Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Los Angeles City Hall
Los Angeles City Hall, completed in 1928, is the center of the government of the city of Los Angeles and houses the mayor's office and the meeting chambers and offices of the Los Angeles City Council. It is located in the Civic Center district of downtown Los Angeles in the city block bounded by Main, Temple and Spring streets; the building was designed by John Parkinson, John C. Austin, Albert C. Martin, Sr. and was completed in 1928. Dedication ceremonies were held on April 26, 1928, it has 32 floors and, at 454 feet high, is the tallest base-isolated structure in the world, having undergone a seismic retrofit from 1998 to 2001 so that the building will sustain minimal damage and remain functional after a magnitude 8.2 earthquake. The concrete in its tower was made with sand from each of California's 58 counties and water from its 21 historical missions. City Hall's distinctive tower was based on the shape of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, shows the influence of the Los Angeles Public Library, completed shortly before the structure was begun.
An image of City Hall has been on Los Angeles Police Department badges since 1940. To keep the City's architecture harmonious, prior to the late 1950s the Charter of the City of Los Angeles did not permit any portion of any building other than a purely decorative tower to be more than 150 ft. Therefore, from its completion in 1928 until 1964, the City Hall was the tallest building in Los Angeles, shared the skyline with only a few structures having decorative towers, including the Richfield Tower and the Eastern Columbia Building. City Hall has an observation deck, free to the public and open Monday through Friday during business hours; the peak of the pyramid at the top of the building is an airplane beacon named in honor of Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, cf Lindbergh Beacon. Circa 1939, there was an art gallery, in Room 351 on the third floor, that exhibited paintings by California artists; the building was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1976. In 1998 the building was closed during a total $135 million refurbishment which included upgrading it so it could withstand a magnitude 8.2 earthquake including permitting it to sway in a quake.
Prior to the completion of the current structure, the L. A. City Council utilized various other buildings: 1850s: used rented hotel and other buildings for City meetings 1860s: rented adobe house on Spring Street—across from current City Hall 1860s–1884: relocated to Los Angeles County Court House 1884–1888: moved to building at South Spring Street and West 2nd Street 1888–1928: moved to new Romanesque Revival building on 226-238 South Broadway between 2nd Street and 3rd Street; the Mayor of Los Angeles has an office in room 300 of this building and every Tuesday and Friday at 10:00am, the Los Angeles City Council meets in its chamber. City Hall and the adjacent federal and county buildings are served by the Civic Center station on the LA Metro Red Line and Purple Line; the Silver Line stops in front of the building. An observation level is open to the public on the 27th floor; the interior of this floor, comprises a single large and vaulted room distinguished by the iconic tall square columns that are far more familiar as one of the building's most distinguishing exterior features.
The Mayor Tom Bradley Room, as this large interior space is named, is used for ceremonies and other special occasions. The Los Angeles Dodgers wore a commemorative uniform patch during the 2018 season celebrating 60 years in the city depicting a logo of Los Angeles City Hall; the building has been featured in the following popular movies and television shows: Adventures of Superman: The building appears as the Daily Planet building beginning in the second season of the 1950s TV series. At the time the TV program was broadcast, the show's Daily Planet building was confused with the designed Pennsylvania Power & Light Building in Allentown built in 1928. Additionally, the exact design of this building is used as the Newstime magazine headquarters in the Superman comic books. Alias: A CIA black ops unit is located behind a maintenance door at Civic Station. Dragnet: The building appears as itself in the TV series; the first episode of Dragnet Season 1, Episode 1: "The Human Bomb", original air date 16 December 1951, was filmed at Los Angeles City Hall.
It was embossed on Sgt. Joe Friday's famous badge number 714, displayed under the credits. Perry Mason: The City Hall building appears in the view from Perry's office window; this has led viewers of the show to speculate where the fictional office would have been located in downtown Los Angeles. L. A. Confidential: The police in the 1997 neo-noir film operate out of the City hall, as well as the police badges featuring a depiction the building itself. At the time the film takes place no building in Los Angeles was allowed to be taller than City Hall, so the cameras were placed at certain points so that any building taller than City Hall would not be seen. Tower of Terror: In this 1997 made-for-TV movie, the main character's love interest works at a fictional newspaper, The Los Angeles Banner; the newspaper's logo is based on the top of the city hall. Adam-12: During the seventh season opening credits montage, City Hall is shown directly at the end, as the building that officers Reed and Malloy drive away from.
It is shown on the embossed badges numbered 744 and 2430. The 2003 Dragnet series used the L. A. City Hall building aerial shot and badge throughout its introduction. War of the Worlds: The Ci
Government of Los Angeles
The Government of Los Angeles operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Los Angeles. The elected government is composed of the Los Angeles City Council with 15 city council districts and the Mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as several other elective offices; the current mayor is Eric Garcetti, the current City Attorney is Mike Feuer and the current City Controller is Ron Galperin. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Fire Department, the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the Los Angeles Public Library, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; the government of the city of Los Angeles includes the following city officers: Mayor Members of the Council City Attorney City Clerk Controller Treasurer The members of the boards or commissions of the departments and the chief administrative officer of each department and office An Executive Director of the Board of Police Commissioners Other officers as prescribed by ordinance The Mayor of Los Angeles is the chief executive officer of the city.
The officeholder is elected for a four-year term, limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Eric Garcetti. The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of Los Angeles; the council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms and limited to three terms. The president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting after June 30 in odd-numbered years. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the president; the current president of the Los Angeles City Council is Herb Wesson, the president pro tempore is Mitchell Englander and the assistant president pro tempore is Nury Martinez. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution; the Los Angeles Police Department polices the city of Los Angeles.
It is governed by the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners and the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. The city maintains specialized police agencies; the Los Angeles General Services Police, which provided police coverage for Los Angeles city owned property and parks was absorbed into the LAPD in 2012. The Los Angeles Unified School District maintains it own separate police department, as do many other school districts and college campuses within the city; the Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils; the Los Angeles City Attorney is an elected official whose job is legal counsel for the city and may prosecute misdemeanor criminal offenses within the city.
The Los Angeles City Clerk is in charge of record keeping for elections. The Los Angeles City Controller is the elected chief accounting officer of the city; the Los Angeles City Treasurer handles financial matters. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the: Los Angeles City Clerk Economic & Workforce Development Department Office of Finance Los Angeles Fire Department Los Angeles Housing + Community Investment Department Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Los Angeles Port Police Los Angeles Public Library Department of Recreation and Parks Los Angeles Department of Transportation Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners The most recent elections were in May 2013, with 13th district City Councilman Eric Garcetti defeating City Controller Wendy Greuel for Mayor; the voter turnout was about 19% of registered voters, one of the lowest turnouts on record, with Garcetti garnering about 54% of the votes.
The Charter of the City of Los Angeles is the founding document of Los Angeles. Pursuant to its Charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance subject to a veto by the Mayor. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Administrative Code, consisting of administrative and procedural ordinances, the Municipal Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction and may be prosecuted by city authorities; the Los Angeles Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system. The courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the stat
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,988 officers and 2,869 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the Chicago Police Department and the New York City Police Department; the department operates in a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous films and television shows throughout its history; the department has been associated with a number of controversies concerned with racism, police brutality, police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces; the Rangers were soon succeeded by another volunteer group. Neither force was efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence and vice; the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren.
By 1900, under John M. Glass, there were one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200; the CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher. Rosenquist was famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies; as the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. During World War II, under Clemence B. Horrall, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots. Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton, who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality.
The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station. Due to Dragnet's popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era.
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St; the new headquarters is 300 yards west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. south of Los Angeles City Hall, which opened in October 2009. The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD; the board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board; the Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct. It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners; the current Inspector General is Mark P. Smith, the Constitutional Policing Advisor for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality; as well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. The Office of the Chief of Police has the responsibility for assisting the Chief of Police in the administration of the department; the Chief of Staff is responsible for coordinating the flow of information from command staff to ensure that the Chief is informed prior to making decisions and coordinating special administrative audits and investigations, assisting and submitting recommendations to the Chief of Police in matters involving employee relations. The Office of the Chief of Staff is composed of the Board of Police Commissioners Liaison, the Public Communications Group, the Media Relations Division, the Employee Relations Group.
The Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy Police Administrator III Arif Alikhan reports directl
Frank L. Shaw
Frank L. Shaw was the first mayor of a major American city to be recalled from office, in 1938, he was a member of the Los Angeles City Council and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. His administration was seen as one of the most corrupt in Los Angeles history, although he had some defenders and was never charged with any crime. Shaw, the son of John D. Shaw and Katherine Roche, was born February 1, 1877, in or near Warwick, Ontario, he had Joseph. The family moved to Detroit, Michigan Colorado in the late 1880s and Kansas, before settling in Missouri, he went in Joplin, Missouri. He studied business and began clerking in a country store in Joplin and soon became a salesman with the Campbell-Redell Wholesale Grocery Company, he remained in the grocery business for thirty years, except when he was with the Ozark Coal and Railroad Company at Fort Smith, Arkansas. As a representative of the Cudahy Packing Company, Shaw moved to Los Angeles in 1909. In 1919 he joined the Haas-Baruch Company in Los Angeles and left it when he was elected to the City Council.
Shaw's childhood affliction with polio left him with a noticeable limp for the rest of his life. He was married to Cora H. Shires on February 5, 1905, in Fort Smith, in 1909 the couple moved to Los Angeles, they had no children. She died in 1951 at the age of 68. At age 76, Frank Shaw was secretly married in Tijuana, Mexico to Dortha Sheehan, age 22, revealed the fact three years in January 1956. Shaw was a member of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, the United Commercial Travelers of America, the Los Angeles Athletic and Jonathan clubs, the Presbyterian Church, Masonic Temple 320, the Shriners and the Elks, Moose and Maccabee lodges, he died of cancer on January 24, 1958. His residence with Dortha was 101 or 108 West 71st Street, in the Florence district. Burial took place in Inglewood Park Cemetery. After Shaw's death, a will leaving all of his estate to Dortha Shaw was contested in court by a group of the former mayor's relatives, led by Shaw's niece, Frances S. Lawrence, his brother, Joseph.
A jury sided with the Lawrence claim that Shaw had been unduly influenced by his new wife, but the verdict was not put into effect because all of the parties agreed to a settlement. Shaw was a large property owner, active in the United Commercial Travelers' Association when he filed for the 1925 election in the 8th Councilmanic District, he was living at 110 West 59th Place in the Florence District. He won reelection to two-year terms in 1925 and 1927. District 8 in 1925 included the area south of Washington Street, north of Jefferson on the western side and north of Slauson Avenue on the eastern side, bounded on the east by Alameda Street and the Vernon city line. In 1926 it was described as bounded by 47th Street, Vermont Avenue, Florence Avenue and Alameda Street. Both Shaw and Council Member R. S. Sparks raised criticism in advance of the May 1927 primary election when they each sent letters on city stationery to people who were on a tentative list for appointment as election workers asking them to call on the two councilmen to discuss, in the words of Shaw's letter, "several matters which I believe will prove advantageous to you."
Shaw denied. Shaw ran for the Board of Supervisors in 1928 and ousted Supervisor Jack Bean, who had attempted to mock Shaw as "the grocery boy who made good." He was reelected in 1930 and 1932 and was named chairman of the board by his fellow supervisors in 1932 and 1933. On the board he proposed the establishment of a county psychopathic clinic, which he said would be to "keep people out of asylums and prisons, not put them in." He was named chairman of a countywide committee on employment formed to help fight the "present crisis in the unemployment situation," and he proposed that employees in "all governmental departments as well as private business and industry" should be given a five-day week, "or a shorter work day," to meet the situation. In March 1933, Shaw abandoned his previous temperance stand in the battle over Prohibition repeal when he joined a 3-2 majority in deciding to repeal a county ordinance, more drastic than the national Volstead Act, which controlled the production and sale of liquor throughout the United States.
While still a supervisor, Shaw ran for the mayoralty of Los Angeles in 1933 against the incumbent, John C. Porter, was elected in the final vote, 187,053 to 155,513. During his term, the Los Angeles International Airport and the Slauson Avenue storm drain projects were developed by the Works Progress Administration, the Los Angeles Harbor became home base for the Pacific Fleet and the city employees' retirement system was begun. Union Station and the downtown Federal Building were constructed. Meanwhile, the corruption in City Hall led to a recall movement against him and his close associates. "Police misconduct and the mayor’s mishandling of public funds forced Shaw from office and led to the election of reform mayor Fletcher Bowron in 1938." He was the first mayor of a major American city to be recalled from office. Mayors Arthur C. Harper and Porter had faced recalls. Citizenship A major controversy erupted after Shaw's election as mayor when Charles A. Butler, former secretary of the Eagle Rock Chamber of Commerce, filed suit, alleging that Shaw was not a citizen and therefore could not be sworn into office.
It developed that Shaw's Canadian-born father had taken out his first U. S. citizenship papers in Hays City, Kansas, in 1887, but no record could be found of a final d
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa