1924 United States presidential election in California
The 1924 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1924 United States presidential election. California voters chose thirteen electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Since the "Panic of 1893" and large-scale voter registration, California had become a one-party state dominated by the Republican Party; the Democratic Party was moribund as a result of its association with the Populist revolt, the rural slave South, the polyglot metropolis – which held no appeal in an old-stock Western state with few Southern and Eastern European immigrants. Rigid registration laws and, before 1914, poll taxes disfranchised what immigrants did enter the state. Nonetheless, the appeal of Progressivism and tendency towards nonpartisan politics allowed Woodrow Wilson to nearly carry the state in 1912 and do so in 1916 despite substantial Socialist votes in both elections. Following the Cox debacle, the Democratic Party disintegrated further: in 1922 they elected only four seats in the state House of Representatives, had failed to elect an open Senator in 1920, defeated James D. Phelan's efforts to have William Gibbs McAdoo nominated as Democratic presidential candidate in 1924 further ruined the party's organization and furthered cleavages between the "dry" and "wet" sections of the party.
California's large "Progressive" electorate had been divided by issues such as the League of Nations and Prohibition, was weakened by the election of economy-minded Friend W. Richardson as Governor in 1922; when Wisconsin Senator Robert La Follette announced he would run a third-party presidential campaign in 1924, there remained division, but radical San Francisco Progressive Rudolph Spreckels supported him on the "Socialist" line against indifference from Hiram Johnson and State Senators Herbert Jones and Inman. Democratic nominee John W. Davis of West Virginia and Coolidge both spent most of their campaign attacking La Follette as a political extremist,At the beginning of the campaign, Davis had substantial hope of recovering support lost in 1920. However, Davis' opposition to women's suffrage, belief in limited government with no expansion in nonmilitary fields had no appeal in California. Although in September Davis underwent an extensive tour of the region and of the Great Plains, campaigned to eliminate the income tax burden of the poorer classes, he received a mere 8.23 percent of the vote in California – the worst for any major party nominee in California's history and his fourth-worst state nationwide.
Reduced to a battle between Coolidge and La Follette, the incumbent President campaigned upon present prosperity in addition to his opponent's perceived extremism. Despite perception the state may be doubtful, Coolidge won a plurality of over 24 percentage points, aided by a campaign based upon vilification. La Follette did nonetheless match Coolidge outside conservative populated Southern California, he carried most urban working class districts in Northern California, as well as most of the Sierra logging counties that were to become Democratic strongholds between FDR and Jimmy Carter. La Follette's vote was to revive the moribund Democratic Party when it turned to Al Smith in the following election
1852 United States presidential election in California
In the 1852 United States presidential election, its first election after becoming a state in 1850, California voted for the Democratic nominee, New Hampshire Senator Franklin Pierce, over the Whig nominee, United States Army general Winfield Scott
1968 United States presidential election in California
The 1968 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1968 United States presidential election. California narrowly voted for the Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon of New York, over the Democratic nominee, Vice President Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota; the American Independent Party candidate, former Alabama governor George Wallace, performed rather well in California despite being miles away from his base in the Deep South. Although Nixon was born and raised California, he had moved to New York following his failed 1962 gubernatorial bid, thus identified New York as his home state in this election. After he won the election, Nixon moved his residency back to California. Nixon is the last Republican candidate to carry Santa Cruz County by a majority of the popular vote, although Republicans in 1972 and 1980 carried the county by plurality, whilst Humphrey is the last Democrat to carry Kings County; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election where California did not have the most number of electoral votes
1960 United States presidential election in California
The 1960 United States presidential election in California refers to California's participation in the 1960 United States presidential election. California voted for the Republican nominee, Vice President Richard Nixon, over the Democratic nominee, Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy. Although California was Nixon's home state, which he represented in the House and Senate, initial political base, his margin of victory over Kennedy turned out to be narrow. On the morning of November 9, the NBC victory desk erroneously projected California to Kennedy. Running unopposed, California governor Pat Brown won the state's Democratic primary as a favorite son. While the primary itself was straightforward, the developments surrounding the primary were far more complex. Kennedy had not come to his decision not to compete in the California primary, had at one point tentatively filed to run in the primary. Kennedy had begun to contemplate the state's primary at an early stage in the development of his campaign.
