Football in Israel
Football is the most popular sport in Israel. Football as a sport, first developed in the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. Finally it was admitted to UEFA as a member in 1992 and as a full member in 1994. The Israel Football Association is the body of football in the State of Israel. All of Israels professional football clubs must be members, and hundreds of semi-professional, as of 2013–14, the Israeli football league system has five levels and 16 different divisions, all run by the IFA. Promotion and relegation operates between each level, theoretically allowing clubs to progress from bottom to top four seasons. The State Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English FA Cup and it is a straightforward knock-out cup. The final is played at the Ramat Gan Stadium and the winner qualifies for the UEFA Europa League, the Toto Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English League Cup, the main difference being that there is a separate cup for each of the three national divisions. The cup is played first in a stage, with the highest placed teams qualifying for the knock-out stages. Like the State Cup, the final is played at the National Stadium, clubs who do well in either the Premier League or State Cup qualify to compete in various UEFA-organised Europe-wide competitions in the following season. The number of Israeli clubs playing in Europe in any one season can range four to six. Any clubs playing in the UEFA Champions League that will finish third in the stage will go into the UEFA Europa League round of 32 Israel hosted. Israel qualified for the World Cup in 1970 which was held in Mexico, mordechai Spiegler scored in a 1–1 draw against Sweden. Israels Olympic football team qualified for the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1976 Summer Olympics both times reaching the quarter finals, Israels highest FIFA ranking was 15th in November 2008. During the British Mandate for Palestine, organized football consisted mainly of British and Jewish clubs, although Arab clubs also existed and took part in IFA competitions. As early as 1906, Maccabi Tel Aviv was formed as a club, followed by a string of Maccabi clubs in other cities and towns, such as Jerusalem, Petah Tikva, Haifa, Zikhron Yaakov. On 24 April 1924, Hapoel Haifa was formed, shortly after formation, they joined the World Maccabi Organization
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948, further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. At the wars end the British and French set up a joint Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in what had been Ottoman Syria, the British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, the land west of the Jordan River, known as Palestine, was under direct British administration until 1948. The land east of the Jordan, a region known as Transjordan, under the rule of the Hashemite family from the Hijaz. The divergent tendencies regarding the nature and purpose of the mandate are visible already in the discussions concerning the name for this new entity. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called Southern Syria in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs, following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920, the administration was replaced by a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner. The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist recent cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920, following the arrival of the British, Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem and its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission was formed in March 1918 and was active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine, on 19 April 1920, elections were held for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community, Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organizations, investors, and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof that the British intended to favor Zionism, when Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist. As Grand Mufti, as well as the influential positions that he held during this period. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council which had created by Samuel in December 1921. The Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds, in addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Israel Football Association
The Israel Football Association, also known as IFA, is the governing body of football in Israel. It organizes a variant of football leagues, cups. The association is based in Ramat Gan, IFA was founded in 1928 as the Palestine Football Association. The Palestine Football Association was founded in July 1928 under the British Mandate, in 1954, the Israel Football Association was admitted to the Asian Football Confederation. In 1974, the Israel Football Association was expelled from the AFC due to pressure from Arab. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. In 1992, the IFA was admitted to UEFA as an associate member, since 1992, Israeli clubs have been playing in the various UEFA club competitions and the Israeli national teams play in UEFA championships. In 1979, Yosef Yekutieli, the founder of the IFA, was awarded the Israel Prize for dedicating his life to promoting and laying the foundation of Israeli sports. Football in Israel List of football stadiums in Israel Sport in Israel Official website Israel at FIFA site Israel at UEFA site
Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C.
Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club and part of the Maccabi Tel Aviv sports club. Founded in 1906 as the HaRishon Le Zion-Yafo Association, Maccabi Tel Aviv is the oldest, largest and most decorated club in Israel. With the establishment of the city of Tel Aviv in 1909, in 1922 they became the first Jewish football club to participate in local competitions. Maccabi Tel Aviv have won more titles than any other Israeli club, winning 22 League Championships,23 prestigious State Cups, the club is named after the Maccabees. Maccabi Tel Aviv FC invest a lot of money in the development, the clubs youth system operate football academies at three sites in the Tel Aviv area, working with over 750 children aged 6–15. The club also runs 17 youth teams with 400 players between 9 and 19 years old and these teams tend to compete very successfully in local and national leagues. Durims decided to establish the Palestine League, in the same year the State Cup was founded under the name People Cup. That same year, the first Tel Aviv derby was played, with Maccabi winning, Maccabi won their first State Cup in 1929 after beating Maccabi HaShmonai. Maccabi won the State Cup for a time in 1930, beating the 48th Regiment of Foot 2–1, and a third in 1933. In 1936 the club was invited to play in the United States, on their way, Maccabi played in France, losing, 2–0, to Racing Paris and 3–1 to Lille. In the United States, Maccabi defeated the All-star team of New York City in front of 50,000 in Yankee Stadium. Maccabi also defeated the American Soccer League team in Brooklyn and Philadelphia on their ground, 1–0, and also played in Canada. Maccabi continued their tour in the USA and lost, 3–2, to St. Louis Stars, after returning from the United States, Maccabi players went on strike because they had not been paid. In 1937, after a year of action, the Football Association accepted their demands. In that year, Maccabi Tel Aviv also won their first league title, in 1939, after the start of World War II, Maccabi won their second championship. At the end of the season, Maccabi went to another tour and they played 18 games, winning 11, losing 5 and drawing 2. The games were against State sides, regional sides and five tests against the Australian national team, winning one, drawing one, in 1941 Maccabi won their first double, Winning both the league and State Cup, beating Hapoel Tel Aviv, 2–1, in the final. Between 1941 and 1945 the league was suspended because of the war, in 1946, the league was still suspended but the State Cup returned with Maccabi beating Hapoel Rishon LeZion, 6–0, on aggregate in the final
Palestine Police Force
The Egyptian Expeditionary Force had won the decisive Battle of Gaza in November 1917 under the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of Palestine, Edmund Allenby. Following a decisive British victory at the Battle of Megiddo, the Ottoman Empire formally surrendered on 30 October 1918, headquarters of the police in Jerusalem were initially set up in the Russian Compound, along Jaffa Road, where assistant provost marshal was assisted by the British Military Police. Initially Palestine was administered in the district of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. The Palestine Police was founded with the establishment in July 1920 of the administration of the British Mandate under high commissioner Herbert Samuel. The first police commander was Lieutenant Colonel P. B, Bramley, OBE, with the title of Director of Public Security and with the rank of Commandant of Police and Prisons. Legislative authority was granted eight months after-the-fact with Police Ordinance 1921, by 1928 the Force had 2,143 officers,321 Jews,1293 Muslim Arabs and 471 Christian Arabs. It was a confidential document which it was considered impossible to publish at the time. Each colony was provided with a telephone and the network was improved to give the Police greater mobility. The Colonial Office wanted Charles Tegart to become Inspector-General of the Force in 1937 and he refused but joined Sir David Petrie in visiting the territory to advise on dealing with Arab guerrillas. Tegart forts are a style of militarized police fortress constructed throughout Palestine during the British mandate, the forts are named after British police officer and engineer Sir Charles Tegart, who designed them in 1938 based on his experiences in the Indian insurgency. Many of them stand to this day, and some continue to be used as jails, on 27 May,1942 the Police became a military force eligible to be deployed on military operations inside Palestine and in Syria and Iraq. In 1944 the Police Mobile Force was created as a fully militarized strike force, established with 800 British servicemen, who had been on active wartime service in Italy, North Africa and Britain, the PMF was organized, trained and equipped along military lines. Members wore battle dress and were trained in a training depot based in Jenin. By the time of the 1947 UN Partition Plan the British members of the Force alone numbered 4,000. The British mandate over Palestine was due to expire on 15 May 1948, members of the Palestine Police Force withdrew with the remainder of the British Forces in Palestine. However, the influence of the Palestine Police reached its peak after the force was disbanded on 15 May as around 1,400 policeman obtained postings elsewhere. In particular, a Special Constabulary of 500 former Palestine Police was established in Malaya after the state of emergency was declared in June 1948, officers who served in Malaya also transferred to colonial police forces in Kenya), Hong Kong and Tanganyika. Percy Bramley, Commandant of Police, July 1920 - March,1923, arthur Mavrogordato, Commandant of Police, March 1923 - July,1931
Beitar Tel Aviv F.C.
Beitar Tel Aviv Football Club was an Israeli football club based from Tel Aviv. The club merged in 2000 with Shimshon Tel Aviv to create Beitar Shimshon Tel Aviv, the club were founded as a youth team, but soon began to compete in adult leagues, advancing within three years to the top division. Their first success came in 1940, when they won the Palestine Cup, two years later, they won the cup again, setting a record for the highest score in the final, when they beat Maccabi Haifa 12–1. In 1945 the club won its division in the War League, nowadays the IFA recognize both clubs as champions for this season. On 6 May 1945 the club played visiting team Hajduk Split, the Yugoslav team have beaten Maccabi Tel Aviv 7–2, and Beitars victory was held as a great feat. The club reached the cup again in 1947, playing Maccabi Tel Aviv. The tempestuous match was abandoned with Maccabi leading 3–2 after Beitar seemed to have scored a goal, which wasnt given, Beitar Tel Aviv were founder members of the Israeli League in 1949, finishing 6th out of 13 in the 1949–50 season. Despite finishing second bottom in 1953–54, the club avoided relegation as the top division was expanded to 14 teams. The following season they finished 5th, with Nisim Elmaliah the divisions top scorer with 30 goals, despite only finishing 7th out of 12 in 1955–56, Beitar had both the divisions top scorers, Avraham Levi and Michael Michaelov with 16 goals each. In 1960–61, the finished bottom of the division, and were relegated to Liga Alef. They remained in the second tier until 1963–64, when they were promoted as champions, after finishing one place above relegation in 1964–65, Beitar were demoted again after finishing bottom a year later. However, they bounced back in 1968–69 as Liga Alef champions, the club reached the State Cup final for the fourth time in 1977, but were beaten 1–0 by Maccabi Tel Aviv. After several years in mid-table, the early 1980s saw the club develop a yo-yo pattern, relegated in 1979–80, the club were promoted in 1980–81, before being relegated immediately, but then bouncing back up in 1982–83. Two years later the club were relegated again, before bouncing back immediately yet again, the 1988–89 season was the clubs best yet in the top flight, finishing 4th, and was bettered two years later, when a third-place finish was achieved. The 1992–93 season saw another relegation and another return in 1993–94. The relegation in 1995–96 was their appearance in the top flight. At the end of the 1998–99 season they were relegated to the third division, at the end of the 1999–2000 season the club merged with fellow Liga Artzit Tel Aviv side Shimshon Tel Aviv. Most league goals in a season,30, Nisim Elmaliah, Liga Alef 1954–55 Beitar in Football – Beitar Tel Aviv
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Hapoel Haifa F.C.
Hapoel Haifa Football Club is an Israeli football club located in Haifa. The club won one championship and 3 Israeli cups, the Team is also known as The Sharks. The clubs home since the early 1990s is the Kiryat Eliezer Stadium in Haifa, in which they have played since their departure from Kiryat Haim Stadium, the colours of the teams home kit are red throughout. The away colours are white shirts, and black shorts and socks, the beginning of the club was in a local organization founded in Haifa in 1924. This organization included several related to sports, in addition to branches related to worker movements. Their goal was to found the first ever football club in Palestine. The meeting was led by Yehoshua Sherpstein and Yair Aharony, on May 1,1924, Labor Day, was the first match, in which Hapoel Haifa beat 3–1 the train workers of Haifa. In the first years of the club it played friendly matches against different teams from Palestine, Europe. At the beginning Hapoel Haifa was included under the Maccabi union, two years later the club decided to leave Maccabi, and was among the founders of the new union, Hapoel. In 1928 the Israel Football Association was founded, and formal matches were scheduled, In the first 4 years only cup matches, during these years Hapoel Haifa did not win many trophies, yet it was still one of the leading teams in the country. In 1932 the team qualified to its first cup final, against the British Police, the referee was British, and some of the decisions he made were very controversial. During the match, when the score was 1–0 to Hapoel Haifa, after some decisions that the players of Haifa found very odd and unfair, as a result, Hapoel Haifa was disqualified. That year 5 of Haifas players made it to the Palestine squad, in 1950, after the War of Independence, the Israeli League returned to action, and Haifa finished in the 3rd place, after Maccabi and Hapoel Tel-Aviv. Two years later the cup matches were renewed and these years were direct continuation to the seasons before the state of Israel was established, when the team was one of the leaders, yet did not manage to win any trophies. Hapoel was very weak in the early sixties, the team finished 1962–63 one before last, and was supposed to relegate to the second division. But, due to suspicions about improper matches, the relegations were canceled, at this turning point, many talented young players promoted from the youth team, causing a significant improvement that started the clubs best period. In the same season, 1962–63, the won the Israel State Cup. In all of the seasons the team finished in the top third of the league
Maccabi Petah Tikva F.C.
Maccabi Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. It is part of the Maccabi sports club and currently plays in the Israeli Premier League. In 1921, after the death of founder member Avshalom Gisin during the 1921 Palestine riots, the club added his name to the name. In 1927 the club moved to the Maccabi Petah Tikva Ground, in 1935 they won their first piece of silverware, beating Hakoah Tel Aviv 1–0 in the cup final. In 1939 they reached the final again, but lost 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, the following year they won the Haaretz tournament. The club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949, in the next season they finished as runners-up to champions Maccabi Tel Aviv and also won the State Cup, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0. In 1953–54 they also finished second with Eliezer Spiegel finishing as the top goalscorer on 16 goals from 22 matches. After several seasons of mid-table finishes, Maccabi finished bottom of the table in 1962–63 and were due to be relegated to Liga Alef, however, the Israel Football Association decided to expand the league from 12 to 15 clubs and they were spared demotion. However, the club was relegated at the end of the 1965–66 season after finishing second from bottom, after two seasons in Liga Alef the club returned to the top division in 1969. At the end of the 1970–71 season the club was relegated again after finishing second from bottom, although Maccabi finished bottom in 1974–75, they were again reprieved from relegation due to league expansion. However, after a performance in 1976–77 they did go down. After making another return to the top flight, the club maintained several mid-table finishes. In 1990 and 1991 the club won the Liga Artzit Toto Cup and they returned to the top division in 1991 and have remained there since. In 1995 the club won the top divisions Toto Cup for the first time, in 2001 the club reached the cup final for the first time in 49 years, losing 3–0 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 2003–04 they finished third, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, however, the home leg of their third qualifying round tie against SC Heerenveen was cancelled by UEFA due to a baggage handlers strike, and they lost the away leg 5–0. In 2004–05 the club finished second in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup again and this time they were more successful, beating Macedonian side FK Baskimi 11–0 on aggregate, before knocking out Partizan Belgrade. However, in the stage they finished bottom having lost all four matches. As of 1 February 201604 – Morad Megamadov, Center back, the club played at the Maccabi Petah Tikva ground between 1926 and the 1970s
Hapoel Herzliya F.C.
