Elmer James Lach was a Canadian professional ice hockey player who played 14 seasons for the Montreal Canadiens in the National Hockey League. A centre, he was a member of the Punch line, along with Toe Blake. Lach led the NHL in scoring twice, was awarded the Hart Memorial Trophy in 1945 as the league's most valuable player, he won three Stanley Cups with Montreal. When Lach retired in 1954, he was the league's all-time leading scorer and was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame twelve years later, his number 16 was retired on December 4, 2009, during the Montreal Canadiens centennial celebrations. In 2017 Lach was named one of the'100 Greatest NHL Players' in history. Lach was born in a small town 133 kilometres north of Regina. Elmer was the youngest of two boys and four girls born to William and Mary-Ann Lach, who arrived in Canada from Eastern Europe in 1910. Lach's father was at first a farmer took a job as the head of public works for Nokomis, population 550. Lach played ice hockey for his school team, starting at age 12.
Against the wishes of his Baptist parents, Elmer would sneak away to play ice hockey on a local pond instead of attending church on Saturday mornings. Lach began playing junior ice hockey with the Regina Abbotts in the 1935–36 season, arranged by a Nokomis doctor with contacts in Regina. In Regina, Lach would work at the team's owner's pool hall, he played the two following seasons with the senior Weyburn Beavers of the Saskatchewan Senior Hockey League. He moved again in 1938 to star for two seasons for the senior Moose Jaw Millers, playing hockey in the winter for $75 a month and baseball in the summer, where he would be paid $2.50 per game behind the plate. In his first season with the Millers, he led them in assists, with 20, was the leading playoff scorer, he scored 17 regular-season goals. The next season, he scored 15 goals and 29 assists, led in playoff scoring again. Lach was noted for his defensive contributions. In 1937, along with future Hockey Hall of Fame member Doug Bentley attended the Toronto Maple Leafs training camp.
According to Lach, Conn Smythe, manager of the Leafs, saw Lach and Bentley and said "They were sending me big guys from the West, but instead they’ve sent me peanuts."It was during his time in Moose Jaw that Lach met his future wife, Kay Fletcher. Lach had a job reading meters for the National Light & Power Co. and one day he met Kay in her home. They married in 1941; that same year, Lach's mother died and his father moved to Vancouver, beginning a lifelong estrangement from his son. In 1945, Elmer and Kay celebrated the birth of son Ron. Ron was born. According to Montreal Gazette columnist Dave Stubbs, Elmer wired Kay the message "Nice going, honey." Rejecting the Maple Leafs' assessment, the Montreal Canadiens signed Lach as a free agent on October 24, 1940. With the arrangement of Moose Jaw's owner Cliff Henderson, Montreal player-scout Paul Haynes paid Lach $100 for his rights, "more money than I'd had in my pocket in my life.". He came to the Canadiens' training camp with only an overnight bag, not expecting to be offered a contract.
Henderson had encouraged Lach to go. In his first NHL season, Lach played 43 games, adding 14 assists, he was limited to only one game the following season, after crashing into the boards in the first game, dislocating his shoulder, fracturing his wrist and injuring his elbow. He returned the following season to score 58 points in 45 games. A highlight of the 1942–43 season came when he set a still-standing Canadiens record of six assists in one game on February 6, 1943. In the 1943–44 season, Montreal head coach Dick Irvin tried a line combination of Lach at centre, Maurice Richard on the right wing, Toe Blake at left; this line dominated the NHL for four seasons. In the first season of the Punch line, Lach played scoring on average an assist per game. At the conclusion of the season, Lach was named to the Second All-Star Team. Montreal won the Stanley Cup, his first with the team, sweeping the Chicago Black Hawks in the Stanley Cup Final series. In the 1944–45 season, Lach played in all 50 games, picking up a league-leading 80 points, of which 26 were goals and 54 were assists.
That season, line mate Maurice Richard became the first player in the NHL to score 50 goals in 50 games. The Punch line amassed 220 points in total for an NHL record until the 1960s. Lach won the Hart Memorial Trophy as the league's most valuable player, was named to the First All-Star Team. In the 1945–46 season, Lach led all players with 34 regular season assists, was named once more to the Second All-Star Team; the Canadiens won the Stanley Cup for the second time in Lach's career, defeating the Boston Bruins in five games. In the 1947–48 season, Lach became the first recipient of the Art Ross Trophy, after leading the league in points, with 61; the Punch line era ended. At the end of the 1948–49 season, Lach announced his retirement while recovering from a fractured jaw, but returned for the following season. Lach led the league in assists for the last time in the 1951–52 season, with 50. In the 1952 -- 53 season, Lach won his final Stanley Cup in a memorable finish. In the 1953 Stanley Cup Final against the Boston Bruins, Lach scored the cup-winning goal at 1:22 of overtime in the fifth game of the series.
The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League playoff winner. It is the oldest existing trophy to be awarded to a professional sports franchise, the International Ice Hockey Federation considers it to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport"; the trophy was commissioned in 1892 as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup and is named after Lord Stanley of Preston, the Governor General of Canada who donated it as an award to Canada's top-ranking amateur ice hockey club. The entire Stanley family supported the sport, the sons and daughters all playing and promoting the game; the first Cup was awarded in 1893 to Montreal Hockey Club, winners from 1893 to 1914 were determined by challenge games and league play. Professional teams first became eligible to challenge for the Stanley Cup in 1906. In 1915, professional ice hockey organizations National Hockey Association and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association reached a gentlemen's agreement in which their respective champions would face each other annually for the Stanley Cup.
It was established as the de facto championship trophy of the NHL in 1926 and the de jure NHL championship prize in 1947. There are three Stanley Cups: the original bowl of the "Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup", the authenticated "Presentation Cup", the spelling-corrected "Permanent Cup" on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame; the NHL has maintained its associated trademarks. The NHL has registered trademarks associated with the name and likeness of the Stanley Cup, although there has been dispute as to whether the league has the right to own trademarks associated with a trophy that it does not own; the original bowl is 18.5 centimetres high and 29 centimetres wide. The current Stanley Cup is topped with a copy of the original bowl, made of a silver and nickel alloy, it weighs 15.5 kilograms. A new Stanley Cup is not made each year, unlike the trophies awarded by the other major professional sports leagues of North America; the winners kept it until a new champion was crowned, but winning teams get the Stanley Cup during the summer and a limited number of days during the season.
Every year since 1924, a select portion of the winning players, coaches and club staff names are engraved on its bands, unusual among trophies. However, there is not enough room to include all the players and non-players, so some names must be omitted. Between 1924 and 1940, a new band was added every year that the trophy was awarded, earning the nickname "Stovepipe Cup" due to the unnatural height of all the bands. In 1947, the cup size was reduced. In 1958, the modern one-piece Cup was designed with a five-band barrel which could contain 13 winning teams per band; the oldest band is removed when the bottom band is full and preserved in the Hockey Hall of Fame in order to prevent the Stanley Cup from growing, a new blank band added to the bottom. It has been referred to as The Cup, Lord Stanley's Cup, The Holy Grail, or facetiously as Lord Stanley's Mug; the Stanley Cup is surrounded by numerous legends and traditions, the oldest of, the winning team drinking champagne from it. Since the 1914–15 season, the Cup has been won a combined 101 times by 18 current NHL teams and 5 defunct teams.
It was not awarded in 1919 because of a Spanish flu epidemic or in 2005 because of the 2004–05 NHL lockout. It was held by nine different teams between 1893 and 1914; the Montreal Canadiens have won it a record 24 times and are the most recent Canadian-based team to win it, doing so in 1993. After the Lord Stanley of Preston was appointed by Queen Victoria as Governor General of Canada on June 11, 1888, he and his family became enthusiastic about ice hockey. Stanley was first exposed to the game at Montreal's 1889 Winter Carnival, where he saw the Montreal Victorias play the Montreal Hockey Club; the Montreal Gazette reported that he "expressed his great delight with the game of hockey and the expertise of the players". During that time, organized ice hockey in Canada was still in its infancy and only Montreal and Ottawa had anything resembling leagues. Stanley's entire family became active in ice hockey. Two of his sons and Algernon, formed a new team called the Ottawa Rideau Hall Rebels. Arthur played a key role in the formation of what became known as the Ontario Hockey Association, became the founder of ice hockey in Great Britain.
Arthur and Algernon persuaded their father to donate a trophy to be "an outward and visible sign of the hockey championship". Stanley sent the following message to the victory celebration held on March 18, 1892, at Ottawa's Russell House Hotel for the three-time champion Ottawa Hockey Club: I have for some time been thinking that it would be a good thing if there were a challenge cup which should be held from year to year by the champion hockey team in the Dominion. There does not appear to be any such outward sign of a championship at present, considering the general interest which matches now elicit, the importance of having the game played and under rules recognized, I am willing to give a cup which shall be held from year to year by the winning team. I am not quite certain that the present regulations governing the arrangement of matches give entire satisfaction, it would be worth consid
Maple Leaf Gardens
Maple Leaf Gardens is a historic building located at the northwest corner of Carlton Street and Church Street in Toronto, Canada. The building was constructed as an arena to host ice hockey games, but has since been reconstructed for other uses. Today, Maple Leaf Gardens is a multi-purpose facility, with Loblaws occupying retail space on the lower floors and an arena for Toronto's Ryerson University, known as Mattamy Athletic Centre at the Gardens, occupying the top level. Considered one of the "cathedrals" of ice hockey, it was home to the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League from 1931 to 1999; the Leafs won the Stanley Cup 11 times from 1932 to 1967 while playing at the Gardens. The first NHL All-Star Game, albeit an unofficial one, was held at the Gardens in 1934 as a benefit for Leafs forward Ace Bailey, who had suffered a career-ending head injury; the first official annual National Hockey League All-Star Game was held at Maple Leaf Gardens in 1947. It was home to the Toronto Huskies in their single season in the Basketball Association of America, the Toronto Marlboros of the Ontario Hockey League, the Toronto Toros of the World Hockey Association, the Toronto Blizzard of the North American Soccer League, the Toronto Shooting Stars of the National Professional Soccer League, the Toronto Rock of the National Lacrosse League.
The NBA's Buffalo Braves played a total of 16 regular season games at Maple Leaf Gardens from 1971 to 1975. The NBA's Toronto Raptors played six games at the Gardens from 1997 to 1999 when SkyDome was unavailable, it was one of the few venues outside the United States where Elvis Presley performed in concert. In 1972, Maple Leaf Gardens hosted game 2 of the famous Summit Series between Team Canada and the USSR. Team Canada won the game 4–1; the Toronto Maple Leafs had been playing in the Arena Gardens on Mutual Street. It was held 7,500 spectators for ice hockey. By 1930, Leafs managing director Conn Smythe decided the Arena was too small and he wanted to build a new arena and more impressive. After considering various sites, the site at the corner of Carlton and Church was purchased from The T. Eaton Co. Ltd. for $350,000, a price said to be $150,000 below market value. The new 12,473 seat arena was designed by the architectural firm of Macdonald. To finance the construction, Smythe launched Maple Leaf Gardens Limited, a management company that would own the arena and the Maple Leafs.
A public offering of shares in MLGL was made at C$10 each, with a free common share for each five preferred shares purchased. Ownership of the hockey team was transferred to MLGL in return for shares. Intending right from the start that the Gardens would host other events, W. A. Hewitt, sports editor of the Toronto Star, was hired as general manager of Maple Leaf Gardens to oversee all events other than professional hockey, his son, Foster Hewitt, was hired to run the radio broadcasts, oversaw the construction of the radio broadcast facilities. The contract to construct the building was awarded to Thomson Brothers Construction of Port Credit in Toronto Township. Thomson Bros bid just under $990,000 for the project, the lowest of ten tenders received due to the fact that amongst the Thomson Brothers' various enterprises they had much of the sub contract work covered, others could not compete in this manner; that price did not include steel work, estimated at an additional $100,000. Additional savings were made through deals with labour unions, in exchange for shares in MLGL.
Construction began at midnight on June 1, 1931. In what is to this day considered to be a remarkable accomplishment, the Gardens was constructed in five months and two weeks at a cost of C$1.5 million. Team owner Harold Ballard lived in the owner's suite built into the arena's top northeast corner; the Gardens opened on November 1931, with the Maple Leafs losing 2 -- 1 to the Chicago Blackhawks. Reported attendance on opening night was 13,542; the Leafs would go on to win their first Stanley Cup as the Maple Leafs that season. The first professional wrestling show at the Gardens was held on November 19, 1931 and attracted 15,800 people to see world champion Jim Londos in the main event; the show was promoted by Jack Corcoran, who passed the reins to Frank Tunney and his Maple Leaf Wrestling promotion in 1939. Under Tunney and the Gardens was for decades a thriving centre for professional wrestling. Local hero Whipper Billy Watson became the city's top wrestling attraction in the 1950s; the last WWE-promoted event to be held at Maple Leaf Gardens was on September 17, 1995.
Boxing was a regular offering at the Gardens for many years. The first world title bout in the building was on September 19, 1932, with bantamweight champion Panama Al Brown knocking out challenger Émile Pladner in the first round. Winston Churchill addressed a large audience at the Gardens in March 1932. Victory Loan rallies were held at the Gardens during World War II. On November 1, 1946, Maple Leaf Gardens was the site of the first game in the history of the Basketball Association of America, with the Toronto Huskies playing the New York Knickerbockers
Joseph Henri Maurice "Rocket" Richard was a Canadian professional ice hockey player who played 18 seasons in the National Hockey League for the Montreal Canadiens. He was the first player in NHL history to score 50 goals in one season, accomplishing the feat in 50 games in 1944–45, the first to reach 500 career goals. Richard retired in 1960 as the league's all-time leader in goals with 544, he won the Hart Trophy as the NHL's most valuable player in 1947, played in 13 All-Star Games and was named to 14 post-season NHL All-Star Teams, eight on the First-Team. In 2017 Richard was named one of the'100 Greatest NHL Players' in history. Richard, Elmer Lach and Toe Blake formed a high-scoring forward line of the 1940s. Richard was a member of eight Stanley Cup championship teams, including a league record five straight between 1956 and 1960; the Hockey Hall of Fame waived its five-year waiting period for eligibility and inducted Richard into the hall in 1961. In 1975 he was inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame.
The Canadiens retired his number, 9, in 1960, in 1999 donated the Maurice "Rocket" Richard Trophy to the NHL, awarded annually to the league's regular season leading goal-scorer. The oldest of eight children, Richard emerged from a poverty-stricken family during the Great Depression, he was viewed as a fragile player. A string of injuries prevented him from joining the Canadian military during the Second World War. Outspoken and intense, he was renowned for his physical and violent style of play. Richard was involved in a vicious on-ice incident late in the 1954–55 season during which he struck a linesman. NHL President Clarence Campbell suspended him for the remainder of the season and playoffs, which precipitated the Richard Riot in Montreal; the riot has taken on a mythical quality in the decades since and is viewed as a precursor to Quebec's Quiet Revolution. Richard was a cultural icon among Quebec's francophone population. Richard died in 2000 and became the first non-politician honoured by the province of Quebec with a state funeral.
Joseph Henri Maurice Richard was born August 1921, in Montreal, Quebec. His parents, Onésime Richard and Alice Laramée, were from the Gaspé region of Quebec, before moving to Montreal, where they settled in the neighbourhood of Nouveau-Bordeaux. Maurice was the oldest of eight children. Onésime was a carpenter by trade, took a job with the Canadian Pacific Railway shortly after Maurice was born; the Richards struggled during the Great Depression. Richard received his first pair of ice skates when he was four, grew up skating on local rivers and a small backyard ice surface his father created, he did not play organized hockey until he was 14. Instead, Richard developed his skills playing shinny and "hog" – a game that required the puck carrier to keep the puck away from others for as long as possible. While he played baseball and was a boxer, hockey was his passion. After he began playing in organized leagues, Richard joined several teams and used pseudonyms such as "Maurice Rochon" to circumvent rules that restricted players to one team.
In one league, he led his team to three consecutive championships and scored 133 of his team's 144 goals in the 1938–39 season. At 16, Richard dropped out of school to work with his father as a machinist, he enrolled in a technical school. At 18, Richard joined the Verdun Juniors, though as a rookie he saw little ice time in the regular season, he scored four goals in ten regular season games, added six goals in four playoff games as Verdun won the provincial championship. He was promoted to the Montreal Canadiens' affiliate in the Quebec Senior Hockey League in 1940, but suffered a broken ankle in his first game after crashing into the boards and missed the remainder of the season; the injury aborted his hopes of joining the Canadian military: he was called to a recruitment centre in mid-1941, but was deemed unfit for combat. Off the ice, Richard was a unassuming youth who spoke little, he met his future wife Lucille Norchet. She was the younger sister of one of his teammates at Bordeaux, her bright, outgoing personality complemented Richard's reserved nature.
Lucille proved adept at guiding him through trials and disappointments he experienced in both hockey and life. They were engaged when he was 20, though her parents felt she was too young, married on September 12, 1942, when she was seventeen. Having recovered from his broken ankle in time for the 1941–42 season, Richard returned to the QSHL Canadiens, with whom he played 31 games and recorded 17 points before he was again injured, he crashed into the net. Richard rejoined the team for the playoffs; the skills he demonstrated in the QSHL, combined with the NHL parent club's loss of players to the war and struggles to draw fans due to its poor record and a lack of francophone players, earned Richard a tryout with the Canadiens for the 1942–43 season. He signed a contract worth $3,500 for the year and, wearing sweater number 15, made his NHL debut with the team. Richard's first goal was against the New York Rangers on November 8, 1942. Injury again sidelined Richard as his rookie season ended after only 16 games when he suffered a broken leg.
Jimmy Peters Sr.
James Meldrum "Shakey" Peters Sr. was a professional ice hockey player who won two Stanley Cups as a member of the Detroit Red Wings in 1950 and 1954 and another with the Montreal Canadiens in 1946. He was born in Verdun, Quebec in 1922 and played with the Montreal Junior Canadiens of the QJHL in 1940–41, he served with the Canadian Army during World War II. From 1945 to 1954, Peters played with the Montreal Canadiens,with whom he scored the OT goal to win the Stanley Cup Boston Bruins, Detroit Red Wings and Chicago Black Hawks of the National Hockey League. After he retired from hockey in 1956, Peters was a salesman in the Detroit area, he died in Marquette, Michigan in 2006. His son Jimmy Peters Jr. played hockey for the Detroit Red Wings. His nephew Glen Currie played hockey for the Washington Capitals, as well as the Los Angeles Kings. During his three-year tenure with the Canadiens he wore the number 19. In his 166 games with the Canadiens he scored 35 goals and 50 assists for 85 points, added another 4 goals and 3 assists in 20 playoff games.
He was traded to Boston with John Quilty for Joe Carveth. Information taken from "The Montreal Canadiens: A Hockey Dynasty by Claude Mouton". Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey
Pacific Coast Hockey Association
The Pacific Coast Hockey Association was a professional men's ice hockey league in western Canada and the western United States, which operated from 1911 to 1924 when it merged with the Western Canada Hockey League. The PCHA was considered to be a major league of ice hockey and was important in the development of the sport of professional ice hockey through its innovations; the league was started by the Patrick family, professional hockey players from Montreal, building new arenas in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia. After a few years of play, the league was accepted by the Stanley Cup trustees as being of a high enough standard that teams from its league were accepted for Stanley Cup challenges. Starting in 1915, the league entered into an agreement where the Stanley Cup was to be contested between the National Hockey Association and the PCHA after the regular seasons were finished; the league struggled to make money, various teams moved into different cities in an attempt to be successful financially.
