A pier is a raised structure in a body of water supported by well-spaced piles or pillars. Bridges and walkways may all be supported by piers, their open structure allows tides and currents to flow unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the spaced piles of a wharf can act as a breakwater, are more liable to silting. Piers can range in size and complexity from a simple lightweight wooden structure to major structures extended over 1600 metres. In American English, a pier may be synonymous with a dock. Piers have been built for several purposes, because these different purposes have distinct regional variances, the term pier tends to have different nuances of meaning in different parts of the world, thus in North America and Australia, where many ports were, until built on the multiple pier model, the term tends to imply a current or former cargo-handling facility. In Europe in contrast, where ports more use basins and river-side quays than piers, the term is principally associated with the image of a Victorian cast iron pleasure pier.
However, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age. Piers can be categorized into different groupings according to the principal purpose. However, there is considerable overlap between these categories. For example, pleasure piers also allow for the docking of pleasure steamers and other similar craft, while working piers have been converted to leisure use after being rendered obsolete by advanced developments in cargo-handling technology. Many piers are floating piers, to ensure that the piers raise and lower with the tide along with the boats tied to them; this prevents a situation where lines become overly loose by rising or lowering tides. An overly taut or loose tie-line can damage boats by pulling them out of the water or allowing them so much leeway that they bang forcefully against the sides of the pier. Working piers were built for the handling of passengers and cargo off ships or canal boats. Working piers themselves fall into two different groups. Longer individual piers are found at ports with large tidal ranges, with the pier stretching far enough off shore to reach deep water at low tide.
Such piers provided an economical alternative to impounded docks where cargo volumes were low, or where specialist bulk cargo was handled, such as at coal piers. The other form of working pier called the finger pier, was built at ports with smaller tidal ranges. Here the principal advantage was to give a greater available quay length for ships to berth against compared to a linear littoral quayside, such piers are much shorter; each pier would carry a single transit shed the length of the pier, with ships berthing bow or stern in to the shore. Some major ports consisted of large numbers of such piers lining the foreshore, classic examples being the Hudson River frontage of New York, or the Embarcadero in San Francisco; the advent of container shipping, with its need for large container handling spaces adjacent to the shipping berths, has made working piers obsolete for the handling of general cargo, although some still survive for the handling of passenger ships or bulk cargos. One example, is in use in Progreso, Yucatán, where a pier extends more than 4 miles into the Gulf of Mexico, making it the longest pier in the world.
The Progreso Pier supplies much of the peninsula with transportation for the fishing and cargo industries and serves as a port for large cruise ships in the area. Many other working piers have been demolished, or remain derelict, but some have been recycled as pleasure piers; the best known example of this is Pier 39 in San Francisco. At Southport and the Tweed River on the Gold Coast in Australia, there are piers that support equipment for a sand bypassing system that maintains the health of sandy beaches and navigation channels. Pleasure piers were first built in Britain during the early 19th century; the earliest structures were Ryde Pier, built in 1813/4, Trinity Chain Pier near Leith, built in 1821, Brighton Chain Pier, built in 1823. Only the oldest of these piers still remains. At that time the introduction of the railways for the first time permitted mass tourism to dedicated seaside resorts; the large tidal ranges at many such resorts meant that for much of the day, the sea was not visible from dry land.
The pleasure pier was the resorts' answer, permitting holidaymakers to promenade over and alongside the sea at all times. The world's longest pleasure pier is at Southend-on-sea and extends 1.3 miles into the Thames estuary. With a length of 2,745 feet, the longest pier on the West Coast of the US is the Santa Cruz Wharf. Providing a walkway out to sea, pleasure piers include amusements and theatres as part of the attraction; such a pier may be open air, closed, or open closed. Sometimes a pier has two decks. Galveston Island Historic Pleasure Pier in Galveston, Texas has 1 roller coaster, 15 rides, carnival games and souvenir shops. Early pleasure piers were of wooden construction, with iron structures being introduced with the construction in 1855 of Margate Jetty, in Margate, England. Margate was never repaired; the longest iron pleasure pier still remaining in Southend-on-Sea,Essex and dates from 1829 - however the world's oldest iron pier dates from 1834 and is in Gravesend, Kent. In a 2006 UK poll, the public voted the seaside pier onto the list of icons of England.
Many piers are built for the purpose of providing boatless anglers access to fishing grounds that are otherwise inaccessible. Many "Free Piers" are available in larger harbors. Free Piers are primarily used for fishing. See the List of piers article for detai
Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 109,673, it was incorporated on February 14, 1908. The city is in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park is under construction in the city and, when completed around 2020, will be the new home of both the National Football League's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers; the city is close to Los Angeles International Airport. The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood were Native Americans who used the natural springs in today's Edward Vincent Jr. Park. Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these springs took the name Centinela from the hills that rose around them and which allowed ranchers to watch over their herds "". Waddingham traced the written history of Inglewood back to the original settlers of Los Angeles in 1781, one of whom was the Spanish soldier Jose Manuel Orchado Machado, "a 23-year-old muleteer from Los Alamos in Sinaloa".
These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission "to graze their animals on the ocean side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands." As a result, the settlers, or pobladores, drove some of their cattle to the "lush pasture lands near Centinela Springs," and the first construction there was done by one Ygnacio Avila, who received a permit in 1822 to build a "corral and hut for his herders." Avila constructed a three-room adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site, this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park, it no longer exists. In 1834, Ygnacio Machado, one of the sons of Jose Machado, built the Centinela Adobe, which sits on a rise above the present 405 San Diego Freeway and is used as the headquarters of the Centinela Valley Historical Society. Two years Waddingham writes, Ygnacio was granted the 2,220-acre Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela though this land had been claimed by Avila.
Inglewood Park Cemetery, a used cemetery for the entire region, was founded in 1905. The city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack from 1938 to 2013, one of the premier horse racing venues in the United States. Fosters Freeze, the first soft serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood. Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989 and yet again in 2009 for its visible progress. On January 12, 2016, Inglewood was selected to be the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. Ku Klux Klan activities in Inglewood during the 20th century were highlighted by the 1922 arrest and trial of 37 men, most of them masked, for a night-time raid on a suspected bootlegger and his family; the raid led to the shooting death of one of an Inglewood police officer. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict for all defendants, it was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that led to the outlawing of the Klan in California.
The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931. "No blacks had lived in Inglewood," Gladys Waddingham wrote, but by 1960, "they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the great displeasure of the predominantly white residents residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29'Negroes' among Inglewood's 63,390 residents. Not a single black child attended the city's schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks. A rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a prime target because of its history of restrictions." "Fair housing and school busing were the main problems of 1964. The schools were not prepared to handle racial incidents though any that occurred were minor. Adults held many heated community meetings, since the Blacks objected to busing as much as did the Whites." In 1969, an organization called "Morningside Neighbors" changed its name to "Inglewood Neighbors" "in the hope of promoting more integration."On February 3, 1969, Harold P. Moret became Inglewood's first black police officer.
A full year Jimmy Lee Worsham became the second. He was followed by Barbara Harris, the first black female officer Otis Hendricks, Melvin Lovelace and Eugene Lindsey; the 7th black officer in the history of the City of Inglewood was Jr.. He became Inglewood's first black Motorcycle Traffic Enforcement Officer, 1st Black Lieutenant and only black Deputy Chief in the history of the Department. Butts left Inglewood in September 1991 at the age of 38 to become the first person of color to command the Santa Monica Police Department as Chief of Police, the youngest to do so. Twenty years on February 1, 2011 Butts returned to Inglewood by being elected as its fourth black mayor. On July 22, 1970, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Max F. Deutz ordered Inglewood schools to desegregate in response to a suit filed by 19 parents. At least since 1965, said Deutz, the Inglewood school board had been aware of a growing influx of black families into its eastern areas but had done nothing about the polarization of its pupils into an eastern black area and a western white one.
On August 31, he rejected an appeal by four parents who said the school board was not responsible for the segregation but that the blacks "selected their places of residence by voluntary choice."The first black principal among the 18 Inglewood schools was Peter Butler at La Tijera Elementary, in 1971, Waddingham wrote, "Stormy r
Malibu is a beach city in western Los Angeles County, situated about 30 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean climate and its 21-mile strip of the Malibu coast, incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu; the area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, other affluent residents. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway, which traverses the city, with some residents living up to a mile away from the beach up narrow canyons; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645. Nicknamed "the'Bu" by surfers and locals, beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line, Dan Blocker Beach. State parks and beaches on the Malibu coast include Malibu Creek State Park, Leo Carrillo State Beach and Park, Point Mugu State Park, Robert H. Meyer Memorial State Beach, with individual beaches: El Pescador, La Piedra and El Matador.
