HNK Hajduk Split
HNK Hajduk Split referred to as Hajduk Split or Hajduk, is a professional Croatian football club founded in 1911, based in the city of Split. Since 1979, the club's home ground has been the 35,000-seat Stadion Poljud; the team's traditional home colours are white shirts with blue socks. Hajduk was founded by a group of Split students in a famous tavern known as U Fleků in Prague. Between the early 1920s and 1940, Hajduk participated in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia national championship. Following World War II and the formation of the Yugoslav league system in 1946, Hajduk went on to spend the entire SFR Yugoslavia period at the top level; the club's run continued following the breakup of Yugoslavia, as the club joined the Croatian First League in its inaugural season in 1992, never having been relegated from its top tier. They are one of the most successful teams in Croatia and ex-Yugoslavia, having won nine Yugoslav and six Croatian league championships, in addition to nine Yugoslav and five Croatian cup titles and five Croatian supercup titles, without being relegated from its countries top football league.
The club's "golden era" came in the 1970s, when they won four Yugoslav leagues and five Yugoslav cups. Hajduk is the only club in Yugoslav football history that has won five-straight Yugoslav cups, the only unbeaten champion. Hajduk's biggest European achievements are appearances in three European Cup quarter-finals, one UEFA Cup semi-final and one Cup Winners' Cup semi-final; the club's main rivals are Dinamo Zagreb, with matches between the two referred to as the Eternal Derby. Hajduk Split fans are called Torcida Split, who are the oldest organized firm in Europe, being founded in 1950; the inspiration of the name were the Brazilian fans at the 1950 FIFA World Cup which were called Torcida. Hajduk is the second most popular club in Croatia with more than one milion supporters or 24% of population. Traditionally club has the biggest support in Dalmatia; as of 2008, the club is a stock company, although not listed on the public stock exchange, with majority of the stock owned by the City of Split.
It is one of two fan-owned sports teams in Croatia, reaching over 43,000 members in 2016, over 31,000 members for current year. There are over 50 Hajduk fan clubs situated across Croatia and Germany, but as far as United States and Australia; the club was founded in the centuries-old pub U Fleků in Prague, by a group of students from Split: Fabjan Kaliterna, Lucijan Stella, Ivan Šakić and Vjekoslav Ivanišević. They went to the pub following a match between AC Sparta and SK Slavia and decided it was time their own town founded a professional club, they all knew how popular the sport was in their home city of Split, how well their friends can play. The club was registered with the authorities on 13 February 1911. While trying to come up with a name for the club, the students went to their old teacher Josip Barač for advice and according to accounts, after enthusiastically storming into his office, he told them to take the name "Hajduk" which symbolized "that, best in our people: bravery, friendship, love of freedom, defiance to powers, protection of the weak.
Be worthy of that great name". Hajduks were romanticized bandits, it is speculated that famed hajduk Andrija Šimić, who triumphantly arrived in Split in 1902 to cheering crowds, was the inspiration for the name. The founders subsequently designed the club's emblem, a group of Catholic nuns from a monastery in Split, created copies which were distributed to fans. Both the name and the checkered board on the crest were found provocative by the Monarchy, but it allowed them having been convinced that a football club is a good way to train soldiers. Hajduk gathered the pro-Croat party of citizens of Croat unionists or puntari; that is why the club has the name "hrvatski nogometni klub" and has the Croatian coat-of-arms in its crest. The club itself was against the Austrian-Hungarian government's policy of not allowing the unification of the Croatian provinces and keeping them separated. Hajduk's first opponent were Calcio Spalato, the club of an autonomist party from in Split, the match ended with a 9–0 victory for Hajduk.
