Great Falls, Montana
Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, United States. The 2015 census estimate put the population at 59,638, the population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area. Great Falls was the largest city in Montana from 1950 to 1970, Great Falls remained the second largest city in Montana until 2000, when it was passed by Missoula. Since Great Falls has been the third largest city in the state, each falls sports a hydroelectric dam today, hence Great Falls is nicknamed the Electric City. Currently there are two undeveloped parts of their route, these are included within the Great Falls Portage. The city is home to the C. M, the local newspaper is the Great Falls Tribune. A Coldwell Banker Home Price Comparison Index listed Great Falls as the most affordable area of 348 markets in the US, and Puerto Rico. The first human beings to live in the Great Falls area were Paleo-Indians who migrated into the region between 9,500 BCE and 8,270 BCE, the earliest inhabitants of North America entered Montana east of the Continental Divide between the mountains and the Laurentide ice sheet.
The area remained sparsely inhabited, however. Salish Indians would often hunt bison in the region on a seasonal basis, around 1600, Piegan Blackfeet Indians, migrating west, entered the area, pushing the Salish back into the Rocky Mountains and claiming the site now known as Great Falls as their own. The Great Falls location remained the tribal territory of the Blackfeet until long after the United States claimed the region in 1803. Meriwether Lewis was the first white person to visit the area, york, an African American slave owned by William Clark and who had participated in the Expedition, was the first black American to visit the site of the future city. Bridger and Major Andrew Henry led an expedition to the future city location in April 1823. British explorer Alexander Ross trapped around Great Falls in 1824, in 1838, a mapping expedition sent by the U. S. federal government and guided by Bridger spent four years in the area. Margaret Harkness Woodman became the first white woman to visit the Great Falls area in 1862, the first steamboat arrived at future site of the city in 1859.
Politically, the site of Great Falls passed through numerous hands in the 19th century. It was part of the frontier until May 30,1854
Pacific Coast Conference
The Pacific Coast Conference was a college athletic conference in the United States which existed from 1915 to 1959. The name Pacific Coast Conference is now used by a San Diego area community college established in 1982. Established on December 2,1915, its four members were the University of California, the University of Washington, the University of Oregon. Among other complaints, he disdained the quality of education in the Oregon schools, pauley felt that University of California campuses deserved to play against colleges with comparably high academic standards. The PCC had a commissioner, an elaborate constitution, a formal code of conduct. Following the submission of his report, Atherton was promptly hired as commissioner in 1940, the conference was wracked by scandal in 1951. Charges were made and confirmed that University of Oregon football coach Jim Aiken had violated the code for financial aid. After Aiken was compelled to resign, Oregon urged the PCC to look at similar abuses by UCLA football coach Red Sanders, the conference spent five years attempting to reform itself.
In 1956, the scandal became public, the scandal first broke in Washington, when in January 1956, several discontented players staged a mutiny against their coach, John Cherberg. After the coach was fired, the PCC followed up on charges of a slush fund, the PCC found evidence of the prohibited activities of the Greater Washington Advertising Fund run by Roscoe C. Torchy Torrance, and in May imposed sanctions, in March, allegations of prohibited payments made by two booster clubs associated with UCLA, the Bruin Bench and the Young Mens Club of Westwood, were published in Los Angeles newspapers. UCLA refused for ten weeks to allow PCC officials to proceed in their investigation and this same alumnus blew the whistle on Cals phony work program for athletes known as the San Francisco Gridiron Club, with an extension in the Los Angeles area known as the South Seas Fund. The first major reaction came from the University of California system, for Sproul the PCC dispute was not just about athletics, at stake was the ideal of a unified University of California that enjoyed statewide support.
This ideal collided with aspirations of UCLA alumni who believed that Sprouls vision would always favor the Berkeley campus at the expense of the younger UCLA campus. Oregon State College president August Leroy Strand wrote, The reasons for California and UCLA dropping out are as different as night, the significance of the whole affair was the union of Berkeley and UCLA. Admissions and scholarship had nothing to do with the withdrawals, the PCC was falling apart, leading to the decision to dissolve after the 1958-59 season. Soon after the PCC was dissolved, five of its nine members created the Athletic Association of Western Universities for the 1959 season, after initially being blocked from admission, three of the four remaining schools would eventually join, but members were not required to play other members. Tensions were high between UCLA and Stanford, as Stanford had voted for UCLAs expulsion from the PCC, Idaho was not involved in the scandals but had become noncompetitive in the PCC
Oklahoma City Stars
The Oklahoma City Stars are the athletic teams that represent Oklahoma City University, located in Oklahoma City, in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. Until 1986, the Stars competed in the NCAA Division I Horizon League, which was known as the Midwestern City Conference at that time. Oklahoma City has made 18 NAIA tournament appearances,1987,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2010. As a member of the NCAA, Oklahoma City went to the NCAA tournament 11 times, the most of any school no longer a member of the NCAA. OCU appeared in the NCAA tournament in 1952,1953,1954,1955,1956,1957,1963,1964,1965,1966, and 1973, Oklahoma City has had 71 Major League Baseball Draft selections since the draft began in 1965. In 2012, Kevin Patrick Hardy became OCUs first national champion in wrestling, taking the title at 165 pounds. Hardy was a Division 1 three time champion at Solon High School in Ohio. Through the Spring 2012 sports season, Oklahoma City has won 41 national championships, of these,36 are NAIA championships, and four are WCWA championships.
