History of Italy
The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic as early as 6000–5500 BC Cardium Pottery, among the Italic peoples, the Latins, originally situated in the Latium region, and their Latin language would come to dominate the peninsula with the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. The decline and collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity, a Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained under Byzantine rule and influence until the 11th century. With the rise of nationalism and the idea of the state in the 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa. However, many regions of the nation remained rural and poor. Part of the allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated its historical enemy.
Soon afterwards, the state collapsed to social unrest. Italy joined the Axis powers in World War II, falling into a bloody Civil War in 1943, in 1946, as a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946, in the 1950s and 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, cultural, in prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape. During the last Ice Age, the islands of Elba and Sicily were connected to the mainland. The Adriatic Sea was far smaller, since it started at what is now the Gargano peninsula, the arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. The presence of the Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens sapiens appeared during the upper Palaeolithic. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria, Lombardy.
The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, Indoeuropean people migrated to Italy, approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been identified
History of Belgium
The history of Belgium predates the founding of the modern state of that name in 1830. Belgiums history is intertwined with those of its neighbours, the Netherlands, France, due to its strategic location and the many armies fighting on its soil, since the Thirty Years War, Belgium has often been called the battlefield of Europe or the cockpit of Europe. It is remarkable as a European nation which contains, and is divided by, Belgiums formation, like that of its Benelux neighbours, can be traced back to the Seventeen Provinces within the Burgundian Netherlands. The Eighty Years War, led to the split between a northern Dutch Republic, and the Southern Netherlands from which Belgium and Luxembourg developed and this southern territory continued to be ruled by the Habsburg descendants of the Burgundian house, at first as the Spanish Netherlands. Invasions from France under Louis XIV led to the loss of what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais to France, the French Revolutionary wars led to Belgium becoming part of France in 1795, bringing the end of the semi-independence of areas which had belonged to the Catholic church.
The king set up his own private colonial empire in the Belgian Congo, Belgium was neutral but its strategic location as a pathway to France made it an invasion target for Germany in 1914 and 1940. Conditions under the occupation were severe, in the postwar period Belgium was a leader in European unification, as a founding member of what has become the European Union. Brussels is now host to the headquarters of NATO and is the de facto capital of the European Union, the colonies became independent in the early 1960s. Politically the country was once polarized on matters of religion and, in recent decades, it has faced new divisions over differences of language and the unequal economic development. This ongoing antagonism has caused far-reaching reforms since the 1970s, changing the formerly unitary Belgian state into a federal state and it is now divided into three regions, Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the South, and bilingual Brussels in the middle. There is a German-speaking population along the border with Germany, on Belgian territory Neanderthal fossils were discovered at Engis in 1829-30 and elsewhere, some dating back to at least 100,000 BCE.
The earliest Neolithic farming technology of northern Europe, the so-called LBK culture and its expansion stopped in the Hesbaye region of eastern Belgium around 5000 BCE. The Belgian LBK is notable for its use of walls around villages. A slightly later-starting Neolithic culture found in central Wallonia is the so-called Groupe de Blicquy, one notable archaeological site in this region is the Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes. Farming in Belgium however failed to take permanent hold at first, the LBK and Blicquy cultures disappeared and there is a long gap before a new farming culture, the Michelsberg culture and became widespread. Hunter gatherers of the Swifterbant culture apparently remained in the north of Belgium. In the third and late fourth millennia BCE, the whole of Flanders shows relatively little evidence of human habitation, although it is felt that there was a continuing human presence, the types of evidence available make judgement about the details very difficult. The Seine-Oise-Marne culture spread into the Ardennes, and is associated with megalithic sites there, the same pattern continues into the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age
History of Romania
This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the history of Romania, details are presented in separate articles. 34,950 year old human remains with a possible Neaderthalian trait were discovered in present-day Romania when the Peștera cu Oase was uncovered in 2002. The remains are especially interesting because they present a mixture of archaic, early modern human, the Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the western region of the earliest European civilization, known as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage, the earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of present-day Romania, the Getae, comes from Herodotus, in his Histories book IV. Territories located north of the Danube were inhabited by Dacians, who are considered to have belonged to the Getae tribes, mentioned by Herodotus, the Dacian kingdom reached its peak between 82 and 44 BC during the reign of Burebista.
