the present system of counties after the Norman invasion, during the Tudor conquest, and for about a century after, provincial Presidencies existed in Connacht and Munster, serving a primarily military role. Six of the nine Ulster counties form modern-day Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is sometimes called a province of the United Kingdom. These two inconsistent usages of the province can cause confusion. This dinnseanchas poem named Ard Ruide poetically describes the kingdoms of Ireland, Munster in the south is the kingdom of music and the arts, of harpers, of skilled ficheall players and of skilled horsemen. The fairs of Munster were the greatest in all Ireland, the last kingdom, Meath, is the kingdom of Kingship, of stewardship, of bounty in government, in Meath lies the Hill of Tara, the traditional seat of the High King of Ireland. The ancient earthwork of Tara is called Rath na Ríthe
Munster Senior Hurling Championship
It is one of the most prestigious hurling tournaments in Ireland and the most prestigious inter-county hurling competition in the province of Munster. The championship has been awarded every year since 1889, the championship has always been played on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team loses they are eliminated from the championship. The Munster Championship is an part of the wider GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Championship. The winners of the Munster final, like their counterparts in the Leinster Championship, are rewarded by advancing directly to the stage of the All-Ireland series of games. The losers of the Munster final enter the All-Ireland series at the quarter-final stage, five teams currently participate in the Munster Championship. Two of the most successful teams in hurling, namely Cork and Tipperary, between them, these teams have won the provincial title on 92 occasions during its history while they have claimed 56 All-Ireland titles. The title has been won at least once by all six of the Munster counties, the all-time record-holders Cork, who have won the competition 51 times.
Hurling is the prominent of the two Gaelic games in Munster. As such the Munster Championship is regarded as the most skillful, the Munster final, particularly when played in Semple Stadium in Thurles, is considered one of the biggest and best sporting occasions in Ireland. The Munster Championship is a tournament with pairings drawn at random - there are no seeds. Each match is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn there is a replay. Drawn replays are now settled with extra time, however, if both sides are level at the end of extra time a second replay takes place. If the lone quarter-final is a draw, extra time is played immediately as replays are only permitted for provincial semi-finals and finals, the format has remained virtually the same since the very first Munster Championship in 1888. For years Cork and Tipperary, recognised as the big two in the province, were drawn at opposite sides of the championship and this was viewed, however, as a mean of penalising the other teams. While it might be possible to one of these teams it was deemed near impossible to beat both in a single championship season.
This practice was abolished and now a draw is made in which three of the five teams automatically qualify for the semi-final stage of the competition. Two other teams play in a lone quarter-final with the joining the other three teams at the semi-final stage. Once a team is defeated they are eliminated from the championship, the Munster Championship has wider implications for the GAA All-Ireland Hurling Senior Championship
All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in Gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final is played on the third or fourth Sunday in September at Croke Park in Dublin, the first Championship to be held featured club teams who represented their respective counties after their county championship. The 21 a-side final was between Commercials of Limerick and Young Irelands of Louth, the final was played in Beech Hill, Clonskeagh on 29 April 1888 with Commercials winning by 1–4 to 0–3. Unlike All-Ireland competitions, there were no championships. The second Championship was unfinished owing to the American Invasion Tour, the 1888 provincial championships had been completed but after the Invasion tour returned, the All-Ireland semi-final and final were not played. English team London reached the four times in the early years of the competition. In 1892, inter-county teams were introduced to the All-Ireland Championship, Congress granted permission for the winning club to use players from other clubs in the county, thus the inter-county teams came into being.
The rules of hurling and football were altered, goals were made equal to five points, the 1903 Championship brought Kerrys first All-Ireland title. They went on to become the most successful team in the history of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The first half of the century brought the rise of several teams who won two or more All-Ireland titles in that period, such as Kildare, Cavan, Wexford. In the 1990s, a significant sea change took place, as the All-Ireland was claimed by an Ulster team in four consecutive years, since Ulster has produced more All-Ireland winning teams than any other province. The All-Ireland Qualifiers were introduced in 2001, that year, the 2001 final brought victory for Galway who became the first football team to win an All-Ireland by springing through the back door. In 2013, Hawk-Eye was introduced for Championship matches at Croke Park and it was first used to confirm that Offaly substitute Peter Cunninghams attempted point had gone wide 10 minutes into the second half of a game against Kildare.
2013 brought the first Friday night game in the history of the Championship - a first round qualifier between Carlow and Laois, the county is a geographical region in Ireland, and each of the thirty-two counties in Ireland organises its own GAA affairs through a County Board. The county teams play in their respective Provincial Championships in Connacht, Munster, kilkenny is currently unique among the 32 Irish county associations in not participating in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The Provincial Championships operate through a cup competition format. They take place during the months of May and July, the winners of each of the four Provincial Championships earn a place in the All-Ireland Quarter-Finals, which take place in the month of August. Each match is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn there is a replay
All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship
Where five Sundays occur in September, the final is held on the second Sunday in September. The Championship was initially a straight knockout competition open only to the champions of each of the four provinces of Ireland, during the 1990s the competition was expanded, firstly incorporating a back-door system and a round-robin group phase involving more games. The Championship currently consists of several stages, in the present format, it begins in late May with provincial championships held in Leinster and Munster. Once a team is defeated in the stage they are granted one more chance to compete for the title. Thirteen teams currently participate in the Championship, the most dominant teams coming from the provinces of Leinster and Munster, Kilkenny and Tipperary are considered the big three of hurling. Between them, these teams have won 93 out of 129 championships completed during its history, the title has been won by 13 different teams,10 of which have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Kilkenny, who have won the competition 36 times, the current All-Ireland champions are Tipperary.
At the third meeting of the new organisation in January 1885, in 1886 county boards were created to run the affairs of the various counties that participated in the competition. By 1887 the first All-Ireland Hurling Championship took place with five teams participating, for the first few years of the championship the various counties were represented by the team who won the county club championship. For instance, the 1887 championship saw Thurles representing Tipperary and Meelick representing Galway, dedicated inter-county teams were only introduced in 1895 when Cork put forward a mixture of all the best players from that countys best local clubs. Over the early years various changes were made in the rules of hurling, teams were reduced from 21 players to 17 and eventually to the current number of 15, and the rules regarding the value of a goal were tweaked in the first few years of the competition. The provincial championships were introduced in 1888 in Munster, Connacht, the winners of the provincial finals participated in the All-Ireland semi-finals.
Over time the Leinster and Munster teams grew to become the superpowers of the game, as Gaelic football was the dominant sport in Ulster. After some time Galway became the only team in Connacht and was essentially given an automatic pass to the All-Ireland semi-final every year. This knock-out system persisted for over 100 years and was considered to be the fairest system as the All-Ireland champions would always be the only undefeated team of the year. In the mid-1990s the Gaelic Athletic Association looked at developing a new system whereby a defeat in the championship for teams would not mean an immediate exit from the Championship. In the 1997 championship the first major change in format arrived when the system was introduced. This new structure allowed the defeated Munster and Leinster finalists another chance to regain a place in the All-Ireland semi-finals and Kilkenny were the first two teams to benefit from the new system when they defeated Down and Galway respectively in the quarter-finals
Hurling, is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The game has prehistoric origins, and has played for 3,000 years. One of Irelands native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, there is a similar game for women called camogie. It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with a hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, no protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, the game has been described as a bastion of humility, with player names absent from jerseys and a players number decided by his position on the field.
Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina, in many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art such as film, music. A team comprises 15 players, or hurlers, the hurley is generally 24 to 36 inches in length. The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre, the goalkeepers hurley usually has a bas twice the size of other players hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar. A good strike with a hurley can propel the ball over 150 km/h in speed and 110 metres in distance, a ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball that is hit under the bar is called a goal and is three points. As of 2010, all players must wear a helmet, a hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 metres long and 80–90 m wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, a net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts.
The same pitch is used for Gaelic football, the GAA, lines are marked at distances of 14 yards,21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams, teams consist of fifteen players, a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards