Elmer Clinton "Gloomy Gus" Henderson was an American football coach. He served as the head coach at the University of Southern California, the University of Tulsa, Occidental College, compiling a career college football record of 126–42–7. Henderson's career winning percentage of.865 at USC is the best of any Trojans football coach, his 70 wins with the Tulsa Golden Hurricane remain a team record. In between his stints at Tulsa and Occidental, Henderson moved to the professional ranks, helming the Los Angeles Bulldogs of the American Football League in 1937 and the Detroit Lions of the National Football League in 1939. Henderson coached basketball and baseball at USC, each for two seasons. Henderson was born in Oberlin, Ohio on March 10, 1889, he graduated from Oberlin College, coached at Broadway High School in Seattle, Washington. Henderson arrived at the University of Southern California in 1919, set the Trojans football team on its first steps toward national prominence, he led USC to a 6–0 record in 1920, the team's first perfect season of at least three games, to their first appearance in the Rose Bowl in 1923.
In the 1923 Rose Bowl, the first Rose Bowl game to be held in its namesake stadium, USC's faced their first opponent from east of the Rocky Mountains. The Trojans defeated the favored Penn State Nittany Lions, 14–3. Penn State arrived at the game 45 minutes late, ten minutes after the scheduled kickoff, because of a traffic jam. Henderson accused Penn State coach Hugo Bezdek of doing so intentionally as a psychological tactic, the coaches nearly began throwing punches, they exchanged public insults after the game. Gordon Campbell, a halfback USC's 1923 Rose Bowl team, said of Henderson, "He put the Trojans on the map, he was a great coach when we needed one most, because we were just growing up."Under Henderson's tenure, USC joined the Pacific Coast Conference in 1922, in 1923 moved from Bovard Field on campus to play in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. He received his nickname from Los Angeles Times sports editor Paul Lowry because of his tendency to poor-mouth the Trojans' prospects before a game.
Gloomy Gus was a character in a popular comic strip of Happy Hooligan. In regard to his offensive tactics which proved successful, Los Angeles Times sports editor Paul Zimmerman noted, "Until someone proves otherwise, it must be assumed that Henderson invented the spread formation, variations of which have become an important form of attack in modern day football."During his time at USC, Henderson coached the Trojans baseball team in 1920 and 1921 and school's basketball team for two seasons from 1919 to 1921. Henderson left USC following the 1924 season, despite a 45–7 record, in part due to his inability to defeat rival California in five tries. USC's loss to California in 1924 loss followed one week by an upset at the hands of Saint Mary's. Henderson's contract was bought out at the end of the year. At the time, USC had strained relations with Cal and Stanford University, who threatened to sever conference ties with USC due to their belief that USC was using cash to recruit players. USC quarterback Chet Dolley was dismissive of the idea, noting, "That was a joke, because the university didn't have a dime."
He stated. I came from Long Beach, so I was assigned to that area. So I was in charge of getting Morley Drury."Among the other players who arrived at USC during Henderson's tenure were the school's first two All-Americans, Brice Taylor and Mort Kaer, as well as future Pro Football Hall of Famer, Red Badgro. Taylor recalled of his former coach, "Not only was he a great coach, he was real people. You know, I'll never forget the day I was standing on a corner, because it was cold, Gus drives by in his car, he sees me, stops and backs up, says,'What's the matter Brice, are you cold?' And I said,'I sure am coach.' So he reaches into the back seat and takes out his brand new, blue Chesterfield coat and says,'Here, take this, it's yours.' You know, years after I left SC, when I was teaching in the South, I was still wearing that coat."USC finished its 1924 regular season with their first-ever scheduled game against an eastern team, winning at home over Syracuse, 16–0. The Trojans ended the year with a 20–7 win over Missouri in the Christmas Festival Bowl, held at the Coliseum.
Howard Jones of Iowa succeeded Henderson as USC's head coach in 1925, controversies abated, although California still canceled its 1925 game against USC, the only year since 1920 in which the teams have not met. Henderson moved to the University of Tulsa in 1925 and served at the Golden Hurricane head coach for the next 11 seasons. There he oversaw the construction of the Skelly Field, which opened in 1930. Under Henderson, Tulsa captured five conference championships: the Oklahoma Collegiate Conference title in 1925, the Big Four Conference titles in 1929, 1930, 1932, the Missouri Valley Conference title in 1935. Henderson's final record at Tulsa was 70–25–5. Henderson returned to Los Angeles and became the head coach of the professional Los Angeles Bulldogs, which operated as an independent team in 1936 before joining the American Football League in 1937 and capturing the conference title with a perfect 8–0 record; the Bulldogs returned to independent play in 1938. In 1939, Henderson was hired as coach of the National Football League's Detroit Lions by team owner Dick Richards, who owned Los Angeles radio station KMPC.
The Lions posted a 6–5 record in 1939, but the team was sold before the 1940 season, despite a three-y
Earl Harry "Dutch" Clark, sometimes known as the "Flying Dutchman" and the "Old Master", was an American football player and coach, basketball player and coach, university athletic director. He gained his greatest acclaim as a football player and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame with its inaugural class in 1951 and the Pro Football Hall of Fame with its inaugural class in 1963, he was named in 1969 to the NFL 1930s All-Decade Team and was the first player to have his jersey retired by the Detroit Lions. Born in Colorado, Clark attended Colorado College where he played football and baseball, competed in track and field. During the 1928 football season, he rushed for 1,349 yards, scored 103 points, became the first player from Colorado to receive first-team All-American honors. After graduating in 1930, he remained at Colorado College as the head basketball coach and assistant football coach. Clark played professionally in the National Football League with the Portsmouth Spartans / Detroit Lions from 1931-1938.
He was selected as the first-team All-Pro quarterback six times, was named by the United Press as the best player in the NFL in both 1935 and 1936, led the Lions to the 1935 NFL championship, led the NFL in total offense in 1934 and scoring in 1932, 1935, 1936. In his final two seasons with the Lions, he served as the team's head coach. In 1940, he was selected by the Associated Press as the outstanding football player of the 1930s. Clark was the head coach at the Colorado School of Mines and with the Cleveland Rams and Seattle Bombers, an assistant coach with the Los Angeles Dons and University of Detroit Titans, head coach and athletic director for the University of Detroit. Clark was born in the town of Fowler in Otero County, Colorado, in 1906, he was the son of Harry J. Clark, a Michigan native, Mary Etta Clark, a North Carolina native. Clark had an older sister, Mabel May, two older brothers and Fred, a younger sister, Pearl; as of 1910, the family lived in Otero County, where the father was a farmer.
In 1917, when Dutch was 10 years old, the family moved 60 miles to the west to Pueblo, where the father was employed as a locomotive fireman on a steam railroad. Clark attended Pueblo's Central High School; as a sophomore in the 1923-24 academic year, he was a member of the football team, captain of the basketball team, was voted the most popular man in the school. As a junior during the 1924-1925 academic year, Clark was voted as the class president, he was regarded as "the best all-around athlete in the state." Playing at fullback for the football team, he helped Central win the 1924 South Central League championship and was named to the all-state team. He was named captain of the basketball team for the second consecutive year, played at the center position, was selected as an all-conference player. According to an account published in 1980, Clark earned all-state honors in football and basketball and set South Central League track & field records in the discus and high hurdles. Baseball was his "weak" sport, on account of impaired vision in his left eye.
He earned 16 letters at Central High and graduated in 1926. In the fall of 1926, Clark enrolled at the Colorado College in Colorado Springs, he was team captain as a senior. He played basketball for four years and was team captain as both a junior and a senior, he competed in track all four years and in baseball as a senior. During the 1928 season, Clark averaged 10 yards every time, he rushed for 1,349 yards on 135 scored 103 of the team's 203 points. At the end of the 1928 season, he was selected by the Associated Press as the first-team quarterback on the 1928 College Football All-America Team, he was the first All-American football player from any of Colorado's universities. Clark graduated from Colorado College in June 1930 with a bachelor of arts degree in biology. After graduating, Clark remained at Colorado College during the 1930–1931 academic year as an assistant football coach and head basketball coach. In May 1931, Clark was granted a leave of absence from his coaching responsibilities at Colorado College to allow him to play for the Portsmouth Spartans in the National Football League, with the understanding that he would return to coach the school's basketball team when the Spartans' season was over.