The earliest written evidence of living in the territory of the present-day Romania comes from Herodotus in book IV of his Histories written c.440 BCE. Herein he writes that the confederation of the Getae were defeated by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great during his campaign against the Scythians. The Dacians, widely accepted as part of the Getae described earlier by the Greeks, were a branch of Thracians that inhabited Dacia, the Dacian Kingdom reached its maximum expansion during King Burebista, between 82 BCE -44 BCE. Under his leadership Dacia became a state which threatened the regional interests of the Romans. Julius Caesar intended to start a campaign against the Dacians, due to the support that Burebista gave to Pompey, a few months later, Burebista shared the same fate, assassinated by his own noblemen. Another theory suggests that he was killed by Caesars friends and his powerful state was divided in four and did not become unified again until 95 AD, under the reign of the Dacian king Decebalus.
The Roman Empire conquered Moesia by 29 BC, reaching the Danube, in 87 AD Emperor Domitian sent six legions into Dacia, which were defeated at Tapae. The Dacians were eventually defeated by Emperor Trajan in two campaigns stretching from 101 AD to 106 AD, and the core of their kingdom was turned into the province of Roman Dacia, the Romans exploited the rich ore deposits of Dacia. Gold and silver were especially plentiful, and were found in quantities in the Western Carpathians. After Trajans conquest, he back to Rome over 165 tons of gold and 330 tons of silver. The Romans heavily colonized the province, and thus started a period of intense romanization and these military vestiges particularise the Romanian language in the neolatin area. s. o. Sat “village”, şes “plain”, a supune, tindă “veranda” and this linguistic evidence challenges the Roeslerian theory. The vestiges from sermo castrensis particularize the Romanian language in the neolatin area, with Rom. māgurā and Alb. magulë etc
History of Estonia
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe. Humans settled in the region of Estonia near the end of the last glacial era, before German crusaders invaded in the early 13th century, proto-Estonians of ancient Estonia worshipped spirits of nature. From 1418 to 1562 the whole of Estonia formed part of the Livonian Confederation, after the Livonian War of 1558-1583, Estonia became part of the Swedish Empire until 1710/1721, when Sweden ceded it to Russia as a result of the Great Northern War of 1700-1721. Throughout this period the Baltic-German nobility enjoyed autonomy, and German served as the language of administration and education, the Estophile Enlightenment Period led to the Estonian national awakening in the middle of the 19th century. In the aftermath of World War I and the Russian revolutions of 1917, the Estonian War of Independence ensued on two fronts, the newly proclaimed state fought against Bolshevist Russia to the east and against the Baltic German forces to the south.
The Tartu Peace Treaty marked the end of fighting and recognised Estonian independence in perpetuity, in 1940, in the wake of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia and illegally annexed the country. In the course of Operation Barbarossa, Nazi Germany occupied Estonia in 1941, Estonia regained independence in 1991 in the course of the collapse of the USSR and joined the European Union and NATO in 2004. The region has been populated since the end of the Late Pleistocene Ice Age, the earliest traces of human settlement in Estonia are connected with the Kunda culture. The early mesolithic Pulli settlement is located by the Pärnu River and it has been dated to the beginning of the 9th millennium BC. The Kunda culture received its name from the Lammasmäe settlement site in northern Estonia and stone artifacts similar to those found at Kunda have been discovered elsewhere in Estonia, as well as in Latvia, northern Lithuania and southern Finland. Among minerals and quartz were used the most for making cutting tools, the beginning of the Neolithic Period is marked by the ceramics of the Narva culture, and appear in Estonia at the beginning of the 5th millennium.
