Nashville is the capital of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in the central part of the state. The city is a center for the music, publishing and transportation industries and it is known as a center of the country music industry, earning it the nickname Music City, U. S. A. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government which includes six municipalities in a two-tier system. Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, thirty-five of the members are elected from single-member districts, five are elected at-large. Reflecting the citys position in government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Courts courthouse for Middle Tennessee. According to 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the balance population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Nashville, was 654,610. The 2015 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,830,345, the 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 1,951,644.
The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and it was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 African American slaves and 14 free blacks, in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee, by 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city. The citys significance as a port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. Within a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W.
Morton, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base. The post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and these healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area. Circa 1950 the state approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts. This change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority populations political power in the city and they could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice
The series is considered one of the most important football rivalries in the annals of American sports. As the rivalry was played in Birmingham, Alabama for many years, the game is traditionally played on Thanksgiving weekend. For much of the 20th century, the game was played every year at Legion Field in Birmingham, with Alabama winning 34 games, four games were played in Montgomery, with each team winning two. Since 2000, the games have been played at Jordan–Hare Stadium in Auburn every odd-numbered year, Auburn has an 8–5 record in games played at Jordan–Hare Stadium and a 7–4 record in games played in Tuscaloosa, with 5 of those wins coming at Bryant–Denny Stadium. The rivalry has long been one of the most heated rivalries in the country. For many years, the two schools were the only Alabama colleges in what is now Division I FBS and it is all the more heated because the two schools have been among the nations elite teams for most of the last 60 years. Together, they account for 33 SEC titles,25 by Alabama, both are among the winningest programs in college football history, Alabama is seventh while Auburn is 16th.
The two teams played in the final five BCS National Championship Games, with Alabama winning in 2009,2011, at the time of the Auburn decision the state legislature and governorship was controlled by Radical Republicans such as Scalawag Southern Republicans and Freedman African-Americans. By 1874, former Confederate and reactionary redeemer forces from the Democratic Party gradually overturned the Radicals control of the legislature, the Democrats attempted to over-turn most legislation passed during the Reconstruction Period, including the founding of the new land-grant college at Auburn. During the 1870s, the state legislature mismanaged Auburns endowment putting the school on the edge of collapse, collapse of Auburn meant that the University of Alabama could assume the remaining land scripts, thus profiting from the closure of the new land-grant college. By 1877, competition between the University of Alabama and the Agricultural & Mechanical College for patronage had intensified, in January, Auburn President Isaac Tichenor, reported to the board of trustees that Alabama had reduced its tuition and lowered its graduation standards.
Tichenor responded by requesting that the board drop tuition and create a department to further lower expenses. Alabama and Auburn played their first football game in Lakeview Park in Birmingham, Auburn won 32–22, before an estimated crowd of 5,000. Alabama considered the game to be the final matchup of the 1892 season while Auburn recorded it as the first matchup of 1893, during the 1907 state legislature session, a debate surfaced to move the land-grant college from Auburn to Birmingham. Then in that session, the legislature approved the first appropriation to Auburn some 35 years after it first opened its doors. The college only received a third of that appropriation, while the University of Alabama remained fully funded through the State Board of Education, the state legislature, still controlled by University of Alabama alumni, still appeared intent on letting Auburn dry out. The series was suspended after the 1907 game, the official reasons being that the schools could not come to agreement over the amount of travel expenses to be paid to players, as well as from where officials for the game should be obtained.
Attacks on Auburns existence continued by the legislature, in 1915, appropriations to Auburn were withheld, which continued at times through the 1930s
Sanford Stadium is the on-campus playing venue for football at the University of Georgia in Athens, United States. The 92, 746-seat stadium is the tenth-largest stadium in the NCAA, the stadium is known for its numerous expansions over the years that have been carefully planned to fit with the existing look of the stadium. Games played there are said to be played Between the Hedges due to the field being surrounded by privet hedges, the current hedges were planted in 1996 after the originals were taken out to accommodate soccer for the 1996 Summer Olympics. The stadium is the 11th largest stadium in the United States, the stadium is named for Dr. Steadman Vincent Sanford, an early major force behind UGA athletics. Sanford arrived at the University of Georgia as an English instructor in 1903 and he became the faculty representative to the athletics committee and would eventually become president of the University and Chancellor of the entire University System of Georgia. In 1911, he moved the universitys football venue from its first location, Herty Field, in those early years of football, Georgia played a series of controversial games against in-state rival Georgia Tech.
Sanford Field was too small to accommodate the crowds, forcing Georgia to travel to Techs Grant Field in Atlanta every year. Sanford wanted Georgia to have a venue that would equal Techs, and it was alleged that Tech watered the field all night to slow UGAs running backs. Afterwards, Sanford vowed to build a bigger than Tech. To fund his vision, Sanford had an idea that members of the association would sign notes guaranteeing a bank loan to fund the stadium construction. Those guarantors would be granted lifetime seats, the response was overwhelming, and in 1928 a loan of $150,000 supported by fans and alumni allowed construction to begin on a stadium whose total cost was $360,000. The architect for the stadium was TC Atwood of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the 30, 000-seat stadium was built in large part with convict labor, as were many public works projects of that era. While the location was, as now, preferable for construction, the stadium was completed on time, and UGA convinced perennial powerhouse Yale, which has historically maintained close ties with UGA, to be their first opponent in the new stadium.
On October 12,1929, a capacity crowd of over 30,000 paid $3 per ticket to watch the Bulldogs, under coach Harry Mehre, beat Yale 15–0 in Sanford Stadiums dedication game. The crowd was at the time the largest to witness a football game in the South. Yale donated its half of the receipts to UGA to help pay off the construction loans. Dr. Sanford was at this game, and attended many Georgia games at the named in his honor until his death on September 15,1945. Sanford Stadiums hedges have encircled the field since the stadiums first game against Yale in 1929, the idea to put hedges around the field came from the Business Manager of the UGA Athletic Department, Charlie Martin
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, United States. Alabamas only saltwater port, Mobile is located at the head of the Mobile Bay, Mobile is the principal municipality of the Mobile metropolitan area. This region of 412,992 residents is composed solely of Mobile County, Mobile is the largest city in the Mobile-Daphne−Fairhope CSA, with a total population of 604,726, the second largest in the state. As of 2011, the population within a 60-mile radius of Mobile is 1,262,907, Mobile began as the first capital of colonial French Louisiana in 1702. During its first 100 years, Mobile was a colony of France, Mobile first became a part of the United States of America in 1813, with the annexation of West Florida under President James Madison. In 1861 Alabama joined the Confederate States of America, which surrendered in 1865, Mobile is known for having the oldest organized Carnival celebrations in the United States. The festival began to be celebrated in the first decade of the 18th century by its first French Catholic colonial settlers.
Mobile was host to the first formally organized Carnival mystic society, known elsewhere as a krewe, to celebrate with a parade in the United States, in 2005 the first integrated mystic society had a parade for Mardi Gras. The city gained its name from the Mobile tribe that the French colonists encountered living in the area of Mobile Bay. The Mobile tribe, along with the Tohomé, obtained permission from the colonists, about seven years after the founding of the Mobile settlement, to settle near the fort. It was founded by French Canadian brothers Pierre Le Moyne dIberville and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, Bienville was appointed as royal governor of French Louisiana in 1701. Mobiles Roman Catholic parish was established on July 20,1703, by Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, the parish was the first French Catholic parish established on the Gulf Coast of the United States. In 1704 the ship Pélican delivered 23 French women to the colony, though most of the Pélican girls recovered, numerous colonists and neighboring Native Americans contracted the disease in turn and died.
This early period was the occasion of the importation of the first African slaves, the population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years, growing to 279 persons by 1708, yet descending to 178 persons two years due to disease. A new earth-and-palisade Fort Louis was constructed at the new site during this time, by 1712, when Antoine Crozat was appointed to take over administration of the colony, its population had reached 400 persons. The capital of La Louisiane was moved in 1720 to Biloxi, leaving Mobile to serve as a regional military and trading center. In 1723 the construction of a new fort with a stone foundation began and it was renamed Fort Condé in honor of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years War, by this treaty, France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain
Duquesne Dukes football
The team competes in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision and is a member of the Northeast Conference. The Dukes have won or shared 15 conference championships in the past 22 years, the team plays its home games at the 2, 200-seat Arthur J. Rooney Athletic Field in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Dukes are coached by Jerry Schmitt, the Dukes started play in 1891 and have had a continuous program since 1969. They were Northeast Conference co-champions in 2011 and 2013 and undisputed champions in 2015, Duquesne football was a member of the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference, winning or sharing 11 conference titles. Duquesne was the ECAC Bowl champions and NCAA Division I FCS Mid-Major National Champions in 2003, the team was the 1995 ECAC Bowl Champions, as well. The Dukes had some success before NCAA college footballs alignment into divisions, Duquesne won the 1934 Festival of Palms Bowl and 1937 Orange Bowl. In 1941, Duquesne finished the season undefeated and untied, earning a No.8 Associated Press ranking while leading the nation in scoring defense, rushing defense, former head coach Elmer Layden is credited with devising the system of hand signals that officials use today.
The signal system was put to use for the first time on November 11,1928, Layden was the first coach to use two sets of uniform jerseys for home and away contests. In 1929, graduate student manager John Holohan conceived the idea of Pittsburghs first night game at Forbes Field, on the evening of November 1 that year, the Dukes made history by defeating Geneva College, 27-7, in front of more than 27,000 spectators. This led to the Duquesne Football teams nickname the Night Riders, at the club level, Duquesne won the 1973 National Club Football Association national championship at Three Rivers Stadium and was runner-up in 1977. The Dukes football team boasts the greatest all-time intraconference winning streak in NCAA Division I FCS history with 39 straight wins in the MAAC. The 39-game streak ties for the second-longest intraconference winning streak in NCAA Division I Football history, five games shy of the all-time record
Birmingham is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Jefferson County. The citys population was 212,237 in the 2010 United States Census, the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of about 1,128,047 according to the 2010 Census, which is approximately one quarter of Alabamas population. Birmingham was founded in 1871, during the post-Civil War Reconstruction period and it was named for Birmingham, one of the UKs major industrial cities. The Alabama city annexed smaller neighbors and developed as an industrial and railroad center, based on mining, the new iron and steel industry. Most of the settlers who founded Birmingham were of English ancestry. From its founding through the end of the 1960s, Birmingham was an industrial center of the southern United States. Its growth from 1881 through 1920 earned its nicknames as The Magic City and its major industries were iron and steel production, plus a major component of the railroading industry.
Rails and railroad cars were manufactured in Birmingham. The two primary hubs of railroading in the Deep South have been nearby Atlanta and Birmingham, since the 1860s, the economy has diversified since industrial restructuring in the latter half of the 20th century. Banking, telecommunications, electrical transmission, medical care, college education. Except for coal mining, the industry has declined in the Birmingham area, Birmingham ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States and as one of the largest banking centers in the nation. In higher education, Birmingham has been the location of the University of Alabama School of Medicine, since that time it has gained the University of Alabama at Birmingham, one of three main campuses of the University of Alabama System. It is home to three institutions, Samford University, Birmingham-Southern College, and Miles College. In total, the Birmingham area has major colleges of medicine, optometry, physical therapy, law, the city has three of the states five law schools, Cumberland School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, and Miles Law School.
Birmingham is the headquarters of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, and Southeastern Conference, Birmingham was founded on June 1,1871, by the Elyton Land Company, whose investors included cotton planters and railroad entrepreneurs. It sold lots near the crossing of the Alabama & Chattanooga and South & North Alabama railroads. The first business at that crossroads was the trading post and country store operated by Marre, the site of the railroad crossing was notable for its proximity to nearby deposits of iron ore and limestone – the three main raw materials used in making steel. Birmingham is the only place worldwide where significant amounts of all three minerals can be found in close proximity, from the start the new city was planned as a center of industry
Southern Miss Golden Eagles football
The Southern Miss Golden Eagles football program represents the University of Southern Mississippi in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. The Eagles are members of Conference USA and play their games at M. M. Roberts Stadium in Hattiesburg. Southern Miss first fielded a team in 1912, coached by Ronald Slay. That team posted a 2-1 record, dille coached the Golden Eagles from 1914–1916, posting a record of 6-10-1. USM did not field a team from 1917–1919 because of World War I. Allison Hubert was the Golden Eagles head football coach for six seasons. His Golden Eagles teams were known to be fast and fierce, Hubert departed after the 1936 season to accept the head football coach position at VMI. After Hubert came Reed Green, who coached USM for a total of nine years, the Golden Eagles did not compete in football from 1943 to 1945 because of World War II. During the coaching tenure of Thad Vann, the Golden Eagles became one of the nations most elite football programs, Vann compiled a 139-59-2 record, had only one losing season in his 20 seasons in Hattiesburg, his last.
His 1953 and 1954 Golden Eagles teams upset Alabama and posted records of 9-2 and 6-4, the Golden Eagles made it to the Sun Bowl in 1954. Vanns 1958 and 1962 teams claim a national championship, Vann retired after the 1968 season and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1987. P. W. Underwood returned to his alma mater from his post as an assistant coach at Tennessee, Underwood compiled a 31-32-2 record in his six seasons and engineered one of the biggest wins in school history in 1970, a 30-14 upset of fourth-ranked Mississippi. Bobby Collins was the Golden Eagles head football coach for seven seasons, Collins led the Golden Eagles to two bowl appearances, the Independence Bowl and the Tangerine Bowl after the 1980 and 1981 regular seasons. His 1981 team finished ranked #19 in the final Coaches Poll, under Carmodys tutelage, Carmodys Golden Eagles compiled a record of 37-29. Only one of six seasons did the Golden Eagles finish with a losing record. The Golden Eagles would only have one losing season until 2012.
During Carmodys tenure, the Golden Eagles defeated Alabama, 38-29, in Tuscaloosa in 1982 and it was the first time since 1962 that UA had lost there and proved to be the final loss of legendary coach Paul Bear Bryants career. Carmody recruited a young Kiln, Mississippi high school quarterback named Brett Favre to Southern Miss in 1987. Curley Hallman came to Southern Miss from his post as defensive coach at Texas A&M. Hallmans.676 winning percentage at USM is the highest of any coach in Southern Miss football history
Third Saturday in October
The Third Saturday in October is an American college football rivalry game played annually by the University of Alabama Crimson Tide and the University of Tennessee Volunteers. The respective campuses are located approximately 310 miles apart, from 1995 to 2015, it has only been scheduled for that date six times, though it was scheduled for that date in 2016 and will be again in 2017. The first game was played in 1901 in Birmingham, a 6–6 tie, from 1902 to 1913, Alabama dominated the series, only losing once, and never allowing a touchdown by the Volunteers. Beginning in 1928, the rivalry was scheduled on its traditional date, Robert Neyland, UTs coach and namesake of the present UT stadium, began challenging Alabama for their perennial spot on top of the conference standings. It was officially given the name Third Saturday in October in 1939, both Robert Neyland and Bear Bryant made the rivalry heated during their tenure at Tennessee and Alabama. The Alabama–Tennessee game has played in three locations, Alabama, Knoxville and Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
In the first four meetings, the game was held in Birmingham, in 1909 the