The Spartans compiled an 11–3 record in 1931, good for second place in the NFL. Clark appeared in 11 games and was the team's leading scorer with 60 points on nine touchdowns and six extra points, he was selected as the first-team All-Pro quarterback. Clark was the leading scorer in the NFL when he secured permission to leave the team early to resume his coaching responsibilities with the Colorado College basketball team. Clark returned to the Spartans in the fall of 1932 and led the team to a 6–2–4 record and third place in the NFL. Clark led the NFL with 581 rushing yards. For the second consecutive year, he was selected as the first-team All-Pro quarterback. In December 1932, United Press sportswriter George Kirksey rated Clark as the greatest football player of the past 10 years. Despite his success during the 1931 and 1932 NFL seasons, Clark returned to Colorado College as the school's head basketball coach at the end of the 1932 season. In March 1933, he surprised followers of the profession
History of the Cleveland Rams
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Rams was established in Cleveland as the Cleveland Rams, played there from 1936 to 1945. The Rams competed in the second American Football League for the 1936 season and the National Football League from 1937–1945, winning the NFL championship in 1945, before moving to Los Angeles in 1946 to become the only NFL champion to play the following season in another city; the move of the team to Los Angeles helped to jump-start the reintegration of pro football by African-American players and opened up the West Coast to professional sports. After being based in Los Angeles for 49 years, the Rams franchise moved again after the 1994 NFL season to St. Louis. In 2016, the team moved back to Los Angeles after 21 seasons in St. Louis; the Rams franchise, founded in 1936 by attorney/businessman Homer Marshman and player-coach Damon "Buzz" Wetzel, was named for the then-powerhouse Fordham Rams and because the name was short and would fit into a newspaper headline.
Coached by Wetzel, featuring future Hall-of-Fame coach Sid Gillman as a receiver, the team finished 5–2–2 in its first season in 1936, good for second place behind the Boston Shamrocks. The team might have hosted an AFL championship game at Cleveland's League Park; the Rams moved from the poorly managed AFL to the National Football League in February 1937. Marshman and the other Rams stockholders paid $10,000 for an NFL franchise put up $55,000 to capitalize the new club, Wetzel became general manager. Under head coach Hugo Bezdek and with sole star Johnny Drake, the team's first-round draft pick, the Rams struggled in an era of little league parity to a 1–10 record in 1937 under heavy competition from the NFL's "big four": the Chicago Bears, Green Bay Packers, New York Giants, the Washington Redskins. After the team dropped its first three games of 1938, Wetzel was fired Bezdek. Art Lewis became coach, guided the team to four victories in its last eight games and a 4–7 record. Future Hall-of-Famer Dutch Clark was named head coach for the 1939 season, with Lewis as his assistant and with star back Parker Hall on the squad, the Rams improved to 5–5–1 in 1939 and 4–6–1 in 1940 before falling back to 2–9 in 1941, the year that Dan Reeves, a New Yorker with family wealth in the grocery business, acquired the team.
The Rams bounced back to 5–6 and a third-place finish in 1942, but in the heavy war year of 1943, when many NFL personnel including Rams majority owner Reeves had been drafted into the military, they suspended play for one season. The franchise began to rebound in 1944 under the direction of general manager Chile Walsh and head coach Aldo Donelli, the only man both to participate in a World Cup game and coach an NFL team. With servicemen beginning to return home, with the makings of a championship team that included ends Jim Benton and Steve Pritko, backs Jim Gillette and Tommy Colella, linemen Riley Matheson and Mike Scarry, the team improved to 4–6 in 1944, defeating the Bears in League Park and the Detroit Lions in Briggs Stadium. With the arrival of star quarterback Bob Waterfield, the drafting of Pat West and the return of back Fred Gehrke, who would go on to create the first designed and painted helmet in NFL history, the team gelled into championship calibre. Donelli was drafted into the Navy, but Chile Walsh's brother Adam Walsh took over as head coach.
Waterfield-to-Benton became an aerial threat to opposing teams, with Benton becoming the NFL's first 300-yard receiver by hauling in 10 passes for 303 yards against the Lions on Thanksgiving Day 1945. Benton’s performance shattered the mark set by Green Bay Packers legend Don Hutson two years earlier in a game against the Brooklyn Dodgers; the record stood for a remarkable 40 years, until it was broken by the Kansas City Chiefs' Stephone Paige in 1985. It still stands as the fourth-most receiving yards in a single game; the only loss on the Rams' 9-1 regular-season record came to the Philadelphia Eagles. Otherwise Cleveland plowed through the powers that had held a championship hegemony in the NFL since the early 1930s—the Bears, Giants and Lions—and defeated the Washington Redskins, 15-14, in the 1945 NFL Championship Game in near-zero degree weather at Cleveland Stadium; the Rams, led by Waterfield, married to Hollywood star Jane Russell, were described as "sport’s first spectacular postwar team."
Only one month after winning the championship, Reeves overcame initial objections of his fellow NFL owners and announced he would be moving the Rams to Los Angeles. He cited financial losses and poor attendance in Cleveland - the 1945 championship game had drawn a crowd of less than half capacity, which undoubtedly was not helped by the sub-zero weather. In all likelihood, the only thing that had kept the team in Cleveland until 1945 was wartime travel restrictions, eased with the end of hostilities - Reeves had his eye on the booming L. A. market since buying the team in 1941. He was leery of competition in the Cleveland market from the incoming Cleveland Browns of the All-America Football Conference, who would be stocked with many Ohio players and coached by former Ohio State coach Paul Brown; the Rams' move opened up the Cleveland market to the new Browns, who would meet with a high degree of initial success in the AAFC and the NFL. At the same time the Rams and their championship were soon forgotten in Cleveland, in part due to a month-long, citywide newspaper strike that paralleled the team's departure, delayed coverage, muted the public outcry, further mollified by the immediate replacement of the Rams with a team under the popular Brown if they w
Texas Christian University
Texas Christian University is a private Christian-based, coeducational university in Fort Worth, established in 1873 by brothers Addison and Randolph Clark as the Add-Ran Male & Female College. The campus is located on 272 acres about three miles from downtown Fort Worth. TCU is affiliated with, but not governed by, the Disciples of Christ; the university consists of eight constituent colleges and schools and has a classical liberal arts curriculum. It is ranked in the Top 100 National Universities by the US News and World Report and is categorized as a Doctoral University: Higher Research Activity in the Carnegie Classifications by the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research, its mascot is the state reptile of Texas. TCU is the only university in the world that has the horned frog as its mascot. For most varsity sports TCU competes in the Big 12 conference of the NCAA's Division I; the university enrolls with 8,892 being undergraduates. As of February 2016, TCU's total endowment was $1.514 billion.
Texas Christian University was founded by East Texas brothers Addison and Randolph Clark, together with the support of their father Joseph A. Clark; the Clarks were scholar-preacher/teachers associated with the Restoration Movement. These early leaders of the Restoration Movement were the spiritual ancestors of the modern Disciples of Christ, as well as major proponents of education. Following their return from service in the Civil War, brothers Addison and Randolph established a children's preparatory school in Fort Worth; this school, known as the Male & Female Seminary of Fort Worth, operated from 1869 to 1874. Both Clarks nourished a vision for an institution of higher education that would be Christian in character, but non-sectarian in spirit and intellectually open-minded, they purchased five blocks of land in downtown Fort Worth in 1869 for that purpose. But from 1867–1872, the character of Fort Worth changed due to the commercial influence of the Chisholm Trail, the principal route for moving Texas cattle to the Kansas rail heads.
A huge influx of cattle and money transformed the sleepy frontier village into a booming, brawling cowtown. The area around the property purchased by the Clarks for their college soon became the town's vice district, an unrelieved stretch of saloons, gambling halls, dance parlors, bawdy houses catering to the rough tastes of the Chisholm Trail cowboys, its rough and rowdy reputation had, by 1872, acquired it the nickname of "Hell's Half Acre". The Clarks feared, they began to look for an alternative site for their college, they found it at Thorp Spring, a small community and stagecoach stop 40 miles in Hood County to the southwest near the frontier of Comanche and Kiowa territory. In 1873 the Clark brothers founded Add-Ran Male & Female College. TCU recognizes 1873 as its founding year, as it continues to preserve the original college through the AddRan College of Liberal Arts. Add-Ran College was one of the first coeducational institutions of higher education west of the Mississippi River, the first in Texas.
This was a progressive step at a time when only 15% of the national college enrollment was female and all were enrolled at women's colleges. At Thorp Spring the fledgling college expanded quickly; the inaugural enrollment in Fall 1873 was 13 students, though this number rose to 123 by the end of the first term. Shortly thereafter, annual enrollment ranged from 200 to 400. At one time more than 100 counties of Texas were represented in the student body; the Clark brothers recruited prestigious professors from all over the South to join them at Thorp Spring. The standards of the school and the efficiency of its work came to be recognized throughout the United States, many graduates were welcomed at universities throughout the country. In 1889 Add-Ran College formed an official partnership with; this relationship with the church was a partnership of heritage and values, though the church never enjoyed any administrative role at TCU. That year the Clark brothers handed over all land and assets and allowed the growing university to continue as a private institution.
In keeping with the transition, in 1889 the school was renamed Add-Ran Christian University, though by this time it had quite outgrown the property. The need for a larger population and transportation base prompted the university to relocate to Waco from 1895 to 1910; the institution was renamed Texas Christian University in 1902, though immediately it was dubbed as its acronym TCU. It was during this 15-year sojourn in Waco that TCU in 1896 entered the ranks of intercollegiate football and adopted its school colors of purple and white, as well as its distinctive Horned Frog mascot; this laid the groundwork for the oldest private college rivalry in history between TCU and then-fellow Waco denizens Baylor College Baylor University. "The Revivalry" - as the rivalry is known on both sides - is the most rivalry in collegiate football at any level, with the series led by TCU 54-52-7, with neither school enjoying more than an 8 game lead. In 1910 a fire of unknown origin destroyed the university's Main Administration building.
A rebuilding project was pl
Donald Montgomery Hutson was a professional American football player and assistant coach in the National Football League. He played as a split end and spent his entire eleven-year professional career with the Green Bay Packers. Under head coach Curly Lambeau, Hutson led the Packers to four NFL Championship Games, winning three: 1936, 1939, 1944. In his senior season at the University of Alabama in 1934, Hutson was recognized as a consensus All-American and won a national championship with the Alabama Crimson Tide football team. After his career at Alabama, he joined the Packers in 1935 and played eleven seasons before he retired in 1945, he led the league in receiving touchdowns in nine. A talented safety on defense, he led the NFL in interceptions in 1940. Hutson was an eight-time All-Pro selection, a four-time All-Star, was twice awarded the Joe F. Carr Trophy as the NFL Most Valuable Player. Hutson is considered to have been the first modern receiver, is credited with creating many of the modern pass routes used in the NFL today.
He was the dominant receiver of his day, during which he was considered one of the greatest receivers in NFL history. He held all major receiving records at the time of his retirement, including career receptions and touchdowns, he was inducted as a charter member of both the College Football Hall of Fame and the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Hutson's number 14 was the first jersey retired by the Packers, he is a member of the Green Bay Packers Hall of Fame. In 1994, Hutson was selected for the National Football League 75th Anniversary All-Time Team as one of the greatest players of the NFL's first 75 years. Hutson was born on January 31, 1913, in Pine Bluff, one of three sons of Roy B. Hutson and Mabel Clark Hutson. While a Boy Scout, he played with snakes, he said. As a teenager Hutson played baseball for Pine Bluff's town team; as a senior at Pine Bluff High School he was an all-state basketball player, which he said was his favorite sport. "I'm like most," he said. "I'd rather see football, but I'd rather play basketball."
Hutson played one year of football at Pine Bluff. Hutson played at end for coach Frank Thomas's Alabama Crimson Tide football team from 1932 to 1934. Bear Bryant, future long-time coach of the Tide, was the self-described "other end" on the Tide in 1933 and 1934. Bryant once remarked, "...he was something to see then. We'd hitchhike to Pine Bluff just to watch him play. I saw him catch five touchdown passes in one game in high school."Sportswriter Morgan Blake ranked the undefeated 1934 Tide as the best team he saw. Hutson's College Football Hall of Fame profile reads: "Fluid in motion, wondrously elusive with the fake, inventive in his patterns and magnificently at ease when catching the ball... Hutson and fellow Hall of Famer Millard "Dixie" Howell became football's most celebrated passing combination." Hutson had six catches for 165 yards, including two touchdowns of 54 and 59 yards in the 1935 Rose Bowl against Stanford. He scored the winning touchdown over Robert Neyland's Tennessee Volunteers on an end-around.
Hutson was recognized as a first-team All-American for six different organizations and received a second-team selection by one other. In an attempt to name retroactive Heisman Trophy winners before its first year of 1936, Hutson was awarded it for 1934 by the National Football Foundation. Georgia Tech coach Bill Alexander once said, "All Don Hutson can do is beat you with clever hands and the most baffling change of pace I've seen." When he graduated from Alabama, Hutson did not plan on playing professionally, since the NFL was not regarded in the South compared to college football. But Green Bay Packers head coach Curly Lambeau saw Hutson as the perfect receiver for his passing attack, which at the time was headed by quarterback Arnie Herber and end John "Blood" McNally. Before the draft existed, college players could sign with any team they wanted, while Hutson did sign a contract with Green Bay, he had signed a contract with the NFL's Brooklyn Dodgers. Both contracts came to the NFL office at the same time, NFL president Joseph Carr declared that Hutson would go to Green Bay, as the Green Bay contract had an earlier date of signing.
Hutson stated he chose the Packers because they offered the most money—$300 a game. "That was far and above what they had paid a player," said Hutson. "Each week they'd give me a check for $150 from one bank and $150 from another so nobody would know how much I was getting paid." Hutson's first catch as a professional was on an 83-yard touchdown pass from Herber on the first play from scrimmage against the Chicago Bears, in the second game of the 1935 season. It was the only score of the game as the Packers won 7–0, he caught six touchdowns total in his rookie season. It was the first in a string of four straight seasons and nine seasons total that Hutson led the league in touchdown receptions; the next season the Packers won their fourth league title, with a 21–6 win over the Boston Redskins in the 1936 NFL Championship Game. Hutson scored the first touchdown of the game, on a 48-yard pass from Herber in the first quarter. Hutson completed the season with 34 receptions for 536 yards and eight touchdowns, which were all league records, helped Herber set the NFL season passing yards record.
Hutson's yardage record was broken the next season by Chicago Cardinals receiver Gaynell Tinsley, who challenged Hutson over the next few years for the title of best receiver in the NFL. In 1938, Hutson had nine touchdown receptions, again setting the league record, as he led the Packers to another NFL Championship Game, this time against
In several forms of football a forward pass is a throwing of the ball in the direction that the offensive team is trying to move, towards the defensive team's goal line. The forward pass is one of the main distinguishers between gridiron football in which the play is legal and widespread, rugby football from which the North American games evolved, in which the play is illegal. In some football codes, such as association football, the kicked forward pass is used so ubiquitously that it is not thought of as a distinct kind of play at all. In these sports, the concept of offside is used to regulate who can be in front of the play or be nearest to the goal. However, this has not always been the case; some earlier incarnations of football allowed unlimited forward passing, while others had strict offside rules similar to rugby. The development of the forward pass in American football shows how the game has evolved from its rugby roots into the distinctive game it is today. Illegal and experimental forward passes had been attempted as early as 1876, but the first legal forward pass in American football took place in 1906, after a change in rules.
Another change in rules occurred on January 18, 1951, which established that no center, tackle, or guard could receive a forward pass. Today, the only linemen are the tight ends. Current rules regulate who may throw and who may receive a forward pass, under what circumstances, as well as how the defensive team may try to prevent a pass from being completed; the primary pass thrower is the quarterback, statistical analysis is used to determine a quarterback's success rate at passing in various situations, as well as a team's overall success at the "passing game." In American and Canadian football, a forward pass is referred to as a pass, consists of a player throwing the football towards the opponent's goal line. This is permitted only once during a scrimmage down by the offensive team before team possession has changed, provided the pass is thrown from in or behind the neutral zone. An illegal forward pass can incur a yardage penalty and the loss of a down, although it may be intercepted by the opponents and advanced.
If an eligible receiver on the passing team catches the ball, the pass is completed and the receiver may attempt to advance the ball. If an opposing player catches the ball it is an interception; that player's team gains possession of the ball and he may attempt to advance the ball toward his opponent's goal. If no player is able to catch the ball it is an incomplete pass and the ball becomes dead the moment it touches the ground, it will be returned to the original line of scrimmage for the next down. If any player interferes with an eligible receiver's ability to catch the ball it is pass interference which draws a penalty of varying degree; the person passing the ball must be a member of the offensive team, the recipient of the forward pass must be an eligible receiver and must touch the passed ball before any ineligible player. The moment that a forward pass begins is important to the game; the pass begins the moment. If the passer drops the ball before this moment it is a fumble and therefore a loose ball.
In this case anybody can gain possession of the ball. If the passer drops the ball while his arm is moving forward it is a forward pass, regardless of where the ball lands or is first touched; the quarterback either starts a few paces behind the line of scrimmage or drops back a few paces after the ball is snapped. This places him in an area called the "pocket", a protective region formed by the offensive blockers up front and between the tackles on each side. A quarterback who runs out of this pocket is said to be scrambling. Under NFL and NCAA rules, once the quarterback moves out of the pocket the ball may be thrown away to prevent a sack. NFHS rules do not allow for a passer to intentionally throw an incomplete forward pass to save loss of yardage or conserve time, except for a spike to conserve time after a hand-to-hand snap. If he throws the ball away while still in the pocket a foul called "intentional grounding" is assessed. In Canadian football the passer must throw the ball across the line of scrimmage—whether he is inside or outside of the "pocket"—to avoid the foul of "intentionally grounding".
If a forward pass is caught near a sideline or endline it is a complete pass only if a receiver catches the ball in bounds. For a pass to be ruled complete in-bounds, depending on the rules either one or two feet must touch the ground within the field boundaries, after the ball is first grasped. In the NFL the receiver must touch the ground with both feet, but in most other codes—CFL, NCAA and high school—one foot in bounds is enough. Common to all gridiron codes is the notion of control—a receiver must demonstrate control of the ball in order to be ruled in possession of it, while still in bounds, as defined by his code. If the receiver handles the ball but the official determines that he was still "bobbling" it prior to the end of the play the pass will be ruled incomplete; the forward pass had been attempted at least 30 years before the play was made legal. Passes "had been carried out but illegally several times, including the 1876 Yale–Princeton game in which Yale's Walter Camp threw forward to teammate Oliver Thompson as he was being
History of the Chicago Cardinals
The professional American football team now known as the Arizona Cardinals played in Chicago, Illinois as the Chicago Cardinals from 1920 to 1959 before relocating to St. Louis, Missouri for the 1960 season. In 1898, Chicago painting and building contractor Chris O'Brien established an amateur Chicago-based athletic club football team named the Morgan Athletic Club. O'Brien moved them to Chicago's Normal Park and renamed them the Racine Normals, since Normal Park was located on Racine Avenue in Chicago. In 1901, O'Brien bought used maroon uniforms from the University of Chicago, the colors of which had by faded, leading O'Brien to exclaim, "That's not maroon, it was that the team changed its name to the Racine Cardinals. The original Racine Cardinals team disbanded in 1906 for lack of local competition. A professional team under the same name formed in 1913, claiming the previous team as part of their history; as was the case for most professional football teams in 1918, the team was forced to suspend operations for a second time due to World War I and the outbreak of the Spanish flu pandemic.
They resumed operations in the year, have since operated continuously. At the time of the founding of the modern National Football League, the Cardinals were part of a thriving professional football circuit based in the Chicago area. Teams such as the Decatur Staleys, Hammond Pros, Chicago Tigers and the Cardinals had formed an informal loop similar to, on par with, the Ohio and New York circuits that had emerged as top football centers prior to the league's founding. In 1920, the team became a charter member of the American Professional Football Association, for a franchise fee of $100; the Cardinals and the Chicago Bears are the only charter members of the NFL still in existence, though the Green Bay Packers, which joined the league in 1921, existed prior to the formation of the NFL. The person keeping the minutes of the first league meeting, unfamiliar with the nuances of Chicago football, recorded the Cardinals as from Racine, Wisconsin; the team was renamed the Chicago Cardinals in 1922 after a team from Racine, Wisconsin entered the league.
That season the team moved to Comiskey Park. The Staleys and Cardinals played each other twice in 1920 as the Racine Cardinals and the Decatur Staleys, making their rivalry the oldest in the NFL, they split the series, with the home team winning in each. In the Cardinals' 7-6 victory over the Staleys in their first meeting of the season, each team scored a touchdown on a fumble recovery, with the Staleys failing their extra point try; the Cardinals' defeat of the Staleys proved critical, since George Halas's Staleys went on to a 10-1-2 record overall, 5-1-2 in league play. The Akron Pros were the first league champions. Since the Pros had to tie the game in order to win the title, they could afford to play not to lose. Had the Staleys not lost to the Cardinals, they would have gone into that fateful game with an 11-0-1 record, 6-0-1 in league play; as it was, it all but assured that the Cardinals would be intense rivals. The two teams played to a tie in 1921, when the Staleys won all but two games, thus the Cardinals came within 1 point of costing the Staleys a second consecutive championship in the league's first two years of existence.
In 1922, the Staleys, now renamed the Bears, went 9-3-0. The Bears still edged the Cardinals for 2nd place in the league, but those losses dashed all hopes of the Bears repeating as champions. In 1923 and 1924, the Bears got the better of the Cardinals all three times, but in 1925, the Bears went 0-1-1 against the Cardinals with the tie meaning the Cardinals were only a ½ game in front of the Pottsville Maroons heading into their fateful 1925 showdown. Thus, in the first 6 years of the NFL's existence, the Bears-Cardinals games had a direct impact on the league championship 4 times; the Bears and Cardinals each took home 1 title during that span. But the Bears nearly cost the Cardinals their title, the Cardinals nearly cost the Bears their title, had it not been for the Cardinals' tenacity against the Bears, the Bears well might have won two more; the Bears were the Cardinals in the league's early years. From 1920-1925, the Canton Bulldogs, champions in 1922 and 1923, beat the Bears just 2 times and no other team in the NFL defeated the Bears more than once over that entire 6-year span... except for the Cardinals.
The Cardinals battled the Bears to 4-4-2 split between 1920–1925 and established the NFL's first rivalry. Legend has it that the Cardinals played the Chicago Tigers in 1920, with the loser being forced to leave town. While this has never been proven, the Tigers did disband after one season; the 1925 season ended in the greatest controversy in professional football history. In those days, there was any playoff games; the championship was decided by winning percentage. At season's end, after losing in a Chicago snow storm to the Pottsville Maroons 21-7, the Cardinals found themselves in second place. Hoping to improve their record, they scheduled and won two hastily arranged games against weaker teams, the Milwaukee Badgers and the Hammond Pros; the ploy was within the NFL's rules at the time because of the open-ended schedule. Chicago finished the season with a record of 11-2-1. However, the league sanctioned them because a Chicago player, Art Folz, had hired