The first to score for Hajduk was legend has it -- with his knee. In 1912, Hajduk played their first match in Zagreb against the HAŠK football club, lost 3–2; the first international match against an eminent opponent was held in 1913 against Czech club Slavia Prague, which at that time were one of the strongest squads in Europe. Hajduk ended up losing the match 1–13. After the formation of the Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes, Hajduk first entered the Yugoslav league in 1923, losing their first and only match that season against SAŠK. However, that same year while on tour in North Africa, Hajduk defeated Marseille 3–2 in their first international match, sparking mass celebrations in Split; the next year, the squad was considered so strong that 10 out of the 11 players which played an international friendly for Yugoslavia against Czechoslovakia were contracted to Hajduk. In 1926, in honour of the club's 15th birthday, composer Ivo Tijar
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Yugoslav First League
The Yugoslav First Federal Football League, was the premier football league in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The First League Championship was one of two national competitions held annually in Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav Cup being the other; the league became professional in 1967. The UEFA recognised successor league of the Yugoslav First League, the First League of FR Yugoslavia, despite the succession and same name "Prva savezna liga", it is covered in a separate article; this was the first club competition on a national level for clubs from Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The league was started in 1923 and the first four seasons had a cup tournament format, while the first round-robin league competition was held in 1927. In the period from 1927 to 1940 seventeen seasons were completed, with all the titles won by clubs from Croatia or Serbia, it was governed at first by the Croatian-named Nogometni Savez Jugoslavije, founded in April 1919 in Zagreb, until in late 1929 disagreements arose between the Zagreb and Belgrade branches of the association.
This resulted in the association headquarters being moved to Belgrade in May 1930 where it adopted the Serbian name Fudbalski Savez Jugoslavije and continued operating the league until it was suspended due to the outbreak of World War II. With the moving of headquarters, Croatian players and coaches boycotted Yugoslav national team. With the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, separate Croatian and Serbian leagues were established, which operated during the World War II. Serbian Football League, in Serbia *Known as BSK Belgrade before 1957 Top 12 only: Table only shows best-finish achievements in major European/Intercontinental competitions during the SFR Yugoslavia period. No minor European tournaments included. Table sorted by success at European Cup / UEFA Champions League foremost. While the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup is recognised as the predecessor to the UEFA Cup, it was not organised by UEFA. UEFA do not consider clubs' records in the Fairs Cup to be part of their European record. However, FIFA do view the competition as a major honour.
Complete list of players who scored 100 goals or more in the 1946-1992 SFR Yugoslavia period. Source: RSSSF. Among these were: The 1990-91 season was the last season held in its usual format, with clubs from all federative units participating in the championship; the breakup of the country broke up its top-flight league into several smaller ones. In June 1991 Slovenia declared Croatia followed suit in October of the same year; this meant that their football associations separated from the Football Association of Yugoslavia so they both started their own football leagues. The Slovenian PrvaLiga was launched in late 1991, while the Croatian Prva HNL saw its first edition in 1992. Affected by the ongoing war in Croatia, the season was held over the course of a single calendar year, from February to June 1992. Both leagues have been going on since; the 1991-92 season was the last season held under the name of SFR Yugoslavia though Slovenian and Croatian clubs have abandoned the competition to play in their own leagues.
Clubs from the remaining four federative units all took part in the competition, but since the Bosnian War broke out towards the end of the season, Bosnian clubs never finished it, with Željezničar of Sarajevo only managed to play 17 out of 33 scheduled fixtures, while Sloboda Tuzla and Velež Mostar ended the season with a few games short of completing the season. Still, since most of the games were played as planned, Crvena Zvezda of Belgrade is credited with winning the last Yugoslav First League championship. Macedonian clubs abandoned the competition after the 1991-92 season because the new Macedonian First League was launched the following season. For the 1992-93 season Bosnian clubs were all on hiatus due to full blown fighting that developed there, with the sole exception of Borac of Banja Luka which temporarily moved to Belgrade and joined the newly formed league featuring clubs from Serbia and Montenegro, this time restyled as the First League of FR Yugoslavia; the league lasted under that name until the 2002-03 season, when the country changed its name so the league was renamed First League of Serbia and Montenegro.
In June 2006 Montenegro declared independence and peacefully departed the union, so from the 2006-07 season onwards Montenegro started operating separate top-flight football league supervised by its football association. On the other hand, as the legal successor of Serbia-Montenegro state union, Serbia got the continuity of the country's league, formed as Prva liga in 1992, renamed and rebranded as Superliga in summer 2005. Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence in late winter 1992, in April same year N/FSBiH applied for membership with FIFA and UEFA. Meanwhile, due to the outbreak of Bosnian War in April 1992 no games w
HŠK Građanski Zagreb
HŠK Građanski known as 1. HŠK Građanski or Prvi hrvatski građanski športski klub was a Croatian football club established in Zagreb in 1911 and dissolved in 1945; the club had a huge influence on the development of football in Croatia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia and achieved its greatest success in the period between the two World Wars. In 1911, when Croatia was still part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Građanski was founded in Zagreb by Andrija Mutafelija and a few of his friends in response to rumors that a football club, meant to play in the Hungarian football league was about to be established. Građanski was therefore founded as a multi-sports club with a distinctly Croatian identity intended to cater to citizens of Zagreb, with sections dedicated to football and cycling. At first they used grounds in Zagreb's neighbourhoods of Tuškanac and Kanal, until they built their own stadium at Koturaška street, opened in 1924 by Stjepan Radić, a prominent Croatian politician; the club lost their first game to city rivals HAŠK but it soon became popular and supported by the Zagreb's working class.
In following years, a healthy rivalry developed between the two city clubs, after the Kingdom of Yugoslavia First League was launched on a national level in 1923, Građanski's greatest rivals outside Zagreb soon became BSK Belgrade and Hajduk Split. During the 1920s and 1930s Građanski became the most popular club in Zagreb as they won five Yugoslav championship titles. Internationally, the club went on several successful tours – on one of these, in 1923 in Spain, Građanski beat Barcelona and Athletic Bilbao; the club toured to Austria and Hungary and played friendly matches with top local sides. In 1936 they went on tour to England where they adopted the WM formation which helped them win the 1936–1937 Yugoslav championship. Márton Bukovi, who started using the formation as Građanski manager in 1936, introduced it to Hungary in the late 1940s and modified it into the now famous WW system which brought the Hungary national football team to the final game of the 1954 World Cup and, exported on to Brazil as the 4–2–4 formation.
Građanski were hosts to friendlies with prominent European teams. In June 1934, Građanski hosted a 0–0 draw with the Brazil national football team, in May 1936 Liverpool FC suffered their first continental defeat in Zagreb, a 5–1 thrashing in front of an audience of 10,000 with August Lešnik scoring a hat-trick and Berry Nieuwenhuys claiming a consolation goal for the Reds. In 1936, the club visited Scotland where at Tynecastle they drew 4–4 with Heart of Midlothian; the club competed in the Mitropa Cup, the first European international club competition, on three occasions – in 1928, 1937 and 1940. In 1928 Građanski were knocked out in the two-legged quarterfinal by Viktoria Žižkov of Czechoslovakia with 4:8 on aggregate. Nine years Građanski exited early again after suffering a 1:6 aggregate loss to Genova 1893 FBC. In 1940 they beat the Hungarian side Újpest FC in the quarterfinal, only to be defeated by Rapid Bucharest in the semifinal. Both legs ended without goals, so a playoff game in Subotica was held, which ended 1:1.
Rapid progressed to the final on a coin toss, but the final game was never played because of the outbreak of World War II. Having been invaded by the Axis Powers in 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was dissolved and sports competitions in the nation were suspended. One exception was the Independent State of Croatia, which enjoyed peace as an Axis member, so the NDH continued to hold national competitions featuring prominent Croatian clubs. Four of these seasons were started but only the second and third editions were finished, with Građanski winning the 1942–43 season; when war ended in 1945 the club was disbanded by the new communist government and its archives were destroyed in retribution for competing in the wartime fascist-sponsored football league. The club's last official game was a 2–2 draw against HAŠK on 10 April 1945, just before both clubs were disbanded. In June 1945 Dinamo Zagreb was established to take its place as Zagreb's football powerhouse; the newly established Dinamo took over Građanski's colours and nickname, inherited its pre-war fan base, in 1969 adopted a badge resembling Građanski's.
Dinamo used Građanski's Stadion Koturaška, before moving to an expanded version of HAŠK's former ground at Stadion Maksimir in 1948, where it stayed to this day. Many Građanski players continued their career at Dinamo after the war as well as their coach Márton Bukovi, while others moved to FK Partizan in Belgrade, established after the war as the official Yugoslav Army club. Since Zagreb was home to the Croatian-named Nogometni Savez Jugoslavije since its establishment in 1919 and both Građanski as a club and Zagreb as a city were regarded as local football powerhouses (with three of the city's clubs winning national championship titles between 1923 and 1940, Građanski players earned caps for
HAŠK was a Croatian football club established in Zagreb in 1903 which ceased operating in 1945. The club was one of the most successful sides in Zagreb and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the period between the two World Wars. Since several sports clubs have claimed to descend from it, the most significant of, HAŠK Mladost sports society. HAŠK was founded as a multi-sports club in November 1903 by nine Zagreb students who are today seen as pioneers of organized sports at the University of Zagreb; the club's purpose was to popularize sports among Croatian students, as well as to counter the ongoing magyarization of Croatian public life, since Croatia was at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The club's colours were red and golden, chosen to represent the colours of Croatian provinces. At first, the club had sections for fencing, ice-skating, skiing and sports shooting, but since football was introduced in the spring of 1904, it became the most popular and well-known department of the club.
The club played its first official game on 16 October 1906 against PNIŠK Zagreb which ended in a 1–1 draw in front of 800 spectators. The club played many non-league games against local sides and against foreign opponents in the following years, such as the game against BEAC in 1909; when the first Croatian football championship was started in 1912, HAŠK were heading the table in mid-season and were declared champions as the competition was abandoned after the winter break due to poor organization. The championship was never relaunched, during World War I the club went on hiatus. In the period from 1918 to 1945 the club grew in popularity and membership, in the years following the war new sections for track and field athletics, swimming, field hockey, table tennis and motorsport were formed. After experiencing a financial crisis in the 1920s and a fire that destroyed stands on their ground in the summer of 1936, the following decade saw immediate revival and the time of HAŠK's greatest success.
The first success came in 1923 when they won the first edition of the Yugoslav Cup, named back as the King Alexander Cup. The club will compete in the Yugoslav First League since 1927, their finest hour came in the 1937–38 season when they won the Yugoslav title, they went on to compete in the 1938 Mitropa Cup, when they were knocked out in the first round of the tournament by the Czechoslovakian side SK Kladno with 5:2 on aggregate. On a local level, in the period from 1911 to 1945 the club played a total of 120 matches against city rivals Građanski, their last game was a 2–2 draw on 10 April 1945, just before both clubs were disbanded by the communist government. The newly formed Dinamo Zagreb, established by the authorities two months took over HAŠK's Maksimir ground, along with many players who switched from Građanski or HAŠK to Dinamo. Other sports sections of the club were renamed FD Akademičar and merged with ASD Mladost which survives today as the HAŠK Mladost sports society, most famous for their water polo and volleyball success on both the national and continental levels.
The most prominent of HAŠK's football players who joined Dinamo was Zlatko Čajkovski, who spent the next 11 seasons playing for Zagreb's powerhouse. Dinamo's current youth academy and training ground located next to their stadium both bear the name Hitrec-Kacian, in honour of two HAŠK players, Ico Hitrec and Ratko Kacian. After the fall of communism and in the midst of the breakup of Yugoslavia, the club was reactivated and registered in November 1990, but in name only – no sports activities were started as the new club leadership centered their activities on promoting HAŠK's legacy and organizing events intended to raise the public awareness of the contribution HAŠK has made to the development of sports in Croatia. In an attempt to revive their glory days, the newly restarted club decided to enter competition sports again in 1993 so they merged with a local amateur football side called NK TPK from the Peščenica neighbourhood of Zagreb. In 2006 they merged again with the Druga HNL side NK Naftaš Ivanić from Ivanić Grad to form the present day NK HAŠK a second tier club in the Croatian football league system.
They play their games at the Donje Svetice ground in Zagreb, which has a capacity of 3,000. 1913–15: František Koželuh 1932–33: Johann Strnad 1937–38: Zoltán Opata Kingdom of Yugoslavia Champions: 11937–38King Aleksander Cup: 11923 Vjekoslav Župančić HAŠK's contemporaries:Građanski Zagreb Concordia Zagreb Yugoslav First League HAŠK's legacy:Dinamo Zagreb Naftaš HAŠK HAŠK Mladost Official website
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe that existed from 1929 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II. The preliminary kingdom was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the independent Kingdom of Serbia; the Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days whereas the regions of Kosovo and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification. It was called the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, but the term "Yugoslavia" was its colloquial name from its origins; the official name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929. The state was ruled by the Serbian dynasty of Karađorđević, which ruled the Kingdom of Serbia under Peter I from 1903 onward. Peter I became the first king of Yugoslavia until his death in 1921, he was succeeded by his son Alexander I, regent for his father. He was known as "Alexander the Unifier" and he renamed the kingdom "Yugoslavia" in 1929.
He was assassinated in Marseille by Vlado Chernozemski, a member of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, during his visit to France in 1934. The crown passed to his then-still under-aged son Peter. Alexander's cousin Paul ruled as Prince regent until 1941; the royal family flew to London the same year, prior to the country being invaded by the Axis powers. In April 1941, the country was occupied and partitioned by the Axis powers. A royal government-in-exile, recognized by the United Kingdom and by all the Allies, was established in London. In 1944, after pressure from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the King recognized the government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia as the legitimate government; this was established on 2 November following the signing of the Treaty of Vis by Ivan Šubašić and Josip Broz Tito. Following the assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand by the Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip, which led to the outbreak of World War I, the subsequent invasion and military occupation of Serbia.
South Slavic nationalism escalated and Slavic nationalists called for the independence and unification of the South Slavic nationalities of Austria-Hungary along with Serbia and Montenegro into a single State of Slovenes and Serbs. The Dalmatian Croat politician Ante Trumbić became a prominent South Slavic leader during the war and led the Yugoslav Committee that lobbied the Allies to support the creation of an independent Yugoslavia. Trumbić faced initial hostility from Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pašić, who preferred an enlarged Serbia over a unified Yugoslav state. However, both Pašić and Trumbić agreed to a compromise, delivered at the Corfu Declaration on 20 July 1917 that advocated the creation of a united state of Serbs and Slovenes to be led by the Serbian House of Karađorđević. In 1916, the Yugoslav Committee started negotiations with the Serbian Government in exile, on which they decided on the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, declaring the joint Corfu Declaration in 1917, the meetings were held at the Municipal Theatre of Corfu.
In November 1918 the National Council of the State of Slovenes and Serbs appointed 28 members to start negotiation with the representatives of the government of the Kingdom of Serbia and Montenegro on creation of a new Yugoslav state, the delegation negotiated directly with regent Alexander Karađorđević. The negotiations would end, with the delegation of the National Council of the State of Slovenes and Serbs lead by dr Ante Pavelić reading the address in front of regent Alexander, who represented his father, King Peter I of Serbia, by which acceptance the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovens was established; the name of the new Yugoslav state was: "Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes" or its abbreviated form "Kingdom of SHS". The new kingdom was made up of the independent kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, of a substantial amount of territory, part of Austria–Hungary, the State of Slovenes and Serbs; the main states which formed the new Kingdom were: State of Slovenes and Serbs and Vojvodina Kingdom of Serbia with Kingdom of MontenegroThe creation of the state was supported by pan-Slavists and Yugoslav nationalists.
For the pan-Slavic movement, all of the South Slav people had united into a single state. The newly established Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes participated in the Paris Peace Conference with Trumbić as the country's representative. Since the Allies had lured the Italians into the war with a promise of substantial territorial gains in exchange, which cut off a quarter of Slovene ethnic territory from the remaining three-quarters of Slovenes living in the Kingdom of SHS, Trumbić vouched for the inclusion of most Slavs living in the former Austria-Hungary to be included within the borders of the new Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. With the Treaty of Rapallo a population of half a million Slavs Slovenes, were subjected to force