Tage Fritjof Erlander was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and led the government for a tenure of 23 years. This led to Erlander being known as Swedens longest Prime Minister referring to both his physical stature –192 cm, or six feet and four inches – and tenure, until the 1960s, income taxes were lower in Sweden than in the United States. For most of his time in power, Erlander ran a minority government of the Social Democrats, from 1951 to 1957, he instead ran a coalition with the Farmers League. A snap election in 1958 reversed this result, in the 1968 general election, he won his seventh and most successful victory, with the Social Democrats winning an absolute majority of the popular vote and seats in the lower chamber. Erlander resigned the year during a process of major constitutional reform and was succeeded by his long-time protégé. He was born in Ransäter, Värmland County, as the son of school teacher Erik Gustaf Erlander and his father had originally had the surname of Andersson, but had changed that to Erlander, after his father who had the first name of Erland.
His mother was Alma, née Nilsson, on his grandmothers side, Erlander had ancestry from the Forest Finns, who migrated to Värmland from the Finnish province of Savonia in the 17th century. As a student at Lund University he was involved in student politics. He graduated in science and economics in 1928. From 1928 till 1929 he completed his military service in the Signals Corps. Erlander was a member of the staff of the encyclopedia Svensk Upplagsbok from 1929 to 1938. Erlander was elected to the council in Lund in 1930 and became a member of parliament in 1932. As State Secretary at the Ministry of Social Affairs, Erlander was one of the most senior officials responsible for the establishment of internment camps in Sweden during World War II. In the camps, which were kept secret to the Swedish public, people from ethnic minorities as well as political dissidents were interned, particularly Communists. The purpose of the registration was, according to a newspaper article, in Norway, similar lists were established that were handed over to the Nazis during the German occupation of Norway.
Erlander ascended to the cabinet in 1944 as minister without Portfolio, a post he held to the next year, when Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson suddenly died in 1946, Erlander unexpectedly was chosen as the successor and subsequently as the leader of the party. Retaining the positions of the Social Democrats from a potent Liberal opposition under Bertil Ohlin in his first election and his working relationship with the partys leader, Gunnar Hedlund, is known to have been good
Prime Minister of Sweden
The Prime Minister is the head of government in Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. Louis Gerhard De Geer, the architect behind the new bicameral Riksdag of 1866 that replaced the centuries-old Riksdag of the Estates, the current Prime Minister of Sweden is Stefan Löfven, leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Before 1876, when the office of a prime minister was created. Historically though, the most senior member of the Privy Council had certain similarities to the office of a head of government. When the office of the Prime Minister was created in 1876, unlike the Minister for Justice, the Minister for Foreign Affairs did however continue to be styled as Excellency, an honour shared only with the Prime Minister. From that time onward, the Prime Minister depended on the support of a majority in the Riksdag, over time, the Prime Minister came to de facto exercise the Royal prerogatives.
However, the Swedish term used for the Government during this period, maj, t, an abbreviation of Kunglig Majestät. Until 1974, the authority in Sweden had been exercised through the King in Council. The Speaker holds consultations with the party leaders and appoints a Prime Minister-designate, if the Prime Minister-designate is approved he or she chooses which and how many members are to be included in his or her government. With the exception of the Prime Minister, cabinet ministers do not need the approval of the Riksdag, if the Prime Minister is forced by a vote of no confidence to resign, the entire cabinet falls, and the process of electing a Prime minister starts over. The Prime Minister can dissolve the Riksdag, even receiving a vote of no confidence. The Instrument of Government requires that the Prime Minister appoint a member of the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, however, if a Deputy Prime Minister is absent or has not been appointed, the senior minister in the cabinet becomes acting head of government.
If more than one minister has equal tenure, the eldest assumes the position, on paper, the Prime Ministers position is stronger than that of his counterparts in Denmark and Norway. This is because the Swedish prime minister is an office with duties specifically enumerated in the Instrument of Government. In the two neighboring Scandinavian monarchies, the monarch is the chief executive, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the ministers. The government offices, including the Prime Ministers office, is located at Rosenbad in central Stockholm, in 1991 Sager House was acquired, and since 1995 it has served as the private residence of the Prime Minister. Harpsund, a house in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, has served as a country residence for the Prime Minister since 1953
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 1930s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1930, and ended on December 31,1939. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in countries in Europe and South America. The 1930s saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of aviation, radio. Colombia–Peru War – fought between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru, Chaco War – the war was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over the disputed territory of Gran Chaco resulting in an overall Paraguayan victory in 1935. An agreement dividing the territory was made in 1938, officially ending outstanding differences, saudi–Yemeni War – was a war between Saudi Arabia and Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Second Sino-Japanese War – fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War, World War II breaks out on September 1,1939 Chinese Civil War - The ruling Kuomintang and the rebel Communist Party of China fight a civil war for control of China.
The Communists consolidated territory in the early 1930s and proclaimed a short-lived Chinese Soviet Republic that collapsed upon Kuomintang attacks, the Kuomintang and Communists attempted to put away their differences after 1937 to fight the Japanese occupation of China, but intermittent clashes continued through the remainder of the 1930s. Spanish Civil War – Germany and Italy back anti-communist Falange forces of Francisco Franco, the Soviet Union and international communist parties back the left-wing republican faction in the war. The war ends in April 1939 with Francos nationalist forces defeating the republican forces, Franco becomes Head of State of Spain, President of Government and de facto dictator. The Republic gives way to the Spanish State, an authoritarian dictatorship, Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations, but hosts the 1936 Summer Olympics to show his new reich to the world as well as the supposed superior athleticism of his Aryan troops/athletes. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attempts the appeasement of Hitler in hope of avoiding war by allowing the dictator to annex the Sudetenland, signing the Munich Agreement and promising constituents Peace for our time.
He was ousted in favor of Winston Churchill in May 1940, some 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. Kristallnacht served as the pretext for the confiscation of firearms from German Jews. Germany and Italy pursue territorial expansionist agendas, Germany demands the annexation of the Federal State of Austria and of other German-speaking territories in Europe. Between 1935 and 1936, Germany recovers the Saar and remilitarizes the Rhineland and Italy improve relations by forming an alliance against communism in 1936 with the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. Germany annexes Austria in the event known as the Anschluss, the annexation of the Sudetenland followed negotiations which resulted in the Munich Agreement of 1938. The Italian invasion of Albania in 1939 succeeds in turning the Kingdom of Albania into an Italian protectorate, the vacant Albanian throne was claimed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
History of Czechoslovakia
However, the gap between cultures was never fully bridged, and this discrepancy played a disruptive role throughout the seventy-five years of the union. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century, after 1526, Bohemia came under the control of the House of Habsburg as their scions first became the elected rulers of Bohemia, the hereditary rulers of the country. Subject peoples all over the Austro-Hungarian empire wanted to be free from the rule of the old aristocracy and the imperial family. Although the Czechs and Slovaks speak languages that are very similar, the reason was the differing attitude and position of their overlords – the Austrians in Bohemia and Moravia, and the Hungarians in Slovakia – within Austria-Hungary. Bohemia was the most industrialized part of Austria and Slovakia was the most industrialized part of Hungary – however at different levels of development. Furthermore, the Hungarians were far more determined to assimilate the Slovaks than the Austrians were to assimilate the Czechs, despite cultural differences, the Slovaks shared similar aspirations with the Czechs for independence from the Habsburg state.
In 1916, during World War I, Tomáš Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council together with Edvard Beneš, Masaryk in the United States, Štefánik in France, and Beneš in France and Britain worked tirelessly to secure Allied recognition. About 1.4 million Czech soldiers fought in World War I,150,000 of which died, at times they controlled much of the Trans-Siberian railway, and they were indirectly involved in the shooting of the Russian tsar and his family in 1918. Their goal was to win the support of the Allies for the independence of Czechoslovakia, the independence of Czechoslovakia was officially proclaimed in Prague on 28 October 1918 in Smetana Hall of the Municipal House, a physical setting strongly associated with nationalist feeling. The Slovaks officially joined the two days in the town of Martin. A temporary constitution was adopted, and Tomáš Masaryk was declared president on 14 November, the Treaty of St. Germain, signed in September 1919, formally recognized the new republic.
Ruthenia was added to the Czech lands and Slovakia by the Treaty of Trianon in June 1920, there were various border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia due to the anexion of Zaolzie region. The new state was characterized by problems with its diversity, the separate histories of the Czech and Slovak peoples and their greatly differing religious, cultural. The Germans and Magyars of Czechoslovakia openly agitated against the territorial settlements, the new republic saw the passage of a number of progressive reforms in areas such as housing, social security, and workers’ rights. Still, the Czech lands were far more industrialized than Slovakia, most light and heavy industry was located in the German-dominated Sudetenland and most industrial concerns there were controlled by Germans and German-owned banks. Subcarpathian Ruthenia was essentially without industry, in 1929, the gross domestic product increased by 52% and industrial production by 41% as compared to 1913. In 1938, Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world for industrial production, the Czechoslovak state was conceived as a parliamentary democracy.
The constitution identified the Czechoslovak nation as the creator and principal constituent of the Czechoslovak state and established Czech, the operation of the new Czechoslovak government was distinguished by its political stability
History of Hungary
For the history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary. The oldest archaeological site in Hungary is Vértesszőlős, where palaeolithic Oldowan pebble tools, the Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila the Hun in 435 AD. Attila was regarded in past centuries as a ruler of the Hungarians. They entered what is now Hungary in the 7th century AD, the Avar Khaganate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure, and the Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars to end their 250-year rule. Árpád was the leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the Covenant of Blood and he led the new nation to the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. Between 895 and 902 the whole area of the Carpathian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians, an early Hungarian state was formed in this territory in 895. The military power of the nation allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns, Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, who ruled only part of the united territory, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes.
He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models, Géza established a dynasty by naming his son Vajk as his successor. This decision was contrary to the dominant tradition of the time to have the eldest surviving member of the ruling family succeed the incumbent. By ancestral right, Prince Koppány, the oldest member of the dynasty, should have claimed the throne, Koppány did not relinquish his ancestral rights without a fight. After Gézas death in 997, Koppány took up arms, the rebels claimed to represent the old political order, ancient human rights, tribal independence and pagan belief. Stephen won a victory over his uncle Koppány and had him executed. Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom under Saint Stephen I, Stephen was the son of Géza and thus a descendant of Árpád. Stephen was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in the first day of 1000 AD in the city of Esztergom. Pope Sylvester II conferred on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with full authority over bishoprics.
By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power by eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old traditions or wanted an alliance with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he initiated sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced Christianization
History of Belgium
The history of Belgium predates the founding of the modern state of that name in 1830. Belgiums history is intertwined with those of its neighbours, the Netherlands, France, due to its strategic location and the many armies fighting on its soil, since the Thirty Years War, Belgium has often been called the battlefield of Europe or the cockpit of Europe. It is remarkable as a European nation which contains, and is divided by, Belgiums formation, like that of its Benelux neighbours, can be traced back to the Seventeen Provinces within the Burgundian Netherlands. The Eighty Years War, led to the split between a northern Dutch Republic, and the Southern Netherlands from which Belgium and Luxembourg developed and this southern territory continued to be ruled by the Habsburg descendants of the Burgundian house, at first as the Spanish Netherlands. Invasions from France under Louis XIV led to the loss of what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais to France, the French Revolutionary wars led to Belgium becoming part of France in 1795, bringing the end of the semi-independence of areas which had belonged to the Catholic church.
The king set up his own private colonial empire in the Belgian Congo, Belgium was neutral but its strategic location as a pathway to France made it an invasion target for Germany in 1914 and 1940. Conditions under the occupation were severe, in the postwar period Belgium was a leader in European unification, as a founding member of what has become the European Union. Brussels is now host to the headquarters of NATO and is the de facto capital of the European Union, the colonies became independent in the early 1960s. Politically the country was once polarized on matters of religion and, in recent decades, it has faced new divisions over differences of language and the unequal economic development. This ongoing antagonism has caused far-reaching reforms since the 1970s, changing the formerly unitary Belgian state into a federal state and it is now divided into three regions, Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the South, and bilingual Brussels in the middle. There is a German-speaking population along the border with Germany, on Belgian territory Neanderthal fossils were discovered at Engis in 1829-30 and elsewhere, some dating back to at least 100,000 BCE.
The earliest Neolithic farming technology of northern Europe, the so-called LBK culture and its expansion stopped in the Hesbaye region of eastern Belgium around 5000 BCE. The Belgian LBK is notable for its use of walls around villages. A slightly later-starting Neolithic culture found in central Wallonia is the so-called Groupe de Blicquy, one notable archaeological site in this region is the Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes. Farming in Belgium however failed to take permanent hold at first, the LBK and Blicquy cultures disappeared and there is a long gap before a new farming culture, the Michelsberg culture and became widespread. Hunter gatherers of the Swifterbant culture apparently remained in the north of Belgium. In the third and late fourth millennia BCE, the whole of Flanders shows relatively little evidence of human habitation, although it is felt that there was a continuing human presence, the types of evidence available make judgement about the details very difficult. The Seine-Oise-Marne culture spread into the Ardennes, and is associated with megalithic sites there, the same pattern continues into the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age
Gustaf V of Sweden
Gustaf V was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950. He was the eldest son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Sophia of Nassau, a half-sister of Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Reigning from the death of his father Oscar II in 1907 until his own death 43 years later, he holds the record of being the oldest monarch of Sweden and the second-longest reigning after Magnus IV. He was the last Swedish monarch to exercise his royal prerogatives and he was the first Swedish king since the High Middle Ages not to have a coronation and hence never wore a crown, a tradition continuing to date. Following his death at age 92, he was implicated as a homosexual in the Haijby affair and his supposed lover – career criminal and accused pedophile Kurt Haijby – was imprisoned in 1952 for blackmail of the court in the 1930s. An avid hunter and sportsman, he presided over the 1912 Olympic Games, most notably, he represented Sweden as a competitive tennis player, keeping up competitive tennis until his 80s, when his eyesight deteriorated rapidly.