The many parks within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area lie along the ridges above the city along with local parks that include Malibu Bluffs Park, Trancas Canyon Park, Las Flores Creek Park, Legacy Park. Signs around the city proclaim "21 miles of scenic beauty", referring to the incorporated city limits; the city updated the signs in 2017 from the historical 27-mile length of the Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon on the southeast to Point Mugu in Ventura County on the northwest. For many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and they are included in the Malibu ZIP Codes; the city is bounded by Topanga on the east, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south, Solromar in Ventura County to the west. Malibu is named for the Ventureño Chumash settlement of Humaliwo, which translates to “The Surf Sounds Loudly.” This pre-colonial village is now part of the State Park. Malibu was settled by the Chumash, Native Americans whose territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California.
They named it "Humaliwo" or "the surf sounds loudly". The city's name derives from this; the village of Humaliwo was located next to Malibu Lagoon and was an important regional center in prehistoric times. The village, identified as CA-LAN-264, was occupied from 2,500 BCE, it was the second-largest Chumash coastal settlement by the Santa Monica Mountains, with just Muwu being more populated. A total of 118 individuals were baptized in Humaliwo. Humaliwo was considered an important political center, but there were additional minor settlements in today’s Malibu. One village, known as Ta’lopop, was located few miles up Malibu Canyon from Malibu Lagoon. Research have shown that Humaliwo had ties to other villages in pre-colonial times, including Hipuk and Huwam. Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542; the Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13,000-acre land grant—in 1802.
That ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. He and his widow, May K. Rindge, guarded their privacy zealously by hiring guards to evict all trespassers and fighting a lengthy court battle to prevent the building of a Southern Pacific railroad line through the ranch. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations would not support a railroad condemning property in order to build tracks that paralleled an existing line, so Frederick H. Rindge decided to build his own railroad through his property first, he died, May K. Rindge followed through with the plans, building the Hueneme and Port Los Angeles Railway; the line started at Carbon Canyon, just inside the ranch's property eastern boundary, ran 15 miles westward, past Pt. Dume. Few roads entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case and built what is now known as the Pacific Coast Highway. By May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots; the Rindge house, known as the Adamson House, is now part of Malibu Creek State Park and is situated between Malibu Lagoon State Beach and Surfrider Beach, beside the Malibu Pier, used to provide transportation to/from the ranch, including construction materials for the Rindge railroad, to tie up the family's yacht.
In 1926, in an effort to avoid selling land to stave off insolvency, May K. Rindge created a small ceramic tile factory. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings and Beverly Hills residences; the factory, located one-half mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. Although the factory reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression and a steep downturn in Southern California construction projects. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered collectible. Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, a fifty-room mansion, started in the 1920s as the main Rindge home on a hill overlooking the lagoon; the unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 and is
Indio is a city in Riverside County, United States, located in the Coachella Valley of Southern California's Colorado Desert region. It lies 23 miles east of Palm Springs, 75 miles east of Riverside, 127 miles east of Los Angeles, 148 miles northeast of San Diego; the word Indio is Spanish for Indian. The population was 76,036 in the 2010 United States Census, up from 49,116 at the 2000 census, an increase of 55%. Indio was referred to as "the Hub of the Valley", a Chamber of Commerce slogan used in the 1970s. Today the nickname is the "City of Festivals", a reference to the numerous renowned cultural events held in the city, most notably the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival. Railroad line construction east out of Los Angeles began in 1873. Trains were operated to Colton on July 16, 1875, to Indio on May 29, 1876. Moving on eastward from Indio, the railroad reached the west bank of the Colorado River opposite Yuma on May 23, 1877. There was delay in getting military authority to lay tracks across the Yuma Indian reservation, it was September that year before the bridge was completed so trains could operate into Yuma.
The Southern Pacific Railroad was to have joined those of the Texas & Pacific, one of several railroads holding, or seeking, federal authority to build lines from various sections of the country west to the Pacific Coast. But the rail-head of the T & P was at a standstill far off in Texas, so Southern Pacific continued building eastward.. The City of Indio came about because of the need of a halfway point for the Southern Pacific Railroad between Yuma and Los Angeles, since the engines needed to be refilled with water. At first, the would-be city was called Indian Wells, but since many other areas had that name, Indio was chosen instead. After the railroad's arrival in 1876, Indio started to grow; the first permanent building was hotel. Southern Pacific tried to make life as comfortable as it could for their workers in order to keep them from leaving such a difficult area to live in at the time, it was at the center of all social life in the desert with a fancy dining room and hosting dances on Friday nights.
While Indio started as a railroad town, it soon became agricultural. Onions, grapes and dates thrived in the arid climate due to the ingenuity of farmers finding various means of attaining water, first through artesian wells and through the valley’s branch of the All-American Canal. However, water was a major problem for Indio and the city was flooded several times until the storm water canals were created throughout the Coachella Valley. Businessmen and women found this last frontier land of the continental United States as an ideal place to start fresh. Dr. Harry Smiley and his wife Nell were early residents and stayed in Indio after their car broke down on the way to Los Angeles and became people of influence and helped shape the area. A. G. Tingman was an early storeowner and first Postmaster of Indio, but well known for taking advantage of miners as they headed to the mountains, selling at rather high prices. Dr. June Robertson McCarroll became a leading philanthropist and successful doctor in Indio.
She was responsible along with the Indio Woman’s Club for pressing California into adopting the placing of white lines down the streets after she nearly got hit one too many times by passing vehicles. Though these early founders of the city are considered pioneers, they still partook in the lifestyles of their friends living in such areas as Los Angeles. Indio established itself and kept up with the trends as they were brought in by the railroads. By the turn of the 20th century, Indio was more than a fading railroad town. Schools were built, the La Casita hospital provided medical services, families established roots. By 1920, about one to two thousand year-round residents lived in Indio, while it doubled to 2,500 to 5,000 during the winter months and was advertised as a health resort for senior citizens and those with respiratory diseases and ailments in the rest of the 20th century. Indio served as the home of the USDA’s Date Station, a place where leading scientific research was taking place on the fruit that would become a major part of the culture of Indio.
The station started in 1907 and was responsible for the ability of local farmers to better understand this unique crop and make the Coachella Valley a leader in American date crops. This created a tie to the Middle East that led to the theme for the County Fair with the Middle Eastern flair. Coachella and Thermal soon became larger cities than Indio, but Indio remained the “Hub of the Valley,” as it was called. With the burning of the majority of Thermal and the decline of Coachella, Indio grew again. By 1930, Indio was a thriving area and incorporated. On September 6, 1930, storekeeper Fred Kohler received the first business license in Indio. Indio was aided by the visiting soldiers from Patton’s training grounds in Chiriaco Summit located 30 miles to the east. However, Indio saw another decline as the valley’s population begin to move west towards newer cities such as Palm Desert. However, there is now a reversal in this trend and the eastern section of the valley is poised to once again become the center of the Coachella Valley.
The city had significant unemployment rates in the late 20th century and from the recession in the late 2000s. The rate in 2006 was under 5 percent after the loc
Oxnard is a city in Ventura County, United States. Located along the coast of Southern California, it is the most populous city in Ventura County and the 19th most populous city in California. Incorporated in 1903, the city lies 60 miles west of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area, it is located at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, sitting adjacent to an agricultural center of strawberries and lima beans. Oxnard is a major transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Metrolink and Intercalifornias stopping in Oxnard. Oxnard has a small regional airport called Oxnard Airport; the population of Oxnard is 207,906. Oxnard is the most populous city in the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, listed as one of the wealthiest areas in America, with most of its residents making well above the average national income. Before the arrival of Europeans, the area, now Oxnard was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans.
The first European to encounter the area was Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, who claimed it for Spain in 1542. During the mission period, it was serviced by the Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782. Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850. At about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans. Henry T. Oxnard, founder of today's Moorhead, Minnesota-based American Crystal Sugar Company who operated a successful sugar beet factory with his three brothers in Chino, was enticed to build a $2 million factory on the plain inland from Port Hueneme. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, now commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places as the Henry T. Oxnard Historic District. Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for "sugar", but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. Given the growth of the town of Oxnard, in the spring of 1898, a railroad station was built to service the plant, which attracted a population of Chinese and Mexican laborers and enough commerce to merit the designation of a town.
The Oxnard brothers, who never lived in their namesake city, sold both the Chino and the giant red-brick Oxnard factory in 1899 for nearly $4 million. The Oxnard factory with its landmark twin smokestacks operated from August 19, 1899 until October 26, 1959. Factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903. Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30, 1903, the public library was opened in 1907. Prior to and during World War II, the naval bases of Point Mugu and Port Hueneme were established in the area to take advantage of the only major navigable port on California's coast between the Port of Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay, the bases in turn encouraged the development of the defense-based aerospace and communications industries. In the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, retail, a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. Smith became the most influential developer in the history of Oxnard during this time.
Smith's first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant and the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947. He was involved in the development of the high-rise towers at the Topa Financial Plaza, the Channel Islands Harbor, Casa Sirena Resort, the Esplanade Shopping Mall, Fisherman's Wharf, the Carriage Square Shopping Center, the Maritime Museum, many other major hotel and retail projects. In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6.6-square-mile area of the central district of the city, in order to restrict gang activity. The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005. A similar injunction was imposed in September 2006 over a 4.26-square-mile area of the south side of the city. Oxnard is located on an area with fertile soil. With its beaches, wetlands and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Native plant communities include: coastal sage scrub, California Annual Grassland, Coastal Dune Scrub species.
Native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, the last self-sustaining population is in Oxnard in the center of a approved high-end housing development. The city of Oxnard is home to over 20 miles of scenic uncrowded coastline; the beaches in Oxnard are large and the sand is exceptionally soft. The sand dunes in Oxnard, which were once much more extensive, have been used to recreate Middle-Eastern desert dunes in many movies, the first being The Sheik with Rudolph Valentino. There are few rocks or driftwood piles at most beaches, but Oxnard is known to have dangerous rip-currents at certain beaches. Oxnard has good surfing at many of its beaches. Beaches in Oxnard include: Ormond Beach, Silver Strand Beach, Hollywood Beach, Hollywood-by-the-Sea, Mandalay Beach, Oxnard Beach Park, Oxnard Shores, 5th Street Beach, Mandalay State Beach, McGrath State Beach and Rivermouth Beach; the Santa Clara River separates Ventura. Tributaries to this river include Sespe Creek, Piru Creek, Castaic Creek.
Oxnard is on a tectonically active plate, since most of Coastal California is near the boundaries between the Pacific a
The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land. Its full name is the Beaufort wind force scale; the scale was devised in 1805 by the Irish hydrographer Francis Beaufort, a Royal Navy officer, while serving on HMS Woolwich. The scale that carries Beaufort's name had a long and complex evolution from the previous work of others to when Beaufort was Hydrographer of the Navy in the 1830s when it was adopted and first used during the voyage of HMS Beagle under Captain Robert FitzRoy to set up the first Meteorological Office in Britain giving regular weather forecasts. In the early 19th century, naval officers made regular weather observations, but there was no standard scale and so they could be subjective – one man's "stiff breeze" might be another's "soft breeze". Beaufort succeeded in standardising the scale; the initial scale of thirteen classes did not reference wind speed numbers but related qualitative wind conditions to effects on the sails of a frigate the main ship of the Royal Navy, from "just sufficient to give steerage" to "that which no canvas sails could withstand".
The scale was made a standard for ship's log entries on Royal Navy vessels in the late 1830s and was adapted to non-naval use from the 1850s, with scale numbers corresponding to cup anemometer rotations. In 1916, to accommodate the growth of steam power, the descriptions were changed to how the sea, not the sails and extended to land observations. Rotations to scale numbers were standardized only in 1923. George Simpson, CBE, director of the UK Meteorological Office, was responsible for this and for the addition of the land-based descriptors; the measure was altered some decades to improve its utility for meteorologists. Today, many countries have abandoned the scale and use the metric system based units, m/s or km/h, but the severe weather warnings given to the public are still the same as when using the Beaufort scale; the Beaufort scale was extended in 1946. However, forces 13 to 17 were intended to apply only to special cases, such as tropical cyclones. Nowadays, the extended scale is only used in Taiwan and mainland China, which are affected by typhoons.
Internationally, WMO Manual on Marine Meteorological Services defined the Beaufort Scale only up to force 12 and there was no recommendation on the use of the extended scale. Wind speed on the 1946 Beaufort scale is based on the empirical relationship: v = 0.836 B3/2 m/sWhere v is the equivalent wind speed at 10 metres above the sea surface and B is Beaufort scale number. For example, B = 9.5 is related to 24.5 m/s, equal to the lower limit of "10 Beaufort". Using this formula the highest winds in hurricanes would be 23 in the scale. Today, hurricane-force winds are sometimes described as Beaufort scale 12 through 16 roughly related to the respective category speeds of the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale, by which actual hurricanes are measured, where Category 1 is equivalent to Beaufort 12. However, the extended Beaufort numbers above 13 do not match the Saffir–Simpson scale. Category 1 tornadoes on the Fujita and TORRO scales begin at the end of level 12 of the Beaufort scale, but are independent scales – although the TORRO scale wind values are based on the 3/2 power law relating wind velocity to Beaufort force.
Wave heights in the scale are for conditions in the open ocean, not along the shore. The reason is that the Beaufort scale is not an objective scale, it was based of the sea. The corresponding integral wind speeds were determined but the values in different units were never made equivalent; the scale is used in the Shipping Forecasts broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom, in the Sea Area Forecast from Met Éireann, the Irish Meteorological Service. Met Éireann issues a "Small Craft Warning" if winds of Beaufort force 6 are expected up to 10 nautical miles offshore. Other warnings are issued by Met Éireann for Irish coastal waters, which are regarded as extending 30 miles out from the coastline, the Irish Sea or part thereof: "Gale Warnings" are issued if winds of Beaufort force 8 are expected; this scale is widely used in the Netherlands, Greece, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, although with some differences between them. Taiwan uses. China switched to this extended version without prior notice on the morning of 15 May 2006, the extended scale was put to use for Typhoon Chanchu.
Hong Kong and Macau retain force 12 as the maximum. In the United States, winds of force 6 or 7 result in the issuance of a small craft advisory, with force 8 or 9 winds bringing about a gale warning, force 10 or 11 a storm warning, force 12 a hurricane-force wind warning. A set of red warning flags and red warning lights is displayed at shore establishments which coincide with the various lev
Point Mugu, California
Point Mugu, California is a cape or promontory within Point Mugu State Park on the Pacific Coast in Ventura County, near the city of Port Hueneme and the city of Oxnard. The park has more than 70 miles of hiking trails; the name is believed to be derived from the Chumash Indian term "Muwu", meaning "beach", first mentioned by Cabrillo in his journals in 1542. It is a name applied to the nearby NAS Point Mugu, a test range facility known by various names over the years, including Pacific Missile Test Center and Naval Air Missile Test Center; the ZIP Code is 93042, the area is located in area code 805. The name derives from Muwu, the name of a Chumash village at Point Mugu during pre-colonial times; the village of Muwu had the highest population of any coastal Chumash settlements along the Santa Monica Mountains. Muwu was a ceremonial center and the ancient capital of Lulapin, a major political unit of Chumash territory which stretched from modern day Los Angeles County to Santa Barbara in the north.
The territory stretched for 60 miles along the coast, at least half as far inland. Mission records indicate that more individuals were baptized in Muwu, more than any other Chumash village by the Santa Monica Mountains; the last chief of Muwu, Mariano Wataitset, son of Halashu, was baptized at Mission San Buenaventura in 1802. Mugu Rock is a distinctive feature of the coastal headland promontory, featured in many film shoots and television commercials; this igneous dike marks the western end of the Santa Monica Mountains, the old Rancho Guadalasca boundary. The rock was formed when the roadway was cut through the near-vertical ridge of resistant volcanic rock in 1937. A route had been blasted out around the promontory in 1923–24 to complete Pacific Coast Highway between Malibu and the Oxnard Plain; this replaced a dangerous narrow path around the rock and much of that roadway has since eroded away. The site is a popular but dangerous place for fishing, cliff diving, rock climbing up the sheer sides of the rock.
On Thanksgiving Day 2008, three young men from Oxnard were swept to sea and killed by a rogue wave while surf watching from Mugu Rock. Directly east of Mugu Rock is Point Mugu State Beach Campsite