Molotov served as Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars from 1930 to 1941, and as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1956. He served as First Deputy Premier from 1942 to 1957, when he was dismissed from the Presidium of the Central Committee by Nikita Khrushchev, Molotov retired in 1961 after several years of obscurity. He was aware of the Katyn massacre committed by the Soviet authorities during this period, after World War II, Molotov was involved in negotiations with the Western allies, in which he became noted for his diplomatic skills. He retained his place as a leading Soviet diplomat and politician until March 1949, Molotovs relationship with Stalin deteriorated further, with Stalin criticising Molotov in a speech to the 19th Party Congress. However, after Stalins death in 1953, Molotov was staunchly opposed to Khrushchevs de-Stalinisation policy, Molotov defended Stalins policies and legacy until his death in 1986, and harshly criticised Stalins successors, especially Khrushchev.
Molotov was born Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin in the village of Kukarka, Yaransk Uyezd, Vyatka Governorate, contrary to a commonly repeated error, he was not related to the composer Alexander Scriabin. Throughout his teen years, he was described as shy and quiet and he was educated at a secondary school in Kazan, and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1906, soon gravitating toward that organisations radical Bolshevik faction, headed by V. I. Skryabin took the pseudonym Molotov, derived from the Russian word молот molot for his political work owing to the names vaguely industrial ring and he was arrested in 1909 and spent two years in exile in Vologda. In 1911 he enrolled at St Petersburg Polytechnic, Molotov joined the editorial staff of a new underground Bolshevik newspaper called Pravda, meeting Joseph Stalin for the first time in association with the project. This first association between the two future Soviet leaders proved to be brief and did not lead to a close political association.
Molotov worked as a professional revolutionary for the next several years, writing for the party press. He moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1914 at the time of the outbreak of World War I and it was in Moscow the following year that Molotov was again arrested for his party activity, this time being deported to Irkutsk in eastern Siberia. In 1916 he escaped from his Siberian exile and returned to the city, now called Petrograd by the Tsarist regime. Molotov became a member of the Bolshevik Partys committee in Petrograd in 1916, when the February Revolution occurred in 1917, he was one of the few Bolsheviks of any standing in the capital. Under his direction Pravda took to the left to oppose the Provisional Government formed after the revolution, when Joseph Stalin returned to the capital, he reversed Molotovs line, but when the party leader Lenin arrived, he overruled Stalin. Despite this, Molotov became a protégé of and close adherent to Stalin, Molotov became a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee which planned the October Revolution, which effectively brought the Bolsheviks to power.
In 1918, Molotov was sent to Ukraine to take part in the war breaking out. Since he was not a man, he took no part in the fighting
Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin was a leading Russian Impressionist painter. Konstantin was born in Moscow to a merchant family officially registered as peasants of Vladimir Gubernia and his father, Aleksey Mikhailovich Korovin, earned a university degree and was more interested in arts and music than in the family business established by Konstantins grandfather. Konstantins older brother Sergei Korovin was a notable realist painter, Konstantins relative Illarion Pryanishnikov was a prominent painter of the time and a teacher at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture. In 1875 Korovin entered the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture and his brother Sergei was already a student at the school. During their student years, the Korovins became friends with fellow students Valentin Serov and Isaac Levitan, in 1881–1882, Korovin spent a year at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, but returned disappointed to the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture. He studied at the school under his new teacher Vasily Polenov until 1886, in 1885 Korovin traveled to Paris and Spain.
Paris was a shock for me … Impressionists… in them I found everything I was scolded for back home in Moscow, Polenov introduced Korovin to Savva Mamontovs Abramtsevo Circle, Viktor Vasnetsov, Apollinary Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin, Mark Antokolsky and others. The groups love for stylized Russian themes is reflected in Korovins picture A Northern Idyll, in 1885 Korovin worked for Mamontovs opera house, designing the stage decor for Giuseppe Verdis Aida, Léo Delibes Lakmé and Georges Bizets Carmen. In 1888 Korovin traveled with Mamontov to Italy and Spain, where he produced the painting On the Balcony, Konstantin traveled within Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia and exhibited with the Peredvizhniki. He painted in the Impressionist, and in the Art Nouveau, in the 1890s Korovin became a member of the Mir iskusstva art group. Korovins subsequent works were influenced by his travels to the north. In 1888 he was captivated by the northern landscapes seen in The Coast of Norway. His second trip to the north, with Valentin Serov in 1894, Korovin painted a large number of landscapes, Norwegian Port, St.
Triphons Brook in Pechenga, Aurora Borealis, The Coast at Murmansk and others. The paintings are built on a web of shades of grey. The etude style of works was typical for Korovins art of the 1890s. Using material from his trip, Korovin designed the Far North pavilion at the 1896 All Russia Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod and he painted ten big canvasses for the pavilion as well, depicting various aspects of life in the northern and Arctic regions. After the closure of the Exhibition, the canvasses were eventually placed in the Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal in Moscow, in the 1960s, they were restored and transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery. In 1900 Korovin designed the Central Asia section of the Russian Empire pavilion at the Paris World Fair and was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French government, in the beginning of the 20th century, Korovin focused his attention on the theater
Soviet invasion of Poland
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939. On that morning,16 days after Nazi Germany invaded Poland from the west, the joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland was secretly agreed in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, signed on 23 August 1939. The Red Army, which outnumbered the Polish defenders, achieved its targets by using strategic. Some 230,000 Polish prisoners of war had been captured, the campaign of mass persecution in the newly acquired areas began immediately. In November 1939 the Soviet government ostensibly annexed the entire Polish territory under its control, the Soviet campaign of ethnic cleansing began with the wave of arrests and summary executions of officers and priests. Soviet forces occupied eastern Poland until the summer of 1941, when they were out by the invading German army in the course of Operation Barbarossa. The area was under Nazi occupation until the Red Army reconquered it again in the summer of 1944, the Soviet Union enclosed most of the annexed territories into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
After the end of World War II in Europe, the USSR signed a new border agreement with the Polish communists on 16 August 1945. The USSR played a double game secretly engaging in talks with Germany. The terms were rejected, thus giving Josef Stalin a free hand in pursuing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Adolf Hitler, the non-aggression pact contained a secret protocol dividing Northern and Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence in the event of war. One week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, German forces invaded Poland from the west, Polish forces gradually withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited the French and British support and relief that they were expecting. On 17 September 1939 the Soviet Red Army invaded the Kresy regions in accordance with the secret protocol, at the opening of hostilities several Polish cities including Dubno, Łuck and Włodzimierz Wołyński let the Red Army in peacefully, convinced that it was marching on to fight the Germans.
General Juliusz Rómmel of the Polish Army issued an order to treat them like an ally before it was too late. The result of the Paris Peace Conference did little to decrease the territorial ambitions of parties in the region, the border skirmishes of 1919 progressively escalated into the Polish–Soviet War in 1920. Following the Polish victory at the Battle of Warsaw, the Soviets sued for peace, the parties signed the formal peace treaty, the Peace of Riga, on 18 March 1921, dividing the disputed territories between Poland and Soviet Russia. In the aftermath of the agreement, Soviet leaders largely abandoned the cause of international revolution. The Conference of Ambassadors and the community recognized Polands eastern frontiers in 1923. Germany marched into Prague on 15 March 1939, in mid-April, the Soviet Union and France began trading diplomatic suggestions regarding a political and military agreement to counter potential further German aggression
Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov was a Russian old Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. Grigori Sokolnikov was born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant to a doctor in Romny on 15 August 1888. He moved to Moscow as a teenager and joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1905 and he served time in prison and studied economics whilst at the Sorbonne. He returned to Russia in April 1917 along with Vladimir Lenin in the sealed train, grigori Sokolnikov was a member of the first Politburo, with seven members, Zinoviev, Trotsky, Stalin and Bubnov. After the October Revolution, he held government positions. He was a member of the Joffe led delegation for peace negotiations with Germany, alongside Rosalia Zemlyachka, he became commissar of the Eighth army, using this position to order mass shootings during the Russian Civil War. He was appointed Peoples Commissar of Finance following the introduction of the New Economic Policy, bajanov notes that despite Sokolnikovs past in the Red Army, he was not ruthless in his personality.
Privately, Sokolnikov lost faith in the Soviet Union under Stalin, Sokolnikov was appointed instead as vice-chairman of Gosplan, the new economic planning agency and as head of an oil company. He was the Soviet ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1929 to 1932, during the Great Purge, Sokolnikov was arrested in 1937 and tried at the Trial of the Seventeen. He was sentenced to ten years of imprisonment, reportedly, he was killed in a prison by other convicts on 21 May 1939. A post-Stalin investigation during the Khrushchev Thaw revealed that the murder was orchestrated by the NKVD, in 1988, during perestroika, he was rehabilitated along with many other victims of the Great Purge. Soviet Policy in Public Finance, 1917–1928, by Gregory Y, Sokolnikov & Associates, translated by Elena Varneck, edited by Lincoln Hutchinson & Carl C. Grigory Sokolnikov Archive, part of Marxists Internet Archive, grigorii Yakovlevich Sokolnikov and the development of the Soviet state, 1921–1929
Matvei Davidovich Berman was a Soviet intelligence officer and head of the GULAG Soviet prison camp system from 1932 to 1937. Berman was born in Andiranovka, Transbaikal Oblast, the son of a Jewish brickyard owner and he joined the Russian army and entered the military school in Irkutsk. He became a cadet of the 25th Reserve infantry regiment, Berman joined the Bolsheviks in June 1917. In 1918 he joined the Red Army and was stationed in Tomsk, in August 1918 he joined the Cheka and was named chief of state security in the city of Glazov. From 1923 to 1924 he was Peoples Commissar for State Security in the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and he led the OGPU in Central Asia. From February 1927 to October 1927 he was the chairman of the OGPU in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, in November 1929 he helped develop the GULAG system of camps and became deputy chief of the GULAG in 1930. From June 9,1932 to August 17,1937 he was head of the GULAG and he was awarded the Order of Lenin on August 4,1933, soon after the completion of the White Sea – Baltic Canal.
By 1935, by his own count, Berman was in charge of over 740,000 prisoners working on 15 major projects in the GULAG, in August 1937, Bermans fall began in the time of the Great Terror. On August 17,1937, he lost his position as head of the GULAG and was appointed Peoples Commissar of Posts and Telecommunications. On December 23,1938, he was expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, arrested the day in the office of Georgi Malenkov. He was found guilty by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR of belonging to a terrorist and sabotage organization, on October 17,1957 Matvei Berman was legally rehabilitated. Matveis younger brother, worked for the NKVD, Boris was awarded the Order of Lenin on December 19,1937, arrested on September 24,1938 and executed on February 22,1939, in Kommunarka, Moscow Oblast. Honorary worker of the Cheka-GPU Order of the Red Banner Order of Red Banner of Labor Uzbek SSR Honorary worker of the Cheka-GPU Order of Lenin Order of the Red Star Khlevniuk, from Collectivization to the Great Terror.
Биографический энциклопедический словарь veche Моskau-Verlag 2000, ISBN 5-7838-0716-8 Н, Скоркин, Кто руководил НКВД, 1934-1941 - Справочник, Swenja-Verlag 1999, ISBN 5-7870-0032-3
Vlas Yakovlevich Chubar was a Ukrainian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician and one of the organizers of the 1932-33 famine in Ukraine. Chubar was born in Fedorovka, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire and he became a Marxist revolutionary early in life and joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1907. He rose through the ranks during the Russian Civil War and becаme a member of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party in 1921, on July 13,1923 Chubar replaced Christian Rakovsky as Chairman of the Ukrainian Sovnarkom. He became a member of the Central Committees Politburo in November 1926. In 1934 Chubar was transferred to Moscow, where he became Deputy Chairman of the national Council of Peoples Commissars and Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Labor, in February 1935 Chubar was made a full member of the Politburo. He briefly served as the Soviet Peoples Commissar of Finance between August 16,1937 and January 19,1938, in 1938 Chubar was appointed the chief of the Solikamsk construction for the GULAG of Soviet Commissariat of Interior.
There he was arrested during the Great Purge in June 1938, the Soviet government cleared Chubar of all charges during the first wave of destalinization in 1955. In 2010, a Ukrainian criminal court concluded that Chubar, along with leaders of Soviet Ukraine. Online biography at Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Premier of the Soviet Union
The office of Premier of the Soviet Union was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Twelve individuals became premier over the span of the office. Two of the twelve died in office of natural causes. The first premier was Lenin, who was inaugurated in 1922 after the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, ivan Silayev spent the shortest time in office at 126 days in 1991. At over fourteen years, Kosygin spent the longest time in office, the Council of Peoples Commissars was established on 8 November 1917 by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Government. The Council of Peoples Commissars published decrees and decisions that were binding throughout the Soviet Union, in 1946, the Council of Peoples Commissars was transformed into the Council of Ministers at both all-Union and Union Republic level. However Kosygins position was weakened when he proposed a reform in 1965. Under the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government of the USSR.
The premier was responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet, the premier managed the national economy, formulated the five-year plans and ensured socio-cultural development. List of heads of state of the Soviet Union List of leaders of the Soviet Union Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union
Radek was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, as Karol Sobelsohn, to a Litvak family, his father, worked in the post office and died whilst Karl was young. He took the name Radek from a character, Andrzej Radek. In 1907, after his arrest in Poland and his escape from custody, Radek moved to Leipzig in Germany and joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany, working on the Partys Leipziger Volkszeitung. He re-located to Bremen, where he worked for Bremer Bürgerzeitung, in 1911, in September 1910, Radek was accused by members of the Polish Socialist Party of stealing books and money from party comrades, as part of an anti-semitic campaign against the SDKPiL. On this occasion, he was defended by the SDKPiL leaders, Rosa Luxemburg. Wanting to make an example of Radek, Jogiches revived the charges of theft and he dissolved the commission in July 1912, after it had failed to come to any conclusion, and in August pushed a decision through the party court expelling Radek. In their written finding, they broke his alias, making it - he claimed - dangerous for him to stay in Russian occupied Poland.
In 1912 August Thalheimer invited Radek to go to Goppingen to temporarily replace him in control of the local SPD party newspaper Freie Volkszeitung, Radek accused the local party leadership in Württemberg of assisting the revisionists to strangle the newspaper due to the papers hostility to them. He took part in the Zimmerwald Conference in 1915, siding with the left, in 1917 Radek was one of the passengers on the sealed train that carried Lenin and other Russian revolutionaries through Germany after the February Revolution in Russia. During the discussions around signing the treaty, Radek was one of the advocates of a revolutionary war, Radek was arrested after the Spartacist uprising on 12 February 1919 and held in Moabit prison until his release in January 1920. While he was in Moabit, the attitude of the German authorities towards the Bolsheviks changed, on his return to Russia Radek became the Secretary of the Comintern, taking the main responsibility for German issues. In mid-1923, Radek made his controversial speech Leo Schlageter, The Wanderer into the Void at a session of the Executive Committee of the Communist International.
Although Radek was not at Chemnitz when the decision to cancel the uprising in November 1923 took place at the KPD Zentrale, he approved the decision. Radek was part of the Left Opposition from 1923, writing his famed article Leon Trotsky, in the year at the Thirteenth Party Congress Radek was removed from the Central Committee. Radek was sacked from his post at Sun Yat-Sen University in May 1927, Radek was expelled from the Party in 1927 after helping to organise an independent demonstration on the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution with Grigory Zinoviev in Leningrad. In early 1928, when prominent oppositionists were deported to remote locations within the Soviet Union, Radek was sent to Tobolsk. In that speech, he denounced Marcel Proust and James Joyce and he was sentenced to 10 years of penal labor. He was reportedly killed in a camp in a fight with another inmate