He died from flu complications and was succeed by his son, Gustaf V was born in Drottningholm Palace in Ekerö, Stockholm County, the son of Prince Oscar and Princess Sofia. At birth Gustaf was created Duke of Värmland, upon his fathers accession to the throne in 1872, Gustaf became crown prince of both Sweden and Norway. On 8 December 1907, he succeeded his father on the Swedish throne, on 20 September 1881 he married Princess Victoria of Baden in Karlsruhe, Germany. She was the granddaughter of Princess Sophie of Sweden, and her marriage to Gustaf V united, by a blood link. When he ascended the throne, Gustaf V was, at least on paper, the 1809 Instrument of Government made the king both head of state and head of government, and ministers were solely responsible to him. However, his father had forced to accept a government chosen by the majority in Parliament in 1905. Since then, prime ministers had been according to parliamentary support. At first, Gustaf V seemed to be willing to accept parliamentary rule, after the Liberals won a massive landslide in 1911, Gustaf appointed Liberal leader Karl Staaff as Prime Minister.
However, during the runup to World War I, the elites objected to Staaffs defence policy, in February 1914, a large crowd of farmers gathered at the royal palace and demanded that the countrys defences be strengthened. In his reply, the so-called Courtyard Speech—which was actually written by explorer Sven Hedin, Staaff was outraged, telling the king parliamentary rule called for the Crown to stay out of partisan politics. He was angered that he had not been consulted in advance of the speech, Gustaf retorted that he still had the right to communicate freely with the Swedish people. The Staaff government resigned in protest, and Gustaf appointed a government of civil servants headed by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld in its place, to date, it is the last time that a Swedish king directly intervened in the governing of the country
History of Finland
The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the last ice age, which ended in 9000 BC. Finnish nationalism emerged, focused on Finnish cultural traditions, including music and—especially—the highly distinctive language, the catastrophic Finnish famine of 1866–1868 was followed by eased economic regulations and extensive emigration. A civil war between the Finnish Red Guards and the White Guard ensued a few later, with the Whites gaining the upper hand during the springtime of 1918. After the internal affairs stabilized, the mainly agrarian economy grew relatively quickly. Relations with the West, especially Sweden and Britain, were strong, Finland remained an independent democracy in North Europe. In the latter half of its independent history, Finland has maintained a mixed economy, since its post-World War II economic boom in the 1970s, Finlands GDP per capita has been among the worlds highest. The expanded welfare state of Finland from 1970 and 1990 increased the public employees and spending.
In 1992, Finland simultaneously faced economic overheating and depressed Western, Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and replaced the Finnish markka with the euro in 2002. According to a 2005 poll, most Finns at that point were reluctant to join NATO, if confirmed, the oldest archeological site in Finland would be the Wolf Cave in Kristinestad, in Ostrobothnia. The last ice age in the area of the modern-day Finland ended c.9000 BC, starting about that time, people migrated to the area of Finland from the Kunda and—possibly—Swiderian cultures, and they are believed to be ancestors of todays Finnish and Sami people in Finland. The oldest confirmed evidence of the human settlements in Finland are from the area of Ristola in Lahti and from Orimattila. Finland has been inhabited at least since the end of the last ice age. The earliest post-glacial inhabitants of the area of Finland were probably mainly seasonal hunter-gatherers. Their artifacts discovered are known to represent the Suomusjärvi and the Kunda cultures, among finds is the net of Antrea, the oldest fishing net known ever to have been excavated.
By 5300 BC pottery was present in Finland, the earliest samples belong to the Comb Ceramic Cultures, known for their distinctive decorating patterns. This marks the beginning of the period for Finland, although subsistence was still based on hunting and fishing. Extensive networks of exchange existed across Finland and northeastern Europe during the 5th millennium BC, rock paintings — apparently related to shamanistic and totemistic belief systems — have been found, especially in Eastern Finland, e. g. Astuvansalmi. Between 3500 and 2000 BC, monumental stone enclosures colloquially known as Giants Churches were constructed in the Ostrobothnia region, the purpose of the enclosures is unknown
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages, and, as a result, at its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Greece to Egypt and to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories, nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece and Cyprus. The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their language, which was recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script). They were primarily a people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the eruption at Thera. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c.1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy, around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek.
The Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, which was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris, the Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They often buried daggers or some form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility were buried with gold masks, armor. Mycenaeans were buried in a position, and some of the nobility underwent mummification. Around 1100–1050 BC, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed, numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a dark age. During this period, Greece experienced a decline in population and literacy, the Greeks themselves have traditionally blamed this decline on an invasion by another wave of Greek people, the Dorians, although there is scant archaeological evidence for this view