England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
English football league system
There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions. As there are no definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12. The pyramid for womens football in England runs separately to nine tiers, the Football League was created in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. It was dominated by clubs who had supported professionalism. The twelve founding members consisted of six from Lancashire and six from the Midlands, no sides from the South including London initially participated. The system consists of a pyramid of leagues, bound together by the principle of promotion and relegation. A certain number of the most successful clubs in each league can rise to a higher league, in addition to sporting performance, promotion is usually contingent on meeting criteria set by the higher league, especially concerning appropriate facilities and finances. In theory it is possible for a local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there certainly is significant movement within the pyramid, the top five levels contain one division each and are nationwide in scope. Below this, the levels have progressively more leagues, with each covering progressively smaller geographic areas. Many leagues have more than one division, at the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some of the more densely populated areas there are leagues more than twenty layers below the Premier League. Clubs from these leagues may, if they feel they meet the standard of play and have suitable facilities. The seven levels immediately below the Premier League and English Football League are known as the National League System, in May 2014 The Football Association announced provisional plans for a new division between the English Football League and the National League which would include B teams of higher level clubs. The English football league system does not include the version of the game often called Sunday league football. These leagues are independent entities with no promotion or relegation involving the football pyramid, however, some Sunday League clubs have been known to join pyramid leagues if they desire to progress higher. There are also some Saturday leagues such as the Lincolnshire League which are not officially part of the pyramid, at the top is the single division of the Premier League, containing 20 clubs, all of which, up to the 2010–11 season, were based in England. Below the Premier League is the English Football League, which is divided into three divisions of 24 clubs each, The Championship, League One and League Two, the 92 clubs in the Premier League and English Football League are all full-time professional clubs. They are often referred to as League clubs because, before the establishment of the Premier League in 1992, clubs outside this group are referred to as non-League clubs, although they too play most of their football in league-type competitions
Frome Town F.C.
Frome Town Football Club is an English football club based in Frome, a town in the county of Somerset. They play in the Southern Football League Premier Division, the clubs nickname is the Robins and they play in a predominantly red kit. After the league successes the club made its debut in the FA cup in the 1911–12 season reaching the fifth qualifying round before losing 4–1 to Southport Central. The club then joined the Western league in the 1919–20 season starting in Division two, where won the division at their first attempt. However they did not gain promotion and stayed in the league for a two seasons before leaving, only to return to Division two for another three seasons at the beginning of the 1924–25 season. The club returned to the Western league in the 1931–32 season and stayed there for eight seasons, during this time the Club had success in the Somerset Senior FA Cup, winning it in the 1932–22 and 1933–34 seasons. The club also played its first FA cup game for 35 years in the same season. The 1953–54 season, saw the club reach the First round of the FA cup where they were defeated by Football League side Leyton Orient in front of a crowd of 8,000. The same season saw the club gain promotion to Division one. The club however was relegated back to Division two four seasons later and left the Western league, at the end of their first season back in Division two to join the Wiltshire League. The club once again joined the Western league in the 1963–64 season, the club spent the next 32 seasons in the top division during which time they went on to become champions once during the 1978–79 season. At the end of the 1995–96 season the club was relegated to Division One, at the end of the 1999–00 season the club finished bottom of Division one but were spared relegation as the league was restructured that season. Two seasons later at the end of the 2001–02 campaign the club were Division One champions, in the 2003–04 campaign the club gained media attention when they asked local white witch Titania Hardie, to help improve their home form as they struggled at Badgers Hill. The witch blamed the Decor of the rooms, and once the club changed them the team won eight of their nine remaining home games. The club also achieved cup success that season when they beat Paulton Rovers 3–1 to win the Somerset Premier Cup. In their second season in Division One South and West the club gained promotion to the Premier Division when they beat Sholing 1–0 in the play-off final, the club has since remained in the Premier Division of the Southern Football League. Frome Town play their games at the Special Effect Stadium, Berkley Road, Frome, in 2012 the club added a new 250 seater stand to Badgers Hill, so that their ground would meet the requirements set out for the Southern Football League Premier Division. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Kiveton Park F.C.
Kiveton Park Football Club is a football club based in Kiveton Park, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. They are currently members of the Sheffield & Hallamshire County Senior League Division Two South, although the clubs official foundation year is given as 1892, the club was actually affiliated to the Sheffield FA in 1883, and even played games as far back as 1877. Its first club colours were believed to be red and black quarters, in 1891–92 they were founder members of the Sheffield & District Football League and lifted their first trophy after beating Sheepbridge in the final of the Sheffield Minor Cup. For 1893–94 the Minor Cup changed from a competition to a league. They were the first winners of the latter in 1894 and repeated the two years later, remaining in the competition until the outbreak of the First World War. They made their FA Cup debut in 1921, and reached the 3rd qualifying round of the two years later, losing to Rotherham Town at Clifton Lane. They spent the first four years as Kiveton Park Colliery in the Sheffield Association League. After suffering two disastrous campaigns at this level, they moved back to the Worksop & District League. By the early 1960s Kiveton were competing, and finding success, in the East Derbyshire League. In 1967 they won promotion to Division One and two years later finished in third place – the clubs highest ever league finish, a year later however they were relegated back to Division Two. For a while during this era the club was known as Kiveton Park United, in 1972 they completed a league and cup double, winning the prestigious Sheffield & Hallamshire Senior Cup for the first time, and gaining promotion back to the Yorkshire Leagues top flight. Their yo-yo existence would continue however – up to 1982 they flitted constantly between Division One and Two, winning the Division Two title in 1978 and they were promoted to Division One in 1986, but were relegated back again in 1990 because of ground grading issues. In 1994 the villages colliery closed, and two later, after losing its biggest financier, the club went into hibernation. The club was reformed in 1999, re-joining the CMFL Premier Division, in 2003 they finished as runners-up, gaining promotion back to the Supreme Division, but were relegated back again two years later because of their failure to install floodlights. This blow came just days after they had won the Sheffield & Hallamshire Association Cup for the year running. It wasnt until the league restructured in 2011 to form North and South divisions that the club regained Step 7 status in the English football league system, the year of 2013 was a busy one for the club. It decided, due to the cost of travelling to games, to leave the CMFL. Kiveton entered the Second Division of the S&HCSL for the start of the 2013–14 season, the year also brought much needed ground improvements thanks to a grant from the Inspired Olympics Legacy Fund
Leyton Football Club was an English association football club based in Leyton, in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. The team withdrew from the Isthmian League Division One North in January 2011, the Lillies were unrelated to their Football League neighbours Leyton Orient. The club was founded in 1868, and disbanded several times in its history, in 1975 the club merged with Wingate F. C. to become Leyton-Wingate F. C. until 1992 when the two clubs parted company and the name reverted to Leyton. Costas Sophocleous, the chairman, was once the manager. Having managed the team for the 2003/04 and 2004/05 seasons, Sophocleous decided to back from management to concentrate on his role as chairman. Following a bad start to the season, however, two managers were sacked in quick succession and the took over the managerial role again. Leyton F. C then appointed Troy Townsend as manager for the English 2005/06 season and he continued to manage the first team squad, the reserves side and the Eastern Junior Alliance U18s squad. In 2006/07 Leyton completed the season in 15th position and this led Troy Townsend to step aside as manager of the first team to concentrate on the reserves and U18s sides. The following season, under manager Rowley Cray, the club suffered an 11–1 home defeat to Hendon, steve Newing and Del Deanus were appointed as joint managers for the 2008/09 season, but resigned in November citing financial difficulties at the club. Tony Ievoli then took the reins but he resigned at the start of September 2009, before being replaced by former Grays Athletic manager, in November 2009 Edwards was replaced by Ivan Persaud. In October 2009, following an investigation by HMRC, chairman Costas Sophocleous, in January 2010 Sophocleous was sentenced to 8 years 3 months and Foster to 5 years 3 months. Sophocleous son, former Leyton player Mark, and his wife, accountant Stewart Collins was found guilty and sentenced to 6 years. Sophocleous stood down as chairman and was replaced by former vice-chairman Tony Hardy, following Costas Sophocleous conviction, Ivan Persaud left the club and was replaced as manager by former player Malcolm Dannie for the beginning of February 2010. However, because several clubs higher in the pyramid were dissolved or demoted, Leyton were awarded a reprieve, in January 2011, and after a short suspension from the league for not paying its subscription, the club was forced to withdraw from the league due to debt. Following this, the chairman, secretary, management and players all left the club, Leyton F. C. played at the Leyton Stadium. The club had ten teams, ranging in age from under nines to under eighteens. Players that have played/managed in the Football League or any equivalent to this level. Players that hold a record or have captained the club
Paulton Rovers F.C.