Oklahoma City won the NACDA Directors Cup for the NAIA in 2002, the first and most successful innovation was credited to opposing coach Dike Beede when the football team played in the 1941 Oklahoma City vs. Youngstown football game. This game marks the first American football game to use a penalty flag, the second innovation was an unsuccessful venture to allow a coach to be on the field with the offense to help call plays and provide additional coaching as time allows. Doenges proposed tests with opposing coaches and at least two agreed to test the idea, the concept itself was considered a success and rules changes eventually allowed coaches on the sidelines to call plays and send plays in with a substitute. Also, Doenges is credited with inventing the offensive V formation while at Oklahoma City, nicknamed Three dots and a dash, the program presented the new offensive formation to great fanfare before losing to the Southwestern Moundbuilders by a score of 7–0. The team played Toledo in the 1948 Glass Bowl, losing 27–14, the school is currently known as the Stars, but was known as the Goldbugs or Gold Bugs in the 1920s, 30s and early 40s
Lubbock is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, United States. The city is located in the part of the state. According to a 2015 Census estimate, Lubbock had a population of 249,042, making it the 83rd most populous city in the United States of America and the 11th most populous city in the state of Texas. The city is the center of the Lubbock metropolitan area. The area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is dependent on water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer for irrigation. Lubbock was selected as the 12th best place to start a business by CNNMoney. com. CNN mentioned the traditional business atmosphere, low rent for commercial space, central location. Lubbock is home to Texas Tech University, the sixth-largest college by enrollment in the state, Lubbock High School has been recognized for three consecutive years by Newsweek as one of the top high schools in the United States based in part on its international baccalaureate program. Lubbock County was founded in 1876 and it was named after Thomas Saltus Lubbock, former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War.
As early as 1884, a federal post office existed in Yellow House Canyon, a small town, known as Old Lubbock, Lubbock, or North Town, was established about three miles to the east. In 1890, the original Lubbock merged with Monterey, another small town south of the canyon, the new town adopted the Lubbock name. The merger included moving the original Lubbocks Nicolett Hotel across the canyon on rollers to the new townsite, Lubbock became the county seat in 1891, and was incorporated on March 16,1909. In the same year, the first railroad train arrived, Texas Technological College was founded in Lubbock in 1923. A separate university, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, opened as Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 1969, both universities are now overseen by the Texas Tech University System, after it was established in 1996 and based in Lubbock. Lubbock Christian University, founded in 1957, and Sunset International Bible Institute, South Plains College and Wayland Baptist University operate branch campuses in Lubbock.
At one time, Lubbock was home to Reese Air Force Base located 6 miles west of the city, the bases primary mission throughout its existence was pilot training. The base was closed 30 September 1997 after being selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission in 1995 and is now a research, the city is home to the Lubbock Lake Landmark, part of the Museum of Texas Tech University. The landmark is an archaeological and natural preserve at the northern edge of the city
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
Little Brown Stein
The Little Brown Stein is a rivalry trophy awarded to the winner of the college football game between the University of Idaho Vandals and University of Montana Grizzlies. The trophy is, as the name implies, a large mug with the results of all the games between the two painted on. The game was last played 14 years ago in 2003, the series is set to resume in 2018, when Idaho rejoins the Big Sky for football. Idaho and Montana first played 114 years ago in 1903 and have played 84 times, Idaho has dominated the overall series, which includes two Division I-AA playoff wins at home in the 1980s. Montana has had the hand since 1991, winning eight of the last ten. Since Idaho moved back up to Division I-A in 1996, the teams have met five times, the schools were the only public universities in their respective states for decades, and are about 200 miles apart. Moscow and Missoula are on sides of the lower Idaho Panhandle. Both were members of the old Pacific Coast Conference, Montana departed after the 1950 season, the universities were charter members of the Big Sky Conference in 1963, and their final season as conference opponents was in 1995.
After the 2000 season, the Big West dropped football, Idaho became a football-only member of the Sun Belt Conference in 2001 while remaining a full Big West member. Idaho joined the WAC for all sports in 2005 as part of a major NCAA conference realignment, after the WAC experienced a near-complete membership turnover in the early 2010s, it dropped football after the 2012 season. Idaho football was an FBS independent for one season in 2013, Idaho returned to the Big Sky in 2014 except for football, which rejoined the Sun Belt. Idaho will drop back to FCS in 2018 and resume football membership in the Big Sky
1937 Texas Tech Red Raiders football team
The 1937 Texas Tech Red Raiders football team represented Texas Tech during the 1937 college football season