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Pan-African colours

The term Pan-African colours can refer to two sets of three colours. Red and green are inspired by the flag of Ethiopia, they are used in flags and other emblems of various countries and territories in Africa and the Americas to represent Pan-Africanist ideology. The Rastafarian movement and many Pan-African organisations often employ the colours for their activities. Red and green are the other set of colours inspired by Marcus Garvey and the UNIA in the United States, they are sometimes used to represent black nationalism or black liberation rather than Pan-Africanism. Green and red are now found on the national flags of many African nations; the colour combination was borrowed from the flag of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian flag polities. Except for a brief period of occupation by Kingdom of Italy, Ethiopia remained outside European control during the colonial era by defeating the Italian army at the battle of Adwa, Ethiopia, in 1896; as a result, the country drew the admiration of many newly independent states in Africa.

The adoption of the Ethiopian national colours by many Pan-African entities is a consequence of this. The first African state to adopt a red and green flag upon independence was Ghana in 1957; the UNIA founded by Marcus Garvey has a constitution which defines red and green as the Pan-African colours: "red representing the noble blood that unites all people of African ancestry, the colour black for the people, green for the rich land of Africa." The UNIA flag was designated the official colours of Black Africans by the UNIA at its convention in Madison Square Garden on August 13, 1920 in New York City, United States. The following are countries and territories that use one or both sets of Pan-African colours in their official flags: Flags listed may use the Pan-African colours, but are not Pan-African flags as the official symbolism of these colours is not identified as relating to Pan-Africanism. Rastafari colours originate from the Ethiopian flag, but are not related to Pan-Africanism. Flag of Lithuania Malay tricolour Nordic Cross Flag Pan-African flag Pan-Arab colours Pan-Slavic colours Tricolour United States of Africa Znamierowski, Alfred.

The World Encyclopedia of Flags: The Definitive Guide to International Flags, Banners and Ensigns. London: Anness Publishing

Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol fermentation called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic fermentation is considered an anaerobic process, it takes place in some species of fish where it provides energy when oxygen is scarce. Ethanol fermentation has many uses, including the production of alcoholic beverages, the production of ethanol fuel, bread cooking; the chemical equations below summarize the fermentation of sucrose into ethanol. Alcoholic fermentation converts one mole of glucose into two moles of ethanol and two moles of carbon dioxide, producing two moles of ATP in the process; the overall chemical formula for alcoholic fermentation is: C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2Sucrose is a dimer of glucose and fructose molecules. In the first step of alcoholic fermentation, the enzyme invertase cleaves the glycosidic linkage between the glucose and fructose molecules.

C12H22O11 + H2O + invertase → 2 C6H12O6Next, each glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvate molecules in a process known as glycolysis. Glycolysis is summarized by the equation: C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ → 2 CH3COCOO− + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2 H+CH3COCOO− is pyruvate, Pi is inorganic phosphate. Pyruvate is converted to ethanol and CO2 in two steps, regenerating oxidized NAD+ needed for glycolysis: 1. CH3COCOO− + H+ → CH3CHO + CO2catalyzed by pyruvate decarboxylase 2. CH3CHO + NADH + H + → C2H5OH + NAD+T; as shown by the reaction equation, glycolysis causes the reduction of two molecules of NAD+ to NADH. Two ADP molecules are converted to two ATP and two water molecules via substrate-level phosphorylation. Fermentation of sugar to ethanol and CO2 can be done by Zymomonas mobilis, however the path is different since formation of pyruvate does not happen by glycolysis but instead by the Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other microorganisms can produce ethanol from sugars by fermentation but only as a side product.

Examples are Heterolactic acid fermentation in which Leuconostoc bacterias produce Lactate + Ethanol + CO2 Mixed acid fermentation where Escherichia produce ethanol mixed with lactate, succinate, formate, CO2, H2 2,3-butanediol fermentation by Enterobacter producing ethanol, lactate, formate, CO2, H2 Fermentation does not require oxygen. If oxygen is present, some species of yeast will oxidize pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water in a process called cellular respiration, hence these species of yeast will produce ethanol only in an anaerobic environment; this phenomenon is known as the Pasteur effect. However, many yeasts such as the used baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under certain conditions, ferment rather than respire in the presence of oxygen. In wine making this is known as the counter-Pasteur effect; these yeasts will produce ethanol under aerobic conditions, if they are provided with the right kind of nutrition. During batch fermentation, the rate of ethanol production per milligram of cell protein is maximal for a brief period early in this process and declines progressively as ethanol accumulates in the surrounding broth.

Studies demonstrate that the removal of this accumulated ethanol does not restore fermentative activity, they provide evidence that the decline in metabolic rate is due to physiological changes rather than to the presence of ethanol. Several potential causes for the decline in fermentative activity have been investigated. Viability remained at or above 90%, internal pH remained near neutrality, the specific activities of the glycolytic and alcohologenic enzymes remained high throughout batch fermentation. None of these factors appears to be causally related to the fall in fermentative activity during batch fermentation. Ethanol fermentation causes bread dough to rise. Yeast organisms consume sugars in the dough and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as waste products; the carbon dioxide forms bubbles in the dough. Less than 2% ethanol remains after baking. All ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages is produced by means of fermentation induced by yeast. Wine is produced by fermentation of the natural sugars present in grapes.

Brandy and eaux de vie are produced by distillation of these fruit-fermented beverages. Mead is produced by fermentation of the natural sugars present in honey. Beer and vodka are produced by fermentation of grain starches that have been converted to sugar by the enzyme amylase, present in grain kernels that have been malted. Other sources of starch may be added to the mixture, as the amylase will act on those starches as well, it it amylase-induce fermented with saliva in a few countries. Whiskey and vodka are distilled. Rice wines are produced by the fermentation of grain starches converted to sugar by the mold Aspergillus oryzae. Baijiu, shōchū are distilled from the prod

Gwen Dickey

Gwen Dickey is an American singer best known as the front-woman of the R&B band Rose Royce, where she performed under the name Rose Norwalt. Her most recognized songs include "Car Wash" and "Wishing on a Star". In 1976, Dickey's lead vocals on the Billboard Hot 100 number-one single "Car Wash" brought Dickey and the band immediate international fame, she left the band in 1980. Dickey subsequently left the United States for the United Kingdom, where she remains a popular performer. Born in Biloxi, Dickey began performing professionally at local clubs, she began performing with a local venue's house band known as The Jewels. During a tour stop in Miami, Joe Harris of The Undisputed Truth noticed Dickey, after hearing Dickey perform with The Jewels. Harris, looking for a female singer to replace Brenda Evans, had Dickey flown to Los Angeles to audition for their music producer and record label CEO Norman Whitfield. After auditioning for Whitfield, Whitfield instead placed her in his newly signed group Rose Royce.

Dickey was given the stage name Rose Norwalt by Whitfield. In September 1976, Rose Royce released their first single "Car Wash", with lead vocals performed by Dickey; the single peaked at number one on Billboard's Hot 100 chart, sold over a million copies in United States. Rose Royce's debut album Car Wash was released on September 13, 1976; the album sold over two million copies worldwide and won Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack Album in 1977. The album's final single "I'm Going Down", which featured lead vocals from Dickey, peaked at number seventy on the US Billboard Hot 100 and reached number ten on the R&B singles chart; the group's second album Rose Royce II: In Full Bloom became a platinum-seller in the United States and topped the R&B albums chart and peaked at number nine on the Billboard Top 200 Albums chart. The album spawned three successful singles: "Do Your Dance", "It Makes You Feel Like Dancin'", "Ooh Boy", "Wishing on a Star". Despite the poor chart performance of "Wishing on a Star", lead by Dickey, the song became an international pop hit and garnered a certified silver certification in the United Kingdom.

In August 1978, Rose Royce released their third album Rose Royce III: Strikes Again!, which became certified gold in the United States. The album spawned two top-ten R&B singles: "Love Don't Live Here Anymore" and "I'm in Love". In 1979, Rose Royce released their fourth album Rose Royce IV: Rainbow Connection, the final album to feature vocals with Dickey. In April 1980, Dickey left Rose Royce to pursue a solo career after experiencing turmoil with other members of the group. In 1993, Dickey released her debut solo album Time to Change, which spawned the single "Don't Stop". In 1994, Dickey and KWS released a cover of Chaka Khan's song "Ain't Nobody". In 1998, Dickey sang a duet with rapper Jay-Z on a cover of Rose Royce's "Wishing on a Star", which peaked at number thirteen on the UK Singles charts. In the same year, Dickey provided guest vocals on the song "Flying" by Romeo for the soundtrack of the movie "Albeltje". In 2001, she headlined a musical tour called "What A Feeling" which played in major theaters throughout England.

Dickey opened for James Brown at the One Grand Prix Ball in Monte Carlo and shared a bill with Meatloaf in Antwerp, Belgium for Night of the Proms to a sold out show for three nights that same year. In 2004, Dickey performed at the Glastonbury Music Festival in England. Dickey performed once again with James Brown at Monte Carlo for Formula 1 in 2005, she did an encore performance for the Formula 1 Drivers Annual Charity Ball in 2006. Dickey performed throughout the United Kingdom and Europe in both 2007 and 2008. In 2010, Dickey and her former Rose Royce band members appeared in an episode Unsung. In 2010, Dickey suffered a spinal cord injury in her London home, leaving her reliant on a wheelchair; as of 2018, she still performed concerts. Time to Change

Zimmermann reagent

The Zimmermann reagent is used as a simple spot-test used in chromatography to presumptively identify alkaloids benzodiazepines, as well as other compounds. It is therefore used in drugs testing, it is a two-component reagent, with the first component composed of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in methanol and the second component composed of 15% potassium hydroxide in water. One drop of each component is added to the sample being tested and the resulting colour change is observed to give an indication of the identity of the compound; the reagent works by forming a reddish-purple Meisenheimer complex at C3 for diazepines with a carbonyl at C2 and an alkyl group at N1. Without these groups it is not possible to form the methylene compound which reacts with dinitrobenzene but triazolo compounds may react, it is named for Robert Zimmermann. Pill testing Dille–Koppanyi reagent Folin's reagent Liebermann reagent Mandelin reagent Marquis reagent Mecke reagent Simon's reagent Zwikker reagent Froehde reagent Testing Steroids

August (2008 film)

August is a 2008 American drama film directed by Austin Chick and presented by 57th & Irving. The screenplay by Howard A. Rodman focuses on two brothers, ambitious dot-com entrepreneurs attempting to keep their company afloat as the stock market begins to collapse in August 2001, one month prior to the 9/11 attacks; the film premiered as an official selection of the Spectrum section at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival. Tom and Joshua Sterling are brothers whose Internet startup company, Landshark, is as hot as a New York City summer – only this is the summer of 2001, their company is in lock up, its stock price is plunging and, in a few weeks, the world will change forever. In the meantime, Tom is living the hedonistic life of an Internet star. Tom Sterling is a demigod in a cult -- and culture -- of personality. Josh Hartnett as Tom Sterling Naomie Harris as Sarah Adam Scott as Joshua Sterling Robin Tunney as Melanie Hanson Andre Royo as Dylan Gottschalk Emmanuelle Chriqui as Morella Sterling Laila Robins as Ottmar Peevo Caroline Lagerfelt as Nancy Sterling Alan Cox as Burton John Lavelle as Brad David Bowie as Cyrus Ogilvie Rip Torn as David Sterling Rotten Tomatoes gives the film 36% based on 25 reviews, with a consensus that "Josh Hartnett puts in a well-intentioned performance but overall, August only superficially explores its dotcom-burst setting."

Metacritic reported the film had an average score of 39 out of 100 based on 10 reviews, indicating a negative response. August on IMDb August at Rotten Tomatoes August at Metacritic August at Box Office Mojo August at the Movie Review Query Engine International Sales