Hapoel Herzliya is an Israeli football club based in Herzliya. The club is currently in Liga Alef North division and play their matches at the Herzliya Municipal Stadium. The Hapoel sport club in Herzliya was established in 1928, prior to the Israeli Declaration of Independence, the club played six seasons at the top flight, and appeared for the last time in the 1946–47 Palestine League season, where the club relegated. Following Israeli independence in 1948, the club was placed in Liga Bet, however, in the following season, their spell in Liga Artzit lasted only one season. In 1999–2000 the club won the South A Division of Liga Bet to win promotion to Liga Alef, in 2002–03 Hapoel won the North Division of Liga Alef and were promoted to Liga Artzit. At the end of the 2006–07 season they finished second bottom and were relegated back to Liga Alef. In 2009–10 the club won the South Division of Liga Alef to win promotion to Liga Leumit. in 2011–12 the club finished bottom in Liga Leumit and relegated to Liga Alef, Hapoel Herzliya Ironi Israel Football Association
Royal Scots Greys
The Royal Scots Greys was a cavalry regiment of the British Army from 1707 until 1971, when they amalgamated with the 3rd Carabiniers to form The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. The regiments history began in 1678, when three independent troops of Scots Dragoons were raised, in 1681, these troops were regimented to form The Royal Regiment of Scots Dragoons, numbered the 4th Dragoons in 1694. They were already mounted on horses by this stage and were already being referred to as the Grey Dragoons. In 1707, they were renamed The Royal North British Dragoons and they were also sometimes referred to, during the first Jacobite uprising, as Portmores Dragoons. In 1877, their nickname was made official when they became the 2nd Dragoons. They kept this title until 2 July 1971, when they amalgamated with the 3rd Carabiniers, the Royal Scots Greys originated as three troops of dragoons. The first two were formed on 21 May 1678 under the commands of Captain John Strachan and Captain John Inglis, the third, under the command of Captain Viscount Kingstoun, was formed on 23 September 1678. These were the first mounted troops raised for the British crown in Scotland, in 1681, by Royal Warrant, these three troops were combined, with the addition of three further troops, into what would be named the Royal Regiment of Scots Dragoons. Lieutenant-General Thomas Dalziel would be the regiments first colonel, in its original configuration, the Scots Greys were configured as a true dragoon regiment. Although mounted, as regiments were, their armament was closer to that carried by infantry units. Troopers of the Scots Greys were authorised, during the late 17th century, to carry matchlock muskets with bayonets, while their sergeants and corporals carried halberds, only the officers were authorised swords, though the lieutenants were to be armed with a partisan. Interestingly, the original uniform called for the troopers to wear grey coats, between its formation in 1681 and 1685, the Scots Greys were employed primarily in keeping civil order in Scotland. The regiment participated in expeditions against various fractious clans which resisted the monarchs rule, in 1688, the regiment was quartered in London at the start of the Glorious Revolution. Upon the landing of William of Orange, the regiment took the side of William and Mary, ordered back to Scotland, the Scots Greys took part in the Battle of Killiecrankie against the Jacobites. For their service, the title as a Royal regiment was confirmed. Prior to 1693, there is no record that the regiment used grey horses exclusive to others, however, when inspected in London in 1693 by King William III, people took note that the regiment was mounted on all grey horses. Some have offered the theory that the grey horses originated with the Dutch Horse Guards, when they left to return to the Netherlands, the horses were turned over to the Scots Greys. Although there is no reason, some of the men also wore either fur caps or broad-brimmed hats
Hapoel Rishon LeZion F.C.
Hapoel Rishon LeZion F. C. is an Israeli football club which currently plays in Liga Leumit, Israels second football division. Home matches are hosted at the Haberfeld Stadium, in 1991, the club changed its name to Hapoel Ironi Rishon LeZion, and in June 2008 the name was switched back to Hapoel Rishon LeZion following a change in ownership. Hapoel Rishon LeZion was one of the first clubs in the history of football in Israel. The football section of the Sports club was established in 1929, the club was formally established in 1940. Its best achievements were runner-up of the Israel State Cup in 1946 and 1996, on both occasions it lost to Maccabi Tel Aviv. Following its cup final in 1996, it played in UEFA Cup Winners Cup, in 1951–52, the club finished second bottom and dropped to the second tier. Between 1952 and 1994 the club played just three seasons in the top division, 1978-79, 1980–81 and 1981–82, in 2008–09, after the club changed its name back to Hapoel Rishon LeZion, it was promoted to Liga Leumit, the second tier. In 2010–11, the club was promoted to the Israeli Premier League and they were relegated back to Liga Leumit the following season. The club is known with their previous name Hapoel Ironi Rishon LeZion. On 4 December 2012, Hapoel Rishon LeZion won the 2012–13 Toto Cup Leumit, as to 19 March 2017 Arik Gilrovich Nissan Yehezkel Eyal Lahman Sharon Mimer Ofir Haim Gili Levanda Nir Berkovic Official Site fans Official Site
Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv F.C.
Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv F. C. commonly known as just Bnei Yehuda, is an Israeli football club from the Hatikva Quarter of Tel Aviv. The club is currently a member of the Israeli Premier League, the club was formed in January 1936 by Nathan Sulami and his friends. It was named after Judah, because the decision on its formation occurred during the week when the Torah portion of Vayigash is read in the Synagogue, Sulami and his friends were first promoted to the top division in 1959. Two seasons later they narrowly avoided relegation, finishing second from bottom, in 1965 the club reached the State Cup final for the first time, but lost 2–1 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 1968 they reached the final again, this time beating Hapoel Petah Tikva to claim their first piece of major silverware, after several near-misses, the club was relegated at the end of the 1971–72 season after finishing second from bottom. However, they made a return as Liga Alef champions but were relegated again in 1976. In the 1977–78 season the club were promoted back to the top division as Liga Artzit champions, and also reached the State Cup final, the following season the club finished fourth in Liga Leumit. The 1980–81 season was the clubs best so far, managed by Shlomo Sharf they finished second in the league and reached the cup final again, this time beating Hapoel Tel Aviv 4–3 after a penalty shootout. However, the success was not maintained, and they were relegated at the end of the 1983–84 season, the club made an immediate return as Liga Artzit champions and finished second in 1986–87. The 1989–90 season saw the