The league, to survive, merged with the WCHL in 1924. After playing for the Renfrew Millionaires in 1910, players Frank Patrick and Lester Patrick moved west to Nelson, British Columbia to work in their father Joe's lumbering business. After Joe decided to sell the business in January 1911, the Patricks decided to form a new professional ice hockey league, risking the family fortune; the decision was made to put new rinks in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia, locations which necessitated the use of artificial ice, as the locations' climate prevented natural ice. Three teams: the New Westminster Royals, the Victoria Senators, the Vancouver Millionaires would be formed; the Patricks moved buying property for the arenas in February. Ground was broken for the arenas in April and the arenas were completed in December. Victoria's arena seated 4,000, cost $110,000 and the flagship arena in Vancouver had 10,500 seats and cost $210,000 to build. Once it became clear that the arenas would be built in time, the Patricks raided the National Hockey Association for players, although with only three teams and no substitutes, the entire league only had 23 players under contract.
All players were paid unlike the NHA with its competing teams. The PCHA distributed players amongst the teams. Newsy Lalonde of the Canadiens would be the most notable player to move west; the league was formally organized on December 7, 1911 to be run by Frank and Lester, who would play for and manage the Vancouver and Victoria teams. The Victoria arena would open to the public on Christmas Day 1911, the first game of the PCHA was played on January 3, 1912, only a year after the Patricks decided to form the new league; the first league championship for the Patterson Cup trophy was won by the New Westminster Royals. The league did not challenge for the Stanley Cup the first year. Despite the raiding of the NHA, a March 1912 west coast tour of the NHA's all-stars was arranged, billed as a sort of "World Series" of hockey; the NHA all-stars included Cyclone Taylor, a marquee name in the East, who had injured his hand refereeing a benefit game for Bruce Ridpath before coming out west and didn't play the first two games.
After the PCHA all-stars won the first two games 10–4 and 5–1, leaving the series outcome in no doubt, the NHA manager Art Ross decided to let Taylor play at the Patrick's request. Taylor would put on an outstanding display of ice hockey prowess for the British Columbia fans and receive a two-minute ovation. Taylor rumoured to have signed with Vancouver, would turn down a contract offer of the Ottawa Hockey Club of the NHA to join the Millionaires in December 1912 for a yearly salary of $1,800, the top salary of any player at the time. For the 1912–13 season the PCHA continued to raid the east for players. Besides Taylor, Goldie Prodgers, Eddie Oatman, Jack McDonald and Ernie Johnson moved out west, although Newsy Lalonde returned to Montreal; the New Westminster rink, to be built by local interests, was not ready and the Royals continued to play in Vancouver. Victoria would win the season and the club arranged for an exhibition series of the Stanley Cup champion Quebec Bulldogs. Victoria would defeat two victories to one.
During the 1913–14 season, the PCHA and the NHA started to act together, coming to agreements to recognize each other's player suspensions and contracts, instituting a controlled "draft" process to facilitate the transfer of players. In a further agreement, the champions of each league would face each other for the Stanley Cup. After the 1914 season, league champion Victoria came east to play the first "World Series of hockey" challenge series with the Toronto Blueshirts for the Stanley Cup. After the series, the Stanley Cup trustees came to agreement with the NHA and PCHA and the challenge era of the Stanley Cup came to an end. Yearly playoffs between the leagues would become the new manner of deciding the Stanley Cup champion. In the 1914–15 season, Vancouver defeated the Ottawa Senators in a best-of-five series to become the PCHA's first Stanley Cup champions; the league expanded into the United States in 1914 and again in 1915. In 1916, the Portland Rosebuds became the first American team to play for the Stanley Cup and the following year the Seattle Metropolitans became the first American team to win the Cup—forever changing the mandate of the Cup, to recognize the top hockey club in Canada.
Relations with the NHA turned sour in 1915, with the Patricks accusing the league of reneging on their agreements. In retaliation, the PCHA again went on a raid for NHA players ones with the Toronto Blueshirts. Five players from Tor
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi