Charles Gardner Radbourn, nicknamed "Old Hoss", was an American professional baseball pitcher who played 12 seasons in Major League Baseball. He played for the Buffalo Bisons, Providence Grays, Boston Beaneaters, Boston Reds, Cincinnati Reds. In 1884, Radbourn became only the second National League pitcher to win a Triple Crown. Radbourn was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939. Born in New York and raised in Illinois, Radbourn played semi-professional and minor league baseball before making his major league debut for the Buffalo Bisons in 1880. After a one-year stint with the club, Radbourn joined the Providence Grays, leading the team to an 1884 World Series championship. In 1885, when the team folded, the Grays roster was transferred to NL control, where he was claimed by the Boston Beaneaters. Radbourn spent the next four seasons with the club, finished his MLB career with the Cincinnati Reds after a one-year tenure with the Boston Reds. Radbourn was born on December 11, 1854, in Rochester, New York, the second of eight children to Charles and Caroline Radbourn.
Charles Radbourn had immigrated to the United States from Bristol, England, to find work as a butcher. In 1855, the Radbourn family moved to Bloomington, where Radbourn was raised; as a teenager, Radbourn worked as a butcher with his father, as a brakeman for the Indiana and Western Railway company. In 1878, Radbourn joined the Peoria Reds, a barnstorming team, as their right fielder and "change pitcher". No substitutions were allowed at the time so if the starting pitcher became ineffective in the late innings the change pitcher playing right field, would exchange positions with the starter to try to save the game. In 1879 he signed with Dubuque in the newly formed Northwest League, he made the major leagues in 1880 as second baseman, right fielder and change pitcher for the Buffalo Bisons of the National League. He played in six games, batted.143, never pitched an inning, but practiced so hard he developed a sore shoulder and was released. When he recovered he pitched for a pick-up Bloomington team in an exhibition game against the Providence Grays.
He impressed everyone so much that Providence signed him on the spot for a salary variously reported as $1,100 or $1,400. As a starting pitcher for the Providence Grays, Boston Beaneaters, Boston Reds, Cincinnati Reds, Radbourn compiled a 309–194 career record. In 1884 he won the National League's pitching Triple Crown with a 1.38 earned run average, 59 wins and 441 strikeouts. His 59 wins in a season is a record, expected never to be broken because no starter has made as many as 37 starts in a season since Greg Maddux in 1991, his 678 2⁄3 innings pitched in 1884 stands at second all-time, behind only Will White, for a single-season. It, too, is a record that will most never be touched, it was made possible by the mid-season expulsion of Charlie Sweeney. When Providence failed to win the pennant in 1883, the franchise was on shaky financial ground. Ownership brought in a new manager, Frank Bancroft, made it plain: win the pennant or the team would be disbanded. Jealousy and hatred between Radbourn and Charlie Sweeney, the other ace pitcher on the team, broke out into violence in the clubhouse.
Radbourn was faulted as the initiator of the fight, was suspended without pay after a poor outing on July 16, having been accused of deliberately losing the game by lobbing soft pitches over the plate. But on July 22, Sweeney had been drinking before the start of the game and continued drinking in the dugout between innings. Despite being intoxicated, Sweeney managed to make it to the seventh inning with a 6–2 lead: when Bancroft attempted to relieve him with the change pitcher, Sweeney verbally abused him before being ejected and storming out of the park, leaving Providence with only eight players. With only two men to cover the outfield, they lost the game; this left the team in a state of disarray with the consensus view. At that point, Radbourn offered to start every game for the rest of the season in exchange for a small raise and exemption from the reserve clause for the next season. From that point, July 23 to September 24 when the pennant was clinched, Providence played 43 games and Radbourn started 40 of them and won 36.
Soon, pitching every other day as he was, his arm became so sore he couldn't raise it to comb his hair. On game day he was at the ballpark hours before the start, getting warmed up, he began his warm up by throwing just a few feet, increasing the distance until he was pitching from second base and from short centerfield. After the regular season ended, the Grays played the American Association champion New York Metropolitans in the 1884 World Series. Radbourn won all three, while allowing just three runs. There is a discrepancy in Radbourn's victory total in 1884; the classic MacMillan Baseball Encyclopedia, as well as the current Sporting News Baseball Record Book both credit Radbourn with 60 wins, as does his National Baseball Hall of Fame biography. Other sources, including the Baseball Reference and Baseball Almanac links shown here, give Radbourn 59 wins; some older sources counted as high as 62. There is no dispute about the 678⅔ innings pitched, only over the manner in which victories were assigned to pitchers.
That can be a contentious issue, as
1939 Amateur World Series
The 1939 Amateur World Series was the second Amateur World Series known as the Baseball World Cup. Great Britain did not defend the title, it was instead contested by Cuba and the United States playing six games each from August 12 through August 26 in Cuba, who won the tournament. Cuba Bernardo Cuervo hit.200 with six runs batted in. Ernesto Estevez hit. Wenceslao Gonzalez hit.500. Pedro Natilla Jimenez was the best pitcher in the tournament with a 2-0 record and a 0.95 earned run average. Esteban Macqiues hit.250 with 7 runs. Connie Marrero played, would become a Washington Senators pitcher in the future. Juan J. Torres won the most valuable player award for the tournament despite a.174 batting average. G. Toyo hit.333, tied for lead in hits. Nicaragua Stanley Cayasso hit one of only two home runs of the tournament plus two doubles to start a string of successful appearances in the tournament. C. Newell stole four bases to lead the tournament in that category Jonathan Robinson hit the other home run of the tournament.
Bjarkman, P. A History of Cuban Baseball
History of the Brooklyn Dodgers
The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League baseball team, active in the National League from 1884 until 1957, after which the club moved to Los Angeles, where it continues its history as the Los Angeles Dodgers. The team moved west at the same time as its longtime rivals, the New York Giants in the National League, relocated to San Francisco in northern California as the San Francisco Giants; the team's name derived from the reputed skill of Brooklyn residents at evading the city's trolley streetcar network. The Dodgers played in two stadiums in South Brooklyn, each named Washington Park, at Eastern Park in the neighborhood of Brownsville before moving to Ebbets Field in the neighborhood of Flatbush in 1913; the team is noted for signing Jackie Robinson in 1947 as the first black player in the modern major leagues. The first convention of the National Association of Base Ball Players were from Brooklyn, including the Atlantic and Excelsior clubs that combined to dominate play for most of the 1860s.
Brooklyn helped make baseball commercial, as the locale of the first paid admission games, a series of three all star contests matching New York and Brooklyn in 1858. Brooklyn featured the first two enclosed baseball grounds, the Union Grounds and the Capitoline Grounds. Despite the early success of Brooklyn clubs in the National Association of Base Ball Players, which were amateur until 1869, they fielded weak teams in the succeeding National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, the first professional league formed in 1871; the Excelsiors no longer challenged for the amateur championship after the Civil War and never entered the professional NAPBBP. The Eckfords and Atlantics thereby lost their best players; the National League replaced the NAPBBP in 1876 and granted exclusive territories to its eight members, excluding the Atlantics in favor of the New York Mutuals who had shared home grounds with the Atlantics. When the Mutuals were expelled by the league, the Hartford Dark Blues club moved in, changed its name to The Brooklyn Hartfords and played its home games at Union Grounds in 1877 before disbanding.
The team known as the Dodgers was formed as the Brooklyn Grays in 1883 by real estate magnate and baseball enthusiast Charles Byrne, who convinced his brother-in-law Joseph Doyle and casino operator Ferdinand Abell to start the team with him. Byrne arranged to build a grandstand on a lot bounded by Third Street, Fourth Avenue, Fifth Street, Fifth Avenue, named it Washington Park in honor of first president George Washington; the Grays played in the minor level Inter-State Association of Professional Baseball Clubs that first season. Doyle became the first team manager, they drew 6,431 fans to their first home game on May 12, 1883 against the Trenton, New Jersey team; the Grays won the league title after the Camden Merritt club in New Jersey disbanded on July 20 and Brooklyn picked up some of its better players. The Grays were invited to join the two year old professional circuit, the American Association to compete with the eight year old NL for the 1884 season. After winning the American Association league championship in 1889, the Grays moved to the competing older National League and won the 1890 NL Championship, being the only Major League team to win consecutive championships in both professional "base ball" leagues.
They lost the 1889 championship tournament to the New York Giants and tied the 1890 championship with the Louisville Colonels. Their success during this period was attributed to their having absorbed skilled players from the defunct New York Metropolitans and Brooklyn Ward's Wonders. In 1899, most of the original old Baltimore Orioles NL stars from the legendary Maryland club which earlier won three consecutive championships in 1894-1895-1896, moved to the Grays along with famed Orioles manager Ned Hanlon who became the club's new manager in New York / Brooklyn under majority owner Charles Ebbets, who had by now accumulated an 80% share of the club; the new combined team was dubbed the "Brooklyn Superbas" by the press and would become the champions of the National League in 1899 and again in 1900. The team name, Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers, was coined in 1895; the nickname was still new enough in September 1895 that a newspaper could report that "'Trolley Dodgers' is the new name which eastern baseball cranks have given the Brooklyn club."
In 1895, Brooklyn played at Eastern Park, bounded by Eastern Parkway, Powell Street, Sutter Avenue, Van Sinderen Street, where they had moved early in the 1891 season when the second Washington Park burned down. Some sources erroneously report that the name "Trolley Dodgers" referred to pedestrians avoiding fast cars on street car tracks that bordered Eastern Park on two sides. However, Eastern Park was not bordered by street-level trolley lines that had to be "dodged" by pedestrians; the name "Trolley Dodgers" implied the dangers posed by trolley cars in Brooklyn which in 1892, began the switch from horse-power to electrical power, which made them much faster, were hence regarded as more dangerous. The name was shortened to Brooklyn Dodgers; the "Trolley Dodgers" name was adopted by the team for the 1911 and 1912 seasons, the "Dodgers" name was used in 1913. Other team names used by the franchise that came to be called "the Dodgers" were the Atlantics, Bridegrooms or Grooms (1888
Comiskey Park was a baseball park in Chicago, located in the Armour Square neighborhood on the near-southwest side of the city. The stadium served as the home of the Chicago White Sox of the American League from 1910 through 1990. Built by White Sox owner Charles Comiskey and designed by Zachary Taylor Davis, Comiskey Park hosted four World Series and more than 6,000 Major League Baseball games. In one of the most famous boxing matches in history, the field was the site of the 1937 heavyweight title match in which Joe Louis defeated champion James J. Braddock in eight rounds that launched Louis' unprecedented 11-plus year run as the heavyweight champion of the world; the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League called Comiskey Park home when they weren't playing at Normal Park or Soldier Field. They won the 1947 NFL Championship Game over the Philadelphia Eagles at Comiskey Park. Much less popular than the Bears, the Cardinals' last season at Comiskey was 1958, they left for St. Louis in March 1960.
The Chicago American Giants of the Negro American League called Comiskey Park home from 1941–1950. Adjacent to the south, a new ballpark opened in 1991, Comiskey Park was demolished the same year. Called Comiskey Park, it was renamed U. S. Cellular Field in 2003 and Guaranteed Rate Field in 2016; the park was built on a former city dump that Comiskey bought in 1909 to replace the wooden South Side Park. White Sox Park, within three years it was renamed for White Sox founder and owner Charles Comiskey; the original name was restored in 1962 it changed back to Comiskey Park in 1976. Comiskey Park was modern for its time, it was the third concrete-and-steel stadium in the major leagues to be built since 1909. As built, it seated 32,000, a record at the time, it retained the nickname "The Baseball Palace of the World." The park's design was influenced by Sox pitcher Ed Walsh, was known for its pitcher-friendly proportions. Changes were made, but the park remained more or less favorable to defensive teams.
For many years this reflected on the White Sox style of play: solid defense, short, quick hits. The park was unusual in that no player hit 100 home runs there: Carlton Fisk set the record with 94; the first game in Comiskey Park was a 2–0 loss to the St. Louis Browns on July 1, 1910; the first no-hitter at Comiskey Park was in 1935, hurled by Vern Kennedy on August 31, a 5–0 win over Cleveland. The Sox won their first home night game, over St. Louis on August 14, 1939, 5–2. Comiskey Park was the site of four World Series. In 1917, the Chicago White Sox won games 1, 2 and 5 at Comiskey Park and went on to defeat the New York Giants four games to two. In 1918, Comiskey Park hosted the World Series between the Chicago Boston Red Sox; the Cubs borrowed Comiskey Park for the series because of its larger seating capacity. The Red Sox defeated the Cubs four games to two. Games one and three were played at Comiskey Park; the Red Sox won games three. Attendance was under capacity in that war year; the best crowd was game 3, with some 27,000 patrons.
In 1919, the White Sox lost the infamous "Black Sox" World Series to the Cincinnati Reds, five games to three in a nine-game series. Games three, four and eight were played at Comiskey Park; the White Sox won game three and lost games four and eight. In 1959, the White Sox lost four games to two to the Los Angeles Dodgers. Games one and six were played at Comiskey Park; the White Sox lost games two and six. With their win in Game 6 at Comiskey Park, the Los Angeles Dodgers became the first West Coast team to win a World Series. Comiskey saw its last post-season action in 1983, when the White Sox lost the American League Championship Series to the Baltimore Orioles, 3 games to 1, with games 3 and 4 in Chicago. Baltimore went on to win the World Series. Comiskey Park was the site of three Major League Baseball All-Star Games, each marked a turn in the direction of dominance by one league or the other: The first-ever All-Star Game was held in 1933, it began as a promotion by Arch Ward, sports editor of the Chicago Tribune, in connection with the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition being held on Chicago's lakefront.
The Americans defeated the Nationals, helped in part by a home run by Babe Ruth, nearing the end of his career, but could still swing a mighty bat. The game inaugurated a stretch when the Americans dominated, winning 12 of the first 16; the park next hosted the July classic in 1950, a game best remembered for Ted Williams' collision with the outfield wall that broke his elbow and ended his playing season. Less remembered is that it began a turnaround for the Nationals, who won the game in extra innings and started to win a trend that continued for more than three decades, building up an astounding 30 wins against only 6 losses and 1 tie; the 50th Anniversary All-Star Game in 1983 was held at Comiskey Park in commemoration of the first All-Star Game at that same venue. The American League's lopsided win, including the first-ever grand slam in an All-Star Game, by Fred Lynn, turned out to signal an end to the National League's dominance in the mid-summer classic. During the last eight years of the park's existence the Americans went 5-3.
Hosting a winning All-Star Game was a good omen for the Sox, as they won their division in 1983, the first baseball title of any kind in Chicago since the Sox won the 1959 pennant. Comiskey Park was the most frequent home to the Negro League East-West All-Star Game from 1933 to 1960; the Negro Leagues' All-Star
Albert Goodwill Spalding was an American pitcher and executive in the early years of professional baseball, the co-founder of A. G. Spalding sporting goods company, he was born and raised in Byron, Illinois yet graduated from Rockford Central High School in Rockford, Illinois. He played major league baseball between 1871 and 1878. Spalding set a trend. After his retirement as a player, Spalding remained active with the Chicago White Stockings as president and part-owner. In the 1880s, he took players on the first world tour of baseball. With William Hulbert, Spalding organized the National League, he called for the commission that investigated the origins of baseball and credited Abner Doubleday with creating the game. He wrote the first set of official baseball rules. Having played baseball throughout his youth, Spalding first played competitively with the Rockford Pioneers, a youth team, which he joined in 1865. After pitching his team to a 26–2 victory over a local men's amateur team, he was approached at the age of 15 by another squad, the Forest Citys, for whom he played for two years.
In the autumn of 1867 he accepted a $40 per week contract, nominally as a clerk, but to play professionally for the Chicago Excelsiors, not an uncommon arrangement used to circumvent the rules of the time, which forbade the hiring of professional players. Following the formation of baseball's first professional organization, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in 1871, Spalding joined the Boston Red Stockings and was successful. William Hulbert, principal owner of the Chicago White Stockings, did not like the loose organization of the National Association and the gambling element that influenced it, so he decided to create a new organization, which he dubbed the National League of Baseball Clubs. To aid him in this venture, Hulbert enlisted the help of Spalding. Playing to the pitcher's desire to return to his Midwestern roots and challenging Spalding's integrity, Hulbert convinced Spalding to sign a contract to play for the White Stockings in 1876. Spalding coaxed teammates Deacon White, Ross Barnes and Cal McVey, as well as Philadelphia Athletics players Cap Anson and Bob Addy, to sign with Chicago.
This was all done under complete secrecy during the playing season because players were all free agents in those days and they did not want their current club and the fans to know they were leaving to play elsewhere the next year. News of the signings by the Boston and Philadelphia players leaked to the press before the season ended and all of them faced verbal abuse and physical threats from the fans of those cities, he was "the premier pitcher of the 1870s", leading the league in victories for each of his six full seasons as a professional. During each of those years he was his team's only pitcher. In 1876, Spalding won 47 games as the prime pitcher for the White Stockings and led them to win the first-ever National League pennant by a wide margin. In 1877, Spalding began to use a glove to protect his catching hand. People had used gloves but they were not popular, Spalding himself was skeptical of wearing one at first. However, once he began donning gloves, he influenced other players to do so.
Spalding retired from playing baseball in 1878 at the age of 27, although he continued as president and part owner of the White Stockings and a major influence on the National League. Spalding's.796 career winning percentage is the highest by a baseball pitcher, far exceeding the second-best.690. In the months after signing for Chicago and Spalding organized the National League by enlisting the two major teams in the East and the four other top teams in what was considered to be the West known as the jungle. Joining Chicago were the leading teams from Cincinnati, St. Louis; the owners of these western clubs accompanied Hulbert and Spalding to New York where they secretly met with owners from New York City, Philadelphia and Boston. Each signed the league's constitution, the National League was born. "Spalding was thus involved in the transformation of baseball from a game of gentlemen athletes into a business and a professional sport." Although the National Association held on for a few more seasons, it was no longer recognized as the premier organization for professional baseball.
It faded out of existence and was replaced by myriad minor leagues and associations around the country. In 1886, with Spalding as President of the franchise, the Chicago White Stockings, began holding spring training in Hot Springs, which subsequently has been called the "birthplace" of spring training baseball; the location and the training concept was the brainchild of Spalding and his player/manager Cap Anson, who saw that the city and the natural springs created positives for their players. They first played in an area called the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds. Many other teams began training in Hot Springs and other locations. In 1905, after Henry Chadwick wrote an article saying that baseball grew from the British sports of cricket and rounders, Spalding called for a commission to find out the real source of baseball; the commission called for citizens who knew anything about the founding of baseball to send in letters. After three years of searching, on December 30, 1907, Spalding rece
William "Buck" Ewing was an American Major League Baseball player and manager. He was the first 19th-century catcher elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame and was named one of the top five 19th-century players in a 1999 poll by the Society for American Baseball Research. Born in Hoagland, Ewing joined the National League in 1880 as a member of the Troy Trojans, but rose to stardom in 1883 as a member of the New York Gothams known as the Giants; that year he would hit 10 home runs, while batting.303. Playing in an era when triples were more common than home runs due to the spacious parks and poor quality of the balls used, he led the league in 1884 with 20 triples, was among the league leaders. Ewing was renowned for his defensive abilities. Writing in the 1938 Spalding Guide, John Foster said of him, "As a thrower to bases Ewing never had a superior, there are not to exceed ten men who could come anywhere near being equal to him. Ewing was the man of whom it was said, "He handed the ball to the second baseman from the batter's box."
A catcher, Ewing was versatile enough to play all nine positions and fast enough to steal 354 bases. He hit.300 in ten different seasons. Playing until 1897 with the Giants, Cleveland Spiders and Cincinnati Reds, Ewing posted superb offensive numbers. Arguably his best season was in 1893 with the Spiders when he batted.344 with 6 home runs, 122 RBI, 47 stolen bases and 117 runs. In 1890, when a player revolt led to the formation of the short-lived Players' League, Ewing led the New York franchise as both star player and manager. Lingering resentment in the wake of the league's establishment and demise has been suspected as a reason for his limited play in 1891 and subsequent move to Cleveland following the 1892 season. Ewing finished his career with a.303 lifetime batting average, 71 home runs, 883 RBI, 1129 runs, 250 doubles and 178 triples – totals made more impressive by the fact he was playing annual seasons only 100-130 games long. In addition to playing, Ewing managed for seven seasons: the 1890 Giants, the 1895–1899 Cincinnati Reds and the first half of the season with the 1900 Giants.
He compiled a 489-395 record for a.553 winning percentage. Ewing as used as an American Association umpire for two games on June 28 and July 4, 1882. Ewing died of diabetes in Cincinnati. In the first elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame, he and Cap Anson led all 19th century players. Three years in 1939, they were among the first 19th century players elected and Ewing became the first member, a catcher, he was named one of the top five players from the 19th century in a 1999 poll by the Society for American Baseball Research. List of Major League Baseball home run records List of Major League Baseball player-managers List of Major League Baseball career triples leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders List of Major League Baseball annual home run leaders List of Major League Baseball annual triples leaders Buck Ewing at the Baseball Hall of Fame Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.