club win its first, and to date only, two seasons later they won the Toto Cup for the first time, repeating the feat in 1997. The 2000–01 season saw Bnei Yehuda finish second from bottom of the Premier League, however, they made an immediate return as Liga Leumit runners-up. The club have remained in the Premier League since, in 2005–06 they reached the cup final, losing 1–0 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, but also qualifying for Europe for the first time. In the 2006–07 UEFA Cup they lost 6–0 on aggregate to Lokomotiv Sofia and had to play their match in Senec in Slovakia due to security concerns. In the 2009–10 season Bnei Yehuda reached the European League play-off, after starting in the first qualifying round, the following season they reached the second qualifying round of the Europa League, but lost to Shamrock Rovers. From 2009–10 to the 2012–13 season, Bnei Yehuda managed to finish regularly in the top 3–4 ranks of the Israeli Premier League which won her participation in the European League qualifying, following the success, the group became a springboard for players. Many players who were remarkable in the ranks of Bnei Yehuda have moved or were sold to bigger clubs, in the 2013–14 season, Bnei Yehuda finished bottom and relegated to Liga Leumit. However, they made a return to the Premier League as the 2014–15 Liga Leumit champions. For most of its existence, Bnei Yehuda played at the Hatikva Neighborhood Stadium in the Hatikva Quarter of Tel Aviv
Israeli football league system
The Israeli football league system is a series of interconnected leagues for club football in Israel. The system has a format with promotion and relegation between leagues at different levels, and allows even the smallest club to dream of rising to the very top of the system. There are five levels, containing a total of 16 divisions and it is run by the Israel Football Association. The top division of Israeli football is the Premier League, Liga Leumit is the second tier. These two divisions all operate at the national level, below Liga Leumit the divisions are split into regionalised leagues. Liga Alef is the tier, and is split into north and south divisions. Liga Bet, the tier, is divided into four regionalised leagues. Liga Gimel, the division of Israeli football, is split into eight regionalised leagues. League football in Mandatory Palestine began in 1931, and second, however, football was then disrupted by the Arab revolt and then World War II. In 1947, league football resumed with two tiers, the top Palestine League and the second tier Liga Bet, the following season, league football was cancelled due to disagreements between the Maccabi and Hapoel factions in the IFA. With the return of football the following season, a third tier was added. In 1976–77, Liga Artzit was created as the new tier, demoting the Alef, Bet, Gimel and Dalet leagues to the third. Liga Dalet was scrapped at the end of the 1984–85 season, in 1999–2000 the Israeli Premier League was added at the top of the league system, demoting the other leagues to second to sixth tiers. Winning the Premier League is the top prize in Israeli football, the league was created in 1999 as the IFA aimed to realign the leagues to improve competition. Two teams are relegated to Liga Leumit at the end of each season, beitar Jerusalem Bnei Sakhnin Bnei Yehuda F. C. It has 16 member clubs, the finished first are promoted to the Premier League. Liga Alef consists of two divisions and has 32 member clubs, the divisions are based on the clubs geographical position in the country and are split into a north and south category. The top club from each division is promoted at the end of the season to Liga Leumit, Liga Bet is the fourth tier of Israeli football, a position it has held since 2009
Tel Aviv derby
The Tel Aviv derby refers to football matches between Maccabi Tel Aviv and Hapoel Tel Aviv. Maccabi Tel Aviv was established in 1906, while Hapoel Tel Aviv was founded in 1923, between them, the clubs had together won 33 championships and 37 national cups. The first league encounter between the teams was played on 19 December 1931, and the points were shared with a result of 1–1. Prior to the independence, the clubs have met 17 times in the league, out of which Hapoel won 9, post 1948, Maccabi holds the lead with 48 league victories, opposite 46 Hapoel wins and 52 draws. Overall, since 1931, Hapoel has 55 league victories, Maccabi has 53 and 55 matches ended with a draw, the two clubs met 8 times at the Israeli State Cup final, most recently at the 1994–95 Israel State Cup Final. The clubs also met in other competitive tournaments, such as the Toto Cup. The rivalry between the background of the Hapoel and Maccabi sports associations led to the development of the rivalry between the clubs. The two clubs have different support bases, Hapoel are linked to the working-class, whilst Maccabi are considered a middle class club. As of 2014, Both clubs currently play at the Bloomfield Stadium in Jaffa, when Hapoel Tel Aviv are the home team in the derby sections 10–11, are reserved for fans of Maccabi. When Maccabi Tel Aviv are the team, sections 4–5 are reserved for fans of Hapoel. A3 November 2014 match was cancelled after numerous fans ran onto the pitch and began fighting with players, Hapoel manager called it a black day for Israeli football
Jerry Beit haLevi
Moshe Jerry Beit haLevi was an Israeli football player and manager. Jerry played on the field with his brother Avraham, after the retirement of Egon Pollack, Beit haLevi took over the reins of the club that made him famous as a player. He built a side that was arguably the strongest side in the country. Star players Eli Fuchs, Itzhak Schneor and Shiye Glazer and tough tactics helped Beit haLevi capture two league championships in 1951 and 1952 as well as a double in 1954. He left Maccabi for a stint at city rivals Hapoel Tel Aviv before bringing Maccabi another league title in 1956. During his time with Maccabi, Beit haLevi served two terms as manager of the Israel national football team and his bunker tactics led to the national teams style of play being referred to as Jerrys bunker. After the 1956 season with Maccabi, Beit haLevi was fired, after retiring from coaching, he served as the chairman for the club. In 1960, Jerry received an offer to coach the Nigerian national football team, in his first match against Ghana, Nigeria were crushed 3–0 in front of 100,000 fans in Lagos and the press called for Beit haLevi to be fired. He decided to stick with the job and helped build up a better Nigerian side, during this time he was also heavily involved in trying to exhume the body of his brother for burial in Israel, but was unsuccessful
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club is an Israeli football club in Liga Leumit. Hapoel plays at Teddy Stadium in Malha, Jerusalem, Hapoel Jerusalem Club was established in 1926 and played in the inaugural season of the EIFA league, playing the leagues first match against local rivals Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem. The club played in the league for its first three seasons, however, the club was restricted to playing mainly in the Jerusalem area due to travelling difficulties. The club participated occasionally in the Palestine Cup, reaching the cup final in 1943, after the establishment of Israel, the club registered to play in the makeshift second tier league, Liga Meuhedet, in the Jerusalem-Central division, which the club won. The club continued to play in the division, until it was promoted to the top division at the end of the 1956–57 season. Following the promotion, the club stayed in the top division for 21 seasons, achieving its best position, 3rd, in 1971–72 the club reached the State Cup final, losing to Hapoel Tel Aviv 0–1. A season later, the reached the cup final again. The club was relegated to the division in 1979. The club continued to yo-yo between the two top divisions in the seasons, playing his last season at the top division in 1999–2000. In 1998, the club reached its fourth cup final, in the early 1990s, the club was transferred to businessmen Yossi Sassi and Victor Yona. The two ran the team together until falling out, leading to a business and legal dispute which lasted until 2009. The fan-based club was established in 2009 and progressed to the Liga Leumit in 2013–14, the club currently plays in second tier Liga Leumit, to which it promoted from Liga Alef in 2010–11. Katamon Stadium was razed in 1982, with the intention to build a modern stadium in its place. The new stadium in Katamon was never built, and instead Teddy Stadium was built in the Malha neighborhood, during the early years, support of the club came mostly from the labour organizations in Israel. City rivals Beitar were identified with the right-wing nationalist organizations, all this played out to create the Jerusalem derby. To this day the rivalry exists, though it is not nearly as heated as both clubs played in the top division of Israeli football. In 2007 a large majority of fans, unhappy with the management of the club, as to 11 February 2017 Club website Hapoel Jerusalem Israel Football Association
Homenetmen is a pan-Armenian diaspora organization devoted to sport and Scouting. The motto of Homenetmen is Rise and Raise, Homenetmen was founded in 1918 in Constantinople by Shavarsh Krissian, Hovhannes Hintliyan, and Krikor Hagopian. The first Homenetmen Executive Committee was formed on December 16,1918, four Homenetmen chapters were soon opened in various Constantinople neighborhoods. The Homenetmen Executive Committee sent Vahan Cheraz, Dikran Khoyan, in 1922, the Homenetmen chapters in Constantinople were forced to close their doors, with the organizations leaders dispersing throughout the world. Homenetmen has established chapters in the Armenian diaspora including in many cities in the Middle East, Europe, United States, Canada, South America. Almost all chapters established have activities in Scouting and sports, by developing awareness of duty, feelings of responsibility and honour, in a spirit of harmony and cooperation. By satiating the mind and heart with the noblest of sporting spirit, homenetmens objectives are realized by Scouting, general physical education and sports, lectures, seminars and public activities, publications, clubs, gymnasia and sports facilities. The biggest number of adherents to Homenetmen are the Scouts, male and female, most of the Homenetmen Scout groups are also integrated in the national Scout or Guide organizations of their host countries. In many chapters, there is also a section for music bands, the Scouting Divisions main objective is to help scouts develop character, citizenship, knowledge of Armenian culture and personal fitness, and acquire scouting knowledge. The program is developed and implemented by the Scout Council, an appointed by the Regional Executive. It features regional camping trips and seminars on scouting and Armenian-related topics, following completion of each educational manual, a final exam is administered, and those who pass receive the appropriate badge and certificate. The Scouting program also features activities such as field trips to local museums. Moreover, each troop hosts a camping trip, inviting other chapter members to participate. Every four years, there is a Jamboree camp that takes place in Armenia, Scouts from chapters from all over the world attend this two-week-long camp and do community service while also completely immersing themselves in the Armenian culture. It has its own monthly magazine Marzig published in Beirut, Lebanon, hayastani Azgayin Skautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun Homenetmen Lebanon Homenetmen Beirut F. C. Homenetmen Beirut B. C
Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace. Together with the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, the Royal Army Dental Corps and Queen Alexandras Royal Army Nursing Corps, because it is not a fighting arm, under the Geneva Conventions, members of the RAMC may only use their weapons for self-defence. Other ranks do not fix bayonets, neither do they prefix Surgeon in front of their rank as medical officers of the Royal Navy do. The RAMC, like every other British regiment, has its own distinctive unit insignia, dark blue beret, the default Army colour worn by units without distinctive coloured berets. There is also a small attachment to Special Forces, the Medical Support Unit who wear the beret of the SAS. Cap badge depicting the Rod of Asclepius, surmounted by a crown, enclosed within a wreath, with the regimental motto In Arduis Fidelis. The cap badge is worn 1 inch above the eye on the beret. The cap badge of the ranks must also be backed by an oval patch of dull cherry-red coloured cloth measuring 3.81 cm wide and 6.35 cm high sewn directly to the beret. Officers do not use the backing, but have a cloth cap badge instead. Silver regimental collar badges, a miniature of the cap badge, stable belt comprising equal horizontal bands of dull cherry, royal blue, and old gold, reflecting the old uniform worn in the 1900s, the gold depicting the royal in the title. Silver belt buckle with engraved regimental badge, Medical services in the British armed services go as far back as the formation of the Standing Regular Army after the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. This was the first time a career was provided for a Medical Officer, known as the Regimental Surgeon, both in peacetime and in war. The Army was formed entirely on a basis, and an MO with a Warrant Officer as his Assistant Surgeon was appointed to each regiment. The MO was also for the first time concerned in the health of his troops. This regimental basis of appointment for MOs continued until 1873, when an army medical service was set up. There was much unhappiness in the Army Medical Service in the following years, for medical officers did not actually have military rank but advantages corresponding to relative military rank. They had inferior pay in India, excessive amounts of Indian and colonial service and they did not have their own identity as did the Army Service Corps, whose officers did have military rank. A number of complaints were published, and the British Medical Journal campaigned loudly, for over two years after 27 July 1887 there were no recruits to the Army Medical Department
Royal Military Police
Members of the RMP are often known as Redcaps because of the scarlet covers on their peaked caps, or scarlet coloured berets. The RMP origins can be traced back to the 13th Century but it was not until 1877 that a corps of military police was formed. This was followed by the Military Foot Police in 1885, although technically two independent corps, the two effectively functioned as a single organisation. In 1926, they were amalgamated to form the Corps of Military Police. In recognition of their service in the Second World War, they became the Corps of Royal Military Police on 28 November 1946, on 6 April 1992 the RMP amalgamated into the Adjutant Generals Corps, under whose overall command they form part of the AGCs Provost Branch. Non-commissioned members of the RMP receive their training as soldiers. They then receive further training at the Defence School of Policing and Guarding, RMP commissioned officers are trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, as are all other British Army officers. The regimental march of the RMP is The Watchtower or Hoch Heidecksburg originally a German Army marching tune from 1912 by Rudolf Herzer, the RMP motto is Exemplo Ducemus, Latin for By example, shall we lead. The Provost Marshal is a post which goes back to the 13th century and was originally an under-officer of the Earl Marshal, in 1685 the role of Provost Marshal General became a permanent post. The Military Mounted Police was formed in 1877 and the Military Foot Police was formed in 1885, during the First World War the Military Police grew from 508 all ranks to over 25,000 all ranks by the end of the War. During the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915 the Military Police served the Army as a rather than just individual units. On 27 February 1926 the Corps of Military Police was formed by merging the Military Mounted Police, Provost Wing – Responsible for general policing. Provost Companies were included in the order of battle of Home Commands, Armoured, Infantry and Airborne Divisions, as well as at Army and Corps level and with independent Brigades. From 1942, Ports Provost Companies were raised, consisting of a mix of Provost and Vulnerable Points Sections, Vulnerable Points Wing – Formed in 1941 to provide security of static locations and establishments. They were known as blue caps from the Oxford blue cloth covers worn on their service dress caps, originally intended to act as static Companies and detachments, VP Coys were later deployed in North West Europe, guarding prisoner of war camps and other static installations. The VP Wing was quickly phased out at the end of the war, traffic Control Wing – Formed in 1941, TC Coys were deployed throughout the United Kingdom, releasing Provost Companies from the tasks of traffic control. TC Coys were later deployed in the Middle East, Italy, the Wing was phased out of the Corps by 1946. Field Security Wing – First formed in 1937, personnel of the F. S. W, wore Lincoln green cap covers and brass shoulder titles on their tunics with the letters FSP, to distinguish them from the rest of the Corps
Mandatory Palestine national football team
The Mandatory Palestine national football team represented the British Mandate of Palestine in international football competitions and was managed by the Eretz Israel Football Association. The team used to play in the Maccabiah Stadium and Hapoel Ground, Football was introduced to Palestine by the British military during its occupation of the territory in World War I. After the war, the development was continued by European Jews who had been exposed to soccer in their native countries. Palestinian Arabs, specifically those of Islamic beliefs, refrained from participating in early formation due to their resistance to Western cultural institutions. The Eretz Israel Football Association was founded in August 1928 and applied for membership in FIFA and it was accepted to FIFA on 6 June 1929 as the Eretz Israel Football Association. It was the first of 14 sports organizations which absorbed hundreds of leading sportsmen who immigrated in the wake of antisemitism in Europe, Mandatory Palestine end up playing five international games before the end of the British Mandate in 1948 which resulted in Israel independence. During those five games, the team fielded only Jewish players. Three anthems were played before each match, the British God Save the Queen, the Jewish Hatikvah, in 1948 the team became, officially, the national team of Israel. Egypt qualified for the final round, greece qualified for the final round
Lebanon national football team
The Lebanese national football team represents the Lebanese Republic in international association football competitions. Their official nickname is the The Cedars, the team is controlled by the Lebanon Football Association, which is currently a member of the Asian Football Confederation and also the West Asian Football Federation. They reached their highest placed FIFA ranking to 85th place in December 1998, Lebanons home stadium is the Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium in Beirut and the Saida International Stadium in Sidon. Lebanon has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup, in 2000, they hosted their confederation AFC Asian Cup where they finished in last place of their respective group. They have only participated once in 1998 at the Asian Games and they are regular participants at their sub-confederation WAFF Championship. Lebanon also participates in the UAFA Arab Nations Cup and hosted the 1963 tournament and finished in third place, Lebanon claimed third places as hosts at the UAFA Pan Arab Games tournaments in 1957 and 1997 and managed fourth place at the 1961 edition. Beirut, witnessed in 1934 the first official match of the Lebanese national football team, since 1957, their home stadiums have been the Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium and Saida International Stadium. Lebanons first AFC Asian Cup campaign in 1972 to qualify for 1972 AFC Asian Cup and their first campaign for Lebanons football was in 1972 AFC Asian Cup qualification, under their first qualifying manager Joseph Abou Murad. They must meet Bahrain if they want to be drawn in group A or B, Lebanon lost 0–3 to Bahrain in Kuwait so they would be drawn to group B. In their first respective group, they lost to host Kuwait 0–1 and they earned 2 points, and qualified to the next round. In the match against Iraq on semi-final, Lebanon lost 1–4, so despite of their 2–0 victory to Jordan, despite the civil war was happening, Lebanon appeared in 1980 AFC Asian Cup qualification, held in Abu Dhabi. Their first match was over the host UAE, which managed a 0–0 draw. Suddenly Bahrain withdrew, helping Lebanon a 2–0 win, but they failed in the last match when they lost to traditional rival Syria 0–1, and was out. In their first match to India, they failed to win after gaining a 2–2 draw from Babkin Melikian and they later also got that result to Hong Kong thanked for Rafi Joulfagi and Fadi Alloushs goals. They then lost 0–1 to South Korea and drew 0–0 to Bahrain, in the second leg in Seoul, South Korea, they also drew 0–0 to Bahrain, but lost 0–2 to host South Korea. After two losses and four draws, Lebanon finally had two wins to Hong Kong from Youssef Farhat and Wael Nazha, and to India from Hassan Ayoub and they gained 3rd and was eliminated. Under Welsh manager Terry Yorath, the first foreign manager after the civil war and their first opponent was Turkmenistan in Beirut. Over 10.000 fans cheered for Lebanon in this match, after Konstantin Bondoyev took the shocking lead for Turkmenistan, three goals from Wael Nazha, Jamal Taha and Chadi Karnib helped Lebanon a 3–1 win
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the players or the teams rankings is either zero or otherwise greatly reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select. If the players play in different teams in other leagues. The games can be held between separate teams or between parts of the same team, international competitions like the Olympic Games may also hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport. In the early days of football, known simply as football or soccer. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby, since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are used to warm up players for a new season/competitive match. There is generally nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with, although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may even be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. Frequently such games take place between a club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. International teams also play friendlies, generally in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments and this is essential, since national squads generally have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies mostly take place during club league seasons and this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. Players can be booked in international friendlies, and can be suspended from international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period. Caps and goals scored also count towards a players career records, in the UK and Ireland, exhibition match and friendly match refer to two different types of matches. A bounce game is generally a non-competitive football match played between two sides usually as part of an exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may also use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract, usually these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring, joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado, in more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. and Jorge Castro have been involved in exhibition fights
Tel Aviv-Yafo is a major city in Israel, located on the countrys Mediterranean coastline. It is the center and the technology hub of Israel, with a population of 432,892. Tel Aviv is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel, Tel Aviv is also a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron Huldai, Tel Aviv is a global city, and is the thirty eighth most important financial center in the world. Tel Aviv is known to have the third-largest economy of any city in the Middle East after Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City, the city receives over a million international visitors annually. Known as The City that Never Sleeps and a party capital, it has a lively nightlife, the city was founded in 1909 by Jewish immigrants on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa. It is named after the Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzls 1902 novel, Altneuland, the modern citys first neighbourhoods had already been established in 1886, the first being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffas, Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel. Tel Avivs White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzls Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including Herzliya and it was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for spring, symbolizing renewal, and tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a settlement on the sand dunes North of Jaffa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote, In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city. Since 1886, Jewish settlers had founded new neighborhoods outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv, the first was Neve Tzedek, built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche and inhabited primarily by Mizrahi Jews. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Achva, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa. The Second Aliyah led to further expansion, in 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society. The societys goal was to form a Hebrew urban centre in an environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
Israel national football team
The Israel national football team is the national football team of Israel, governed by the Israel Football Association. Israels national team is the successor of the Mandatory Palestine/Eretz Israel national team. The Israeli side qualified for their only FIFA World Cup to date in 1970, Israel also hosted and won the AFC Asian Cup in 1964, and was finalist in 1956 and in 1960. Football has a tradition in Israel. The game was introduced during the time of the Ottoman Empire. The British Mandate of Palestine national team made its debut against Egypt in 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, the team played five international matches, including a friendly match against Lebanon, until the British Mandate for Palestine was dissolved. Upon the creation of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Israel national teams first match as an independent nation was on 26 September 1948, against the USA Olympic Team. The game was won by the USA 1–3, and in the 20th minute of the game Shmuel Ben-Dror scored the first goal after the creation of the State of Israel, Israel competed in the Asian Football Confederation between 1954 and 1974. Due to the Arab–Israeli conflict, several Muslim states refused to compete against Israel, Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. In 1968, Israel went to their first Olympic Games and lost to Bulgaria in the quarterfinals. In 1969, Israel qualified for its first and only FIFA World Cup, via Asia/Oceania, in 1976, Israel went to its second Olympic Games and lost in the quarterfinals again, this time against Brazil. In 1972 and 1977, it attempted World Cup qualification as part of Asia, in 1974, Israel was excluded from AFC competitions, as a result of a proposal by Kuwait which was adopted by a vote of 17 to 13 with 6 abstentions. The vote coincided with the 1974 Asian Games, where the competition was marred by the refusal of both North Korea and Kuwait to play second-round matches against Israel. During the 1980s, it played the majority of its matches against European teams, for the next two tournaments, it entered Oceanias qualification stage. In 1989, Israel made it to the CONMEBOL–OFC play-offs for the 1990 World Cup to play against Colombia, which qualified from the South American group, but lost. In 1991, Israeli clubs began participating in European club competitions, in 1994, Israel received full UEFA membership,20 years after it had left Asia. Within Europe, Israel has been a minor nation, though with some successes, notably winning 3–2 in Paris against France in 1993. That year, Israel made it to the playoffs of UEFA Euro 2000, the Swiss had a better goal difference, though, and advanced to the qualification play-off