Paulton Rovers Football Club are an English football club based at the Athletic Field on Winterfield Road in the growing village of Paulton near Bristol. They were established in 1881 and currently play in the Southern Football League Premier Division, the club is affiliated to the Somerset County FA. Paulton Rovers their first played football in the Western Football League. After World War II, Rovers were placed in the top division of what was now a two-division league but were relegated to Division Two in 1953. In 1960 Division Two was scrapped and for the fourteen years the team played in the Somerset County Football League. When the league expanded back to two divisions in 1976 they were placed in the Premier Division but were relegated in 1981, only to bounce back three years later. A series of finishes in the late 1990s and early 2000s eventually saw them promoted to the Southern League in 2004 in the Division One South. Paulton Rovers had reached the Division One South and West play-off semi-finals in 2006–07 losing 1–4 at home to Taunton Town, the official match attendance was 2,070. Harrington took over a manager in June 2011 with Milsom as his assistant, when Milsom resigned due to personal reasons on 8 December 2011 former Rovers centre half Nick Bunyard replaced him. At the beginning of the 2012–13 season Harrington stepped down with Bunyard taking over the reins, Paulton Rovers play their home games at The Athletic Ground, Winterfield Road, Paulton, Bristol, BS39 7RF where they have played for over 50 years. Previous grounds include Chapel Field, the Cricket Ground, and the Recreation Ground, the ground as it is now began to take shape in 1967, when the club bought an old RAF hut and re-erected it on the ground. Plans were drawn up to obtain a mortgage to fund the building of bigger premises, to achieve this necessitated rotating the pitch through 90 degrees to its present position and relocating the clubhouse. A new changing room block was built in 1972 and the clubhouse has been extended several times to two large function rooms as well as a substantial bar area. In 2004 a second stand was and terracing covered on two sides, along with training facilities include a floodlit court and two mini soccer pitches for youth football. Mike Trought Jason Drysdale Andy Bell Dick Sheppard Andy Sandell Ben Cleverley Steve Phillips Ashley Barnes Michael Meaker Paulton Rovers at the Football Club History Database Club website
Wombwell Main F.C.
Wombwell Main Football Club is a football club based in Wombwell, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England. They are currently members of the Sheffield & Hallamshire County Senior League Premier Division, little is known of the formation of the club – they first came to prominence when entering the FA Cup in 1906. They have entered the FA Cup on a total of 10 occasions and they entered the Sheffield & Hallamshire County Senior League in 1996, and by 1998 they had won two successive promotions to reach the S&HCSLs Premier Division. In their first Premier Division campaign they claimed the league championship – an achievement they would repeat on a further three occasions and they have also won the S&HCSLs League Cup three times, the first two in 2002 and 2008 giving the club a league and cup double. Best FA Cup performance, 2nd Qualifying Round, 1908–09
Ransome & Marles
Ransome & Marles Bearing Company Limited was the owner of a business making ball and roller bearings founded during the First World War to make bearings for aircraft and other engines. Before the war most bearings had been imported and most of those were from Germany, Ransome & Marles grew from another separate business needing bearings for its own products. In 1868 Allen Ransome and Frederic Josselyn set up A Ransome & Co in Chelsea, a Ransome & Co designed and manufactured woodworking and timber-handling machinery. Later they acquired a foundry in Battersea, vincent Sydney Woods joined them at the foundry and the foundry firms name was Ransome, Josselyn and Woods. In 1893 the two businesses were amalgamated under the ownership of a new incorporated company, A Ransome and Co Limited. In 1900 all A Ransome and Co activities were moved to Newark-on-Trent, woodworking machinery was needed during World War I, aeroplanes were made of wood and fabric. In the mid-1880s Allen Ransome improved the Battersea foundrys surrounds also turning the creek by the foundry into a dock and he was assisted by civil engineer Edward Woods, father of Ransomes partner V S Woods. It was made large enough to take coastal steamers and allow vessels to pass or turn, at the turn of the century when Ransomes moved to Newark the foundry became Drew-Bear Perks & Cos Battersea Steelworks. In the 21st century it is a haven for houseboats, Ransomes had an association with inventor Henry Marles who held patents for wood carving machinery which he had taken out in 1899. Henry Marles held some patents for the design and manufacture of ball bearings, aside from their own requirement A. Ransome & Co were already supplying famous English motor manufacturers. They had begun by assembling bought-in balls with their own components then moved on to manufacturing their own balls. A new ball-making plant, which the journalists were visiting, had now been installed in new premises alongside A. Ransome & Cos own though the new plant was not in production at the end of 1917. The first chairman of Ransome & Marles was Victor Sydney Woods, Allen Ransomes son, Geoffrey Ransome, was a director of both companies. The three-story building accommodating 500 people had not been completed until May 1918, the adjoining engineering works of A Ransome & Co, the original Stanley Works, were bought by Ransome & Marles when they were put up for sale in 1932. The three year factory and plant extensions programme finished in 1938 was in response to a new demand for new vehicles as well as rearmament. Within a short time it was followed by the addition of another new workshop completed in early 1940, after the war, in 1954, a new factory was opened in County Durham at Annfield Plain. The decision to make that investment had been made in 1950, south African agent, D Drury & Co, was purchased and made a subsidiary in 1952. Next the Australian agent, Gardner Waern & Co, was purchased, the opportunity arose later to purchase the Australian governments ball-bearing factory at Echuca
Melksham Town F.C.
Melksham Town Football Club are a football club based in Melksham, Wiltshire, England. They are currently members of the Western League Premier Division and play at the The Oakfield Stadium, the club is affiliated to the Wiltshire Football Association The club was formed as Melksham F. C. in 1876 and in 1894 became founding members of the Wilts League. They entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1946, in 1951 the club changed their name to their current one. They joined the Western Football League in 1974, Melksham won Division One in 1979–80, gaining promotion to the Premier Division. They stayed in the division until they were relegated in 1988, the club left the Western League in 1993, when they were relegated to the Wiltshire County League after finishing in bottom position. However they returned to the Western league in just one season when under manager Mel Gingell, the club three seasons later in the 1996–97 campaign under manager Darren Perrin, were promoted to the Premier Division One, as champions. The club then spent the next thirteen seasons in the top division of the Western league before being relegated to Division One again at the end of the 2009–10 campaign. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club gained prmotion back to the Premier Division when they finished as runners-up in Division one. In the 2014–15 season Melksham won the Western Football League Premier Division, until 2017, Melksham Town played their games at The Conigre, Market Place, Melksham, SN12 6ES. The club had played at the Conigre ground since 1926. C. in the FA Vase, andy Sandell Murray Fishlock David Seal club website