The oldest finds date from around 4900 BC, the first pottery was made of thick clay mixed with pebbles, shells or plants. The Narva-type ceramics are found throughout almost the entire Estonian coastal region and on the islands, the stone and bone tools of the era have a notable similarity with the artifacts of the Kunda culture. Around the beginning of 4th millennium BC Comb Ceramic culture arrived in Estonia, until the early 1980s the arrival of Finnic peoples, the ancestors of the Estonians and Livonians, on the shores of the Baltic Sea was associated with the Comb Ceramic Culture. Some researchers have argued that a Uralic form of language may have been spoken in Estonia. The burial customs of the comb pottery people included additions of figures of animals, birds and men carved from bone, antiquities from comb pottery culture are found from Northern Finland to Eastern Prussia. The beginning of the Late Neolithic Period about 2200 BC is characterized by the appearance of the Corded Ware culture, pottery with corded decoration, evidence of agriculture is provided by charred grains of wheat on the wall of a corded-ware vessel found in Iru settlement.
Osteological analysis show an attempt was made to domesticate the wild boar, specific burial customs were characterized by the dead being laid on their sides with their knees pressed against their breast, one hand under the head
History of San Marino
The history of San Marino is typical for the Italian Peninsula, and yet helps explain its unusual characteristics as the sole remaining Italian microstate. San Marino is the only surviving Italian microstate, along with Vatican City and Lesotho it is one of the three states surrounded by a single other country. San Marino asserts its independence and various treaties of friendship have been signed with Italy since the latter’s unification, San Marino, the worlds fifth-smallest state, claims to be the worlds oldest surviving republic. There he built a chapel and monastery, the State of San Marino would bud from the centre created by this monastery. Living in geographical isolation from the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians at the time and it is certain that the region has been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of the existence of a community on Mount Titano dates back only to the Middle Ages. That evidence comes from a monk named Eugippio, who reports in several documents going back to 511 that another monk lived here.
In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed Land of San Marino, papers from the 9th century report a well organized and proud community, the writings report that the bishop ruled this territory. In the Lombard age, San Marino was a fief of the dukes of Spoleto, the original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family. In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent were established to be the joint heads of state, the states earliest statutes date back to 1263. The Holy See confirmed the independence of San Marino in 1631, in quick succession, the lords of Montefeltro, the Malatesta of Rimini, and the lords of Urbino attempted to conquer the little town, but without success. As a result, Pope Pius II gave San Marino some castles, that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged, as the political scientist Jorri Duursma notes, San Marino does not have an official Constitution as such.
The first legal documents which mentioned San Marinos institutional organs were the Statutes of 1600, popular misunderstanding sometimes credits the country with a written constitution dating from 1600. San Marino faced many potential threats, thus a treaty of protection was signed in 1602 with Pope Clement VIII, which came into force in 1631. San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries three times in its history, each for only a period of time. Two of these periods were in the feudal era, in 1503, Cesare Borgia occupied the republic until his death several months later. An alliance could have meant the loss of its liberty so a prudent course of action was taken, the Government of San Marino replied that it would do everything possible to fulfil the request, even though, in reality, the bishop was able to flee across the border. A solution was found by one of the Regents, Antonio Onofri, while grateful for the former, the offer of territorial expansion was politely declined by San Marino
History of Finland
The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the last ice age, which ended in 9000 BC. Finnish nationalism emerged, focused on Finnish cultural traditions, including music and—especially—the highly distinctive language, the catastrophic Finnish famine of 1866–1868 was followed by eased economic regulations and extensive emigration. A civil war between the Finnish Red Guards and the White Guard ensued a few later, with the Whites gaining the upper hand during the springtime of 1918. After the internal affairs stabilized, the mainly agrarian economy grew relatively quickly. Relations with the West, especially Sweden and Britain, were strong, Finland remained an independent democracy in North Europe. In the latter half of its independent history, Finland has maintained a mixed economy, since its post-World War II economic boom in the 1970s, Finlands GDP per capita has been among the worlds highest. The expanded welfare state of Finland from 1970 and 1990 increased the public employees and spending.
In 1992, Finland simultaneously faced economic overheating and depressed Western, Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and replaced the Finnish markka with the euro in 2002. According to a 2005 poll, most Finns at that point were reluctant to join NATO, if confirmed, the oldest archeological site in Finland would be the Wolf Cave in Kristinestad, in Ostrobothnia. The last ice age in the area of the modern-day Finland ended c.9000 BC, starting about that time, people migrated to the area of Finland from the Kunda and—possibly—Swiderian cultures, and they are believed to be ancestors of todays Finnish and Sami people in Finland. The oldest confirmed evidence of the human settlements in Finland are from the area of Ristola in Lahti and from Orimattila. Finland has been inhabited at least since the end of the last ice age. The earliest post-glacial inhabitants of the area of Finland were probably mainly seasonal hunter-gatherers. Their artifacts discovered are known to represent the Suomusjärvi and the Kunda cultures, among finds is the net of Antrea, the oldest fishing net known ever to have been excavated.
By 5300 BC pottery was present in Finland, the earliest samples belong to the Comb Ceramic Cultures, known for their distinctive decorating patterns. This marks the beginning of the period for Finland, although subsistence was still based on hunting and fishing. Extensive networks of exchange existed across Finland and northeastern Europe during the 5th millennium BC, rock paintings — apparently related to shamanistic and totemistic belief systems — have been found, especially in Eastern Finland, e. g. Astuvansalmi. Between 3500 and 2000 BC, monumental stone enclosures colloquially known as Giants Churches were constructed in the Ostrobothnia region, the purpose of the enclosures is unknown
The 1930s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1930, and ended on December 31,1939. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in countries in Europe and South America. The 1930s saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of aviation, radio. Colombia–Peru War – fought between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru, Chaco War – the war was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over the disputed territory of Gran Chaco resulting in an overall Paraguayan victory in 1935. An agreement dividing the territory was made in 1938, officially ending outstanding differences, saudi–Yemeni War – was a war between Saudi Arabia and Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Second Sino-Japanese War – fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War, World War II breaks out on September 1,1939 Chinese Civil War - The ruling Kuomintang and the rebel Communist Party of China fight a civil war for control of China.
The Communists consolidated territory in the early 1930s and proclaimed a short-lived Chinese Soviet Republic that collapsed upon Kuomintang attacks, the Kuomintang and Communists attempted to put away their differences after 1937 to fight the Japanese occupation of China, but intermittent clashes continued through the remainder of the 1930s. Spanish Civil War – Germany and Italy back anti-communist Falange forces of Francisco Franco, the Soviet Union and international communist parties back the left-wing republican faction in the war. The war ends in April 1939 with Francos nationalist forces defeating the republican forces, Franco becomes Head of State of Spain, President of Government and de facto dictator. The Republic gives way to the Spanish State, an authoritarian dictatorship, Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations, but hosts the 1936 Summer Olympics to show his new reich to the world as well as the supposed superior athleticism of his Aryan troops/athletes. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attempts the appeasement of Hitler in hope of avoiding war by allowing the dictator to annex the Sudetenland, signing the Munich Agreement and promising constituents Peace for our time.
He was ousted in favor of Winston Churchill in May 1940, some 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. Kristallnacht served as the pretext for the confiscation of firearms from German Jews. Germany and Italy pursue territorial expansionist agendas, Germany demands the annexation of the Federal State of Austria and of other German-speaking territories in Europe. Between 1935 and 1936, Germany recovers the Saar and remilitarizes the Rhineland and Italy improve relations by forming an alliance against communism in 1936 with the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. Germany annexes Austria in the event known as the Anschluss, the annexation of the Sudetenland followed negotiations which resulted in the Munich Agreement of 1938. The Italian invasion of Albania in 1939 succeeds in turning the Kingdom of Albania into an Italian protectorate, the vacant Albanian throne was claimed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Per Albin Hansson
During World War II, in which Sweden maintained a policy of neutrality, he presided over a government of unity that included all major parties in the Riksdag. Following the war, Hansson formed a Social Democratic cabinet enjoying absolute majority in the Riksdag before succumbing to an attack on his way home from work late at night on 6 October 1946. Per Albin Hansson was born in Kulladal, a neighborhood in Malmö, per Albin Hansson held this office in all of Brantings three cabinets between 1920 and 1925, performing numerous cut-backs on the military budget. Upon Brantings death in 1925, Per Albin Hansson rose to be embraced as chairman of the party and his legitimacy remained under dispute and only in 1927 did he become the head of the Riksdag faction, before confirmed undisputedly as Brantings successor in a 1928 congress. The Social Democratic Party was not to run along with the Communists until the 2010 election, following the fall of Ekman in 1932 due to a corruption scandal involving late industrialist Ivar Kreuger, the Social Democrats made gains to possess 104 seats and 41, 7% of the electorate.
Following further negotiations, Hansson formed a coalition government with Pehrsson-Brahmstorp as Minister of Agriculture that enjoyed a robust majority. In 1939–1940 the Allies tried various ways to stop the shipments of Swedish ore, payments from the Allies reached in an agreement to stop the sale of steel to Nazi Germany, which was broken, and the Germans were charged extortionate smugglers rates for the steel. A downed stray V2 rocket was sold to the Allies in 1942, in effect, the main political priority was to avoid direct war engagement of Sweden during World War II. Following Germanys setbacks around 1942–43, Sweden was no longer threatened by invasion from the Third Reich. Per Albin Hansson, seen often as the most successful Prime Minister in Swedish history, is interred in Norra Begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. In the Swedish television movie, Four Days that shook Sweden – The Midsummer Crisis 1941, from 1988, Sweden during World War II Skåne Line Gustafsson, Agne. Media related to Per Albin Hansson at Wikimedia Commons
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages, and, as a result, at its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Greece to Egypt and to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories, nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece and Cyprus. The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their language, which was recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script). They were primarily a people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the eruption at Thera. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c.1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy, around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek.
The Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, which was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris, the Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They often buried daggers or some form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility were buried with gold masks, armor. Mycenaeans were buried in a position, and some of the nobility underwent mummification. Around 1100–1050 BC, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed, numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a dark age. During this period, Greece experienced a decline in population and literacy, the Greeks themselves have traditionally blamed this decline on an invasion by another wave of Greek people, the Dorians, although there is scant archaeological evidence for this view
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, economics, culture, technology.
The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system.
For the first time in history and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 1920s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1920, and ended on December 31,1929. French speakers refer to the period as the Années folles, emphasizing the social, artistic. The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s, each period of prosperity was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu, World War II, the 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the second largest oil producing nation. In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of political movements. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks’ victory in the Russian Civil War, fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far right political movements and fascism in Europe. The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America, the Roaring Twenties brought about several novel and highly visible social and cultural trends.
These trends, made possible by sustained economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Paris, Berlin, “Normalcy” returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism during World War I, jazz blossomed, and Art Deco peaked. For women, knee-length skirts and dresses became socially acceptable, as did bobbed hair with a marcel wave, the women who pioneered these trends were frequently referred to as flappers. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes, large baseball stadiums were built in major U. S. cities, in addition to palatial cinemas. Most independent countries passed womens suffrage after 1918, especially as a reward for support of the war effort and endurance of its deaths. Egypt officially becomes an independent country through the Declaration of 1922, though it remains under the military. Prohibition was finally repealed in 1933, organized crime turns to smuggling and bootlegging of liquor, led by figures such as Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Outfit.
The Immigration Act of 1924 places restrictions on immigration, the major sport was baseball and the most famous player was Babe Ruth. The Lost Generation, was the name Gertrude Stein gave to American writers and artists living in Europe during the 1920s. A peak in the early 1920s in the membership of the Ku Klux Klan of four to five million members, followed by a rapid decline down to an estimated 30,000 members by 1930. The Scopes Trial, which declared that John T. Scopes had violated the law by teaching evolution in schools, major armed conflict in Ireland including Irish War of Independence resulting in Ireland becoming an independent country in 1922 followed by the Irish Civil War