By early 1958 Kennedy's team had recognized the state to be a Democratic target for the midterm elections, since economic woes had weakened the Republican Party's strength in the state. This meant that the 1958 midterm election would serve to gauge the prospect of Democrats winning the state in the 1960 presidential election. In February of 1958, Ted Sorensen spent $1,500 in order to commission a survey in California that would be conducted that March, coinciding with a two-day visit by Kennedy to the state; the survey showed Kennedy winning 55 to 45% in a then-hypothetical general election race against Nixon. The survey demonstrated Kennedy to have a strong lead in California among Catholics, who constituted one-fifth of the state's populace. Kennedy, remained undecided as to whether or not he would compete in the state's primary. In November of 1958, the midterm elections delivered encouraging signs for Democratic prospects of carrying the state in 1960. Pat Brown had defeated the Nixon-backed Republican candidate, outgoing U.
S. Senate Minority Leader William Knowland, in the state's gubernatorial election and Democrat Clair Engle defeated the Nixon-backed Republican candidate, outgoing governor Goodwin Knight, in the race for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Knowland. California was one of several large state delegations to the Democratic National convention whose support the Kennedy campaign came to believe was integral when they mapped-out his path to secure the nomination; the Kennedy campaign was concerned that Brown might run against Kennedy as a favorite son in the primary. Brown saw himself as a potential running mate on the Democratic ticket. However, he recognized that his chances of being selected would disappear if Kennedy were the presidential nominee, as Brown and Kennedy were both Catholics and a ticket composed of two Catholics was improbable. Thus. Brown recognized that he would need for Kennedy to lose the nomination if he were to stand a chance at securing the vice-presidential nomination for himself.
California's Democratic Party landscape at the time, stood divided between Brown loyalists and Adlai Stevenson supporters. Kennedy's campaign began to consider the possibility of pursuing a compromise with Brown in which he would run as a favorite candidate committed to Kennedy; such a compromise would have granted Brown the ego boost of winning the state's primary. It would have allowed Kennedy to eschew a scenario in which he could underperform or be defeated in one of the last primaries, which would weaken the momentum he needed to have heading into the convention, it would have avoided the risk of dividing the state party, important since a divided state party would have decimated any chance Kennedy stood of carrying the state in the general election. At the same time, such a compromise would still have secured the support of California's delegation for Kennedy. Kennedy's campaign decided that, so long as their candidate still had momentum from having won primaries in other key states, there would be no problem in having Brown run as a surrogate candidate in California.
To help persuade Brown to be inclined towards such an agreement, Larry O'Brien met with Brown on behalf of the campaign and showed him polling that Louis Harris had conducted for them which showed Kennedy winning the state 60% to 40% in a two-way race against Brown and was beating him in a three-way matchup featuring Humphrey, polling 47% against Brown's 33% and Humphrey's 20%. The campaign reached an informal agreement with Brown to have him run, pledged to Kennedy, as a favorite son. Despite their informal agreement with Brown, Kennedy's campaign continued to possess worries about the state's primary, they were uncertain as to. They recognized that there was a potential that Stevenson might run in the state's primary. Another concern involved the candidacy of Hubert Humphrey. Kennedy's team believed. While Kennedy's campaign strategy aimed to have killed Humphrey's candidacy well in advance of the California primary by dealing him critical defeats in earlier primaries, they were still somewhat concerned about a potential scenario in which Kennedy would have failed to knock Humphrey out of the race and Humphrey ran in the California primary.
They were worried that, in such an instance, Brown might prove to be a much less effective an opponent to Humphrey than Kennedy himself would be. To precautionarily leave open the campaign's options, on the March 9 deadline to file for the primary, Kennedy filed his own slate of prospective delegates whic
United States presidential election
The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U. S. states or in Washington, D. C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U. S. Electoral College, known as electors; these electors in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; the Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U. S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4. Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D. C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, three.
Under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that address this behavior. In modern times and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote. Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1; this date coincides with the general elections of various other federal and local races. The Electoral College electors formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals.
Congress certifies the results in early January, the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20. The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties; these primary elections are held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U. S. states, Washington, D. C. and U. S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting; because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, those who preferred a national popular vote; each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U. S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only six of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote. Throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to choose their slate of electors.
In 1800, only five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote. This gradual movement toward greater democratization coincided with a gradual decrease in property restrictions for the franchise. By 1840, only one of the 26 states still selected electors by the state legislature. Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president; the candidate with the highest number of votes became the president, the sec
1988 United States presidential election in California
The 1988 United States presidential election in California took place on November 8, 1988, was part of the 1988 United States presidential election. Voters chose 47 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. California voted for the Republican nominee, Vice President George H. W. Bush, over the Democratic nominee, Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis by a margin of 3.57%. Bush won 44 of the state’s 58 counties, but the election was kept close by Dukakis’ strong performance in the Bay Area and his victory in Los Angeles, the state’s most populated county. Dukakis won at least 31% of the vote in every county and at least 40% in 40 of them. To date, this is the last election in which the state of California was carried by a Republican candidate in a presidential election. Bush is the last Republican to carry the following counties in a presidential election: Imperial, Napa, San Benito and Santa Barbara, the last Republican to win any county in the Bay Area, the last Republican to secure at least one-quarter of the vote in San Francisco
2000 United States presidential election in California
The 2000 United States presidential election in California took place on November 7, 2000, as part of the wider United States presidential election of 2000. California was won by the Democratic ticket of Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut by 11.8 percentage points over the Republican ticket of Texas Governor George W. Bush and former U. S. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney of Wyoming; the state hosted the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles and was contested by both candidates due to a large Hispanic population and a large independent and moderate base surrounding San Diego and Sacramento's suburbs. This was the first time since 1880 in which a winning Republican presidential candidate lost California; as of the 2016 presidential election, Bush is the last Republican candidate to carry Alpine and Mono counties in a presidential election. This was the first time since 1976 that California did not back the candidate who won the overall presidential election as well.
California Democratic primary, 2000 California Republican primary, 2000 Vice President Al Gore defeated Texas Governor George W. Bush in California. Bush campaigned several times in California, but it didn't seem to help as Gore defeated Bush by 11.8%. Bush did make substantial headway in Southern California winning in Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego counties, including counties located in the Sierra Nevada region and along the borders of Nevada and Oregon. However, Gore overwhelmingly won Los Angeles County, the most populous county in the state and the country. Gore performed well in the San Francisco Bay Area, though there was a strong third party performance by Green Party candidate Ralph Nader, who broke into double digits in Humboldt and Santa Cruz counties. Notwithstanding Nader's performance, this helped Gore win statewide by a little over 1.3 million votes. California is almost what helped Gore pull ahead in the national popular vote. California was called for Gore, right when the polls closed at 11 P.
M. EST. Gore won 33 of 52 congressional districts. Technically the voters of California cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. California is allocated 54 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 54 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 54 electoral votes, their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 18, 2000 to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols.
The following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All were pledged to and voted for Al Gore and Joe Lieberman: Sunil Aghi Amy Arambula Rachel Binah R. Stephen Bollinger Roberts Braden Laura Karolina Capps Anni Chung Joseph A. Cislowski Sheldon Cohn Thor Emblem Elsa Favila John Freidenrich Cecelia Fuentes Glen Fuller James Garrison Sally Goehring Florence Gold Jill S. Hardy Therese Horsting Georgie Huff Robert Eugene Hurd Harriet A. Ingram Robert Jordan John Koza John Laird N. Mark Lam Manuel M. Lopez Henry Lozano David Mann Beverly Martin R. Keith McDonald Carol D. Norberg Ron Oberndorfer Gerard Orozco Trudy Owens Gregory S. Pettis Flo Rene Pickett Theodore H. Plant Art Pulaski Eloise Reyes Alex Arthur Reza C. Craig Roberts Jason Rodríguez Luis D. Rojas Howard L. Schock Lane Sherman David A. Torres Larry Trullinger Angelo K. Tsakopoulos Richard Valle Karen Waters Don Wilcox William K. Wong Rosalind Wyman