Jalisco the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Aguascalientes, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture outside Mexico City, are from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, tequila, etc. hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is a significant foreign population retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.
With a total area of 78,599 square kilometers, Jalisco is the seventh-largest state in Mexico, accounting for 4.1% of the country's territory. The state is in the central western coast of the country, bordering the states of Nayarit, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato and Michoacán with 342 kilometers of coastline on the Pacific Ocean to the west. Jalisco is made up of a diverse terrain that includes forests, beaches and lakes. Altitudes in the state vary from 0 to 4,300 meters above sea level, from the coast to the top of the Nevado de Colima; the Jalisco area contains all five of Mexico's natural ecosystems: arid and semi arid scrublands, tropical evergreen forests, tropical deciduous and thorn forests and mesquite grasslands and temperate forests with oaks and firs. Over 52% of the bird species found in Mexico live in the state, with 525, 40% of Mexico's mammals with 173 and 18% of its reptile species. There are 7,500 species of veined plants. One reason for its biodiversity is, lies in the transition area between the temperate north and tropical south.
It lies at the northern edge of the Sierra Madre del Sur and is on the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which provides a wide variety of ecological conditions from tropical rainforest conditions to semi arid areas to areas apt for conifer forests. Its five natural regions are: Northwestern Plains and Sierras, Sierra Madre Occidental, Central Plateau, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which covers most of the state, the Sierra Madre del Sur, it has an average altitude of 1,550 meters MASL, but ranges from 0–4,300 m. Most of the territory is semi-flat between 600–2,050 m, followed by rugged terrain of between 900–4,300 m and a small percentage of flat lands between 0–1,750 m. Principle elevations include the Nevado de Colima, the Volcan de Colima, the Sierra El Madroño, the Tequila Volcano, the Sierra Tapalpa, Sierra Los Huicholes, Sierra San Isidro, Sierra Manantlán, Cerro El Tigre, Cerro García, Sierra Lalo, Sierra Cacoma, Cerro Gordo, Sierra Verde and the Sierra Los Guajolotes. Jalisco's rivers and streams empty into the Pacific Ocean and are divided into three groups: the Lerma/Santiago River and its tributaries, rivers that empty directly into the Pacific and rivers in the south of the state.
Jalisco has several river basins with the most notable being that of the Lerma/Santiago River, which drains the northern and northeastern parts of the state. The Lerma River enters extends from the State of Mexico and empties into Lake Chapala on the east side. On the west, water flows out in the Santiago River, which crosses the center of Jalisco on its way to the Pacific, carving deep canyons in the land. Tributaries to the Santiago River include the Zula, the Verde River, the Juchipila and the Bolaños. About three quarters of the state's population lives near this river system. In the southwest of the state, there are a number of small rivers that empty directly into the Pacific Ocean; the most important of these is the Ameca, with its one main tributary, the Mascota River. This river empties into the Ipala Bay; the Tomatlán, San Nicolás, Purificación, Marabasco-Minatitlán, Tuxcacuesco, Armería and Tuxpan rivers flow perpendicular to the Pacific Ocean and drain the coastal area. Another river of this group is the Cihuatlán River, which forms the boundary between Jalisco and Colima emptying into the Barra de Navidad Bay.
The southeastern corner belongs to the Balsas River basin. This includes the Tuxcacuesco, which join to form the Armería and the Tuxpan; the other main surface water is Lake Chapala, is the largest and most important freshwater lake in Mexico, accounting for about half of the country's lake surface. The lake acts as a regulator of the flow of both the Santiago Rivers. There are a number of seasonal and salty lakes linking to form the Zacoalco-Sayula land-locked system. There are other smaller lakes called Cajititlán, San Marcos, Atotonilco. Dams include Santa Rosa, La Vega, Tacotán and Las Piedras. Jalisco's surface water accounts for fifteen percent of the surface freshwater in Mexico. In 1987, four beaches in Jalisco were designated as federal marine turtle sanctuaries: El Tecuán, Cuitzmala and Playón de Mismaloya, with an extension of 8 km. Playa Majahuitas is 27 km southwest of Puerto Vallarta with a rugged coastline, numerous inlets and outcroppings; the Cañon Submarino underwater canyon is located offs
A trough is an elongated region of low atmospheric pressure associated with fronts. Troughs may be at the surface, or aloft, or both under various conditions. Most troughs bring clouds, a wind shift following the passage of the trough; this results from convergence or "squeezing" which forces lifting of moist air behind the trough line. Unlike fronts, there is not a universal symbol for a trough on a weather chart; the weather charts in some countries or regions mark troughs by a line. In the United States, a trough may be marked as bold line. In the UK, Hong Kong and Fiji, it is represented by a bold line extended from a low pressure center or between two low pressure centers. If they are not marked, troughs may still be identified as an extension of isobars away from a low pressure center. A trough is not in a general term a boundary but an elongated area of lower air pressure. There are changes in wind direction across a trough but there is no change in air mass. While not a surface boundary, troughs reflect the change in atmospheric conditions in the upper atmosphere.
As such, troughs can be areas where thunderstorms can form. If a trough forms in the mid-latitudes, a temperature difference at some distance between the two sides of the trough exists and the trough might become a weather front at some point; however such a weather front is less convective than a trough in the tropics or subtropics. Inversely, sometimes collapsed frontal systems will degenerate into troughs. Sometimes the region between two high pressure centers may assume the character of a trough when there is a detectable wind shift noted at the surface. In the absence of a wind shift, the region is designated a col, akin to a geographic saddle between two mountain peaks. A trough is the result of the movements of the air in the atmosphere. In regions where there is upward movement near the ground and diverge at altitude, there is a loss of mass; the pressure becomes lower at this point. At upper level of the atmosphere, this occurs when there is a meeting of a mass of cold air and another hot along a thin ribbon called a frontal baroclinic zone.
We have the creation of a jet stream that plunges the cold air towards the equator and hot air towards the poles, creating a ripple in the circulation, called a Rossby wave. These undulations give the peaks of altitude. In general, absolute vorticity advection is positive between these two features, but closer to the ridge, whereas it is negative just behind a trough. At the surface, lifting air under positive vorticity advection is reflected by the formation of depressions and troughs. There will therefore be a slope between the barometric high altitude and that on the ground, this slope going towards the mass of cold air at high altitude. Troughs have an orientation relative to the poles, North-South. In the Northern Hemisphere, positively tilted troughs will extend from the lowest pressure northeast to southwest while negatively tilted troughs have a northwest to southeast orientation. In the Southern Hemisphere, the positive tilt will be southeast to northwest and the negative one southwest to northeast.
A trough will begin with a positive tilt as cold air moves toward the Equator. The trough will become neutral and negatively tilted as the energy carried by the cold air races east though the atmospheric circulation and distorts its shape; the positive tilt is thus the building phase of the trough and the negative tilt is the dissipation of its energy. Therefore, the clouds and precipitation will develop in the positive phase and the most severe weather will be in the negative phase. In addition to standard troughs, some may be described further with a qualifying term indicating a specific or a set of characteristics. An inverted trough is an atmospheric trough, oriented opposite to most troughs of the mid-latitudes. Most inverted troughs are tropical waves. Most troughs of low pressure in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are characterized by decreasing atmospheric pressure from south to north while inverted troughs are characterized by decreasing pressure from north to south; the situation is opposite in the Southern Hemisphere.
Inverted troughs in both hemispheres move to the west from the east, while mid-latitude troughs move with the westerlies toward the east. A lee trough known as a dynamic trough, is "A pressure trough formed on the lee side of a mountain range in situations where the wind is blowing with a substantial component across the mountain ridge, it can be formed either as a result of the adiabatic compression of sinking air on the lee side of a mountain range, or through cyclogenesis resulting from "the horizontal convergence associated with vertical stretching of air columns passing over the ridge and descending the lee slope." Convective cells may give birth to a tropical cyclone. Some tropical or subtropical regions such as the Philippines or south China are affected by convection cells along a trough. In the mid-latitude westerlies, upper level troughs and ridges alternate in a high-amplitude pattern. For a trough in the westerlies, the region just west of the trough axis is an area of convergent winds and descending air - and hence high pressure - while the region just east of the trough axis is an area of fast, divergent winds and low pressure.
Tropical waves are a type of
Santiago de Ixcuintla is a municipality and a municipal seat in the western Mexican state of Nayarit. The municipal population was 84,314 inhabitants with the municipal seat having 18,269; the area of the municipality was 1,831.92 square kilometers. It is located at 21º48'40" N and 105º12'23" W; the most important population centers are the municipal seat, Santiago Ixcuintla, with 18,169 inhabitants. Forty-six percent of the population lives in these communities. Much of the land is only above sea level. Lagoons make up the western section where two important rivers, the Río Grande de Santiago and the Río San Pedro, enter the sea. In the east the land rises to form the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental; the municipal seat of Santiago is situated at 30 meters above sea level. The economy is based on agriculture and small manufacturing industries; the main crops are tobacco, citrus fruits, watermelon, mangoes and coffee. Santiago is one of the most important tobacco producing regions of the country.
Fishing along the coast and in the many lagoons is important. On July 11, 1991 a sounding rocket was launched at Santiago Ixcuintla for solar research during a solar eclipse. There is an unexploited touristic potential in the area due to the vast inland waters making up the Marismas Nacionales; this protected area consists of a vast network of brackish coastal lagoons, mangrove swamps and marshes. It tributary streams, including the delta of the Río San Pedro. On one of the lagoons lies the island village of Mexcaltitlán, accessible only by small boat
Nayarit the Free and Sovereign State of Nayarit, is one of the 31 states which, together with the Mexico City, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided in 20 municipalities and its capital city is Tepic, it is bordered by the states of Sinaloa to the northwest, Durango to the north, Zacatecas to the northeast and Jalisco to the south. To the west, Nayarit has a significant share of coastline on the Pacific Ocean, including the islands of Marías and Marietas; the beaches of San Blas and the so-called "Riviera Nayarit" are popular with tourists. Besides tourism, the economy of the state is based on agriculture and fishing. Home to Uto-Aztecan indigenous peoples such as the Huichol and Cora, the region was exposed to the conquistadores, Hernán Cortés and Nuño de Guzmán, in the 16th century. Spanish governance was made difficult by indigenous rebellions and by the inhospitable terrain of the Sierra del Nayar; the last independent Cora communities were subjugated in 1722. The state's name recalls the Cora people's label for themselves: Náayerite, commemorating Nayar, a resistance leader.
Radiocarbon dating estimate Aztatlán colonization of the western Mexican coast – including parts of Sinaloa and Jalisco – as occurring as early as 900 AD, with some evidence suggesting it might have been as early as 520 AD. Encountered on the western coast by the Spanish invaders in 1500, the cultures were descended from these original Aztatlán settlements and other Classic-stage cultures who had merged with them. Hernán Cortés was the first known European to enter into the area now known as Nayarit, which he claimed for Spain as part of Nueva Galicia. Under Nuño de Guzman, Spaniards took the region with considerable brutality, causing the indigenous inhabitants to revolt, in what was referred to as the Mixtón War. After two centuries of resistance, the last independent Cora communities were incorporated into Spanish administration by force in 1722. Followed intense missionary efforts by Jesuits to convert the indigenous. In the colonial period, the port of San Blas was one of the most important trade ports on the American Pacific coast.
Galleons transporting goods from Manila, the Philippines arrived here before the rise of the port of Acapulco. Today, the town still boasts colonial architecture from the its heyday, such as the aduana, the contaduria and the fortress that protected the port against pirates. In Nayarit, the struggle for independence from Spain was initiated by the priest José María Mercado, who conquered Tepic and San Blas before being defeated and executed by Spanish royalists. In 1824, in the first constitution of the Mexican republic, Nayarit was a part of Jalisco state. During the second half of the 19th century, Nayarit was one of the most turbulent territories in Mexico; the population was in open revolt. Nayarit was one of the last territories admitted as a state of the Mexican federation, which occurred on May 1, 1917. Nayarit covers 27,815 square kilometers. Nayarit is located between latitude lines 23°05' north and 20°36' south and longitude lines 103°43' east and 105°46' west, its terrain is broken up by the western ends of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains.
Its highest mountains are: Sanguangüey, El Ceboruco, Cumbre de Pajaritos and Picachos. Nayarit has two volcanoes and Sangangüey. In the northeast are broad, tropical plains watered by the Río Grande de Santiago, a continuation of the Lerma River; the main state rivers are the Río Grande de Santiago, San Pedro, Acaponeta and Las Cañas. The Río Grande de Santiago is the largest river in Nayarit; the Santiago and its tributaries are of major importance for agricultural irrigation. The Ameca and the Las Cañas lie on the border between Nayarit and the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa, respectively. Notable lagoons in Nayarit include San Pedro Lagunillas and Agua Brava. Nayarit – as with all states of Mexico – is geographically divided into municipalities, creating twenty municipalities in Nayarit: Nayarit contains hundreds of miles of rain forest in the sierra, its wildlife includes hundreds of bird species including the lilac-crowned amazon and Mexican woodnymph. There are 119 registered species of mammals, including white-tailed deer, collared peccary, caymans and wild felines such as jaguarundi and ocelot and many more.
Most of the rain forest has been exploited around the region of Santa María del Oro. The conservation and protection of the rain forest and wildlife of Nayarit is an issue of crucial importance; the Islas Marías were designated as the Islas Marías Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2010. Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit Universidad Tecnólogica de Nayarit Universidad Tecnólogica de la Costa Escuela Normal Superior de Nayarit: a normal school Universidad Vizcaya de Las Americas Escuela Secundaria Técnica No. 51 Nayarit is Mexico's twenty-ninth most populous state. According to the census of 2010, the state had a population of 1,084,979 and its population density was 39/km2. Nayarit is the home to four indigenous groups: the Wixaritari, the Naayeri, the Odam and the Nahuatl-speaking Mexicaneros; the indigenous groups inhabit the Nayar highlands, but are frequently encountered in Tepic and on the Pacific coast, where they have established colonies. They are known for their crafts and artwork.
About five perc
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.
Manzanillo is a city, seat of Manzanillo Municipality, in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port, responsible for handling Pacific cargo for the Mexico City area, it is the largest producing municipality for the business tourism in the state of Colima. The city is known as the "sailfish capital of the world". Since 1957, it has hosted important national and international fishing competitions, such as the Dorsey Tournament, making it a attractive fishing destination. Manzanillo has become one of the country's most important tourist resorts, its excellent hotels and restaurants continue to meet the demands of both national and international tourism. 16th centuryIn 1522, Gonzalo de Sandoval, under orders from conquistador Hernan Cortes, dropped anchor in the Bay of Salagua, looking for safe harbors and good shipbuilding sites. In the year before he left, Sandoval granted an audience to local Indian chieftains in a small cove, which today carries the name Playa de La Audiencia.
A great part of his fleet, which left to conquer the Philippines, was constructed in Salagua. Manzanillo Bay was discovered in 1527 by navigator Alvaro de Saavedra, naming it Santiago de la Buena Esperanza, or Santiago's Bay of Good Hope. Manzanillo was the third port created by the Spanish in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, it became a departure point for important expeditions. Cortes visited the bay twice to protect his galleons from Portuguese pirates. Over the next 300 years, the Pacific Coast’s history is filled with accounts of pirates from Portugal, England and Spain assaulting and burning ships for their rich cargos. 19th centuryIn 1825 the Port of Manzanillo opened, in independent Mexico, so named because of the abundant groves of native Manzanilla trees that were used extensively in the early days of shipbuilding. Manzanillo was raised to the status of a city on 15 June 1873; the railroad to Colima was completed in 1889. 20th centuryIn 1908, President Porfirio Diaz designated Manzanillo as an official port of entry to Mexico.
It was the state capital of Colima from 20 February to 1 March 1915, while Pancho Villa’s troops were threatening to capture the city of Colima. In the 2005 census, the city of Manzanillo had a population of 110,728 and in 2010 its municipality had 161,420, it is the second-largest community in the state, after the capital. The municipality covers an area of 1,578.4 km2, includes such outlying communities as El Colomo, in addition to many smaller communities. Manzanillo is a beach resort, is one of many locations to promote themselves as the "sailfish capital" of the world.. One way they promote; the Revillagigedo Islands, off the west coast of Mexico in the Pacific Ocean, are part of the municipality, but they are directly administered by the federal government. Manzanillo is a sister city of the U. S. cities of Flagstaff, Arizona. The city is well known internationally for deep-sea fishing and the green flash phenomenon during sunsets, as well as the warm waters of the ocean; the city is a destination resort and has many hotels and self-contained resorts built on the De Santiago peninsula which juts out into the Pacific north of the city centre.
At the north end of Manzanillo bay is the resort Las Hadas, the most famous of the city's resorts, having been featured in the movie 10 starring Bo Derek and Dudley Moore. Beach scenes were filmed on La Audencia Bay, just over the hill from Las Hadas. Manzanillo is a popular cruise ship port of call. Many tourists go from their cruise ships on city tours. Excellent swimming and scuba diving is found in Santiago Bay, a few miles north of the city where a cargo ship sank in a hurricane in 1959. Other wrecks and reefs plentiful with fish are scattered throughout the bay. Manzanillo is known as the Sailfish Capital of the World. Since 1957, it has hosted important national and international fishing competitions, such as the Dorsey Tournament, making it a attractive fishing destination. Manzanillo consists of two bays with crescent-shaped beaches, each about 4 miles in length. Bahía de Manzanillo is the older tourist section. Bahía de Santiago, to the west, is the more upscale area; the two are separated by the Santiago Peninsula.
Ship channels are located at the southeast end of Bahía de Manzanillo where large cruise ships enter the port area. Manzanillo was once the scene of adventure. By 2011, its peaceful bays and sophisticated tourist and port infrastructure had made it one of the main tourist resorts and trading centers in the west of Mexico. On 6 July 2010, the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation opened a specialized dock for cruise ships at the port, which involved an investment of $100 million pesos in the first stage. A second phase foresees the construction of a shopping centre. Manzanillo has a tropical savanna climate; the dry season, from November to May, has low amounts of precipitation, temperatures tend to be cooler than in the wet season. The average temperature in March, the coolest month, is 24 °C; the wet season, which runs from June to October, has warmer temperatures, averaging 28.3 °C in July, humidity during this time is higher. In 2012, the port of Manzanillo initiated an ecological project consisting of dredged canals and creating islands in the Lagoon of the Valle de las Garzas, a protected wildlife area.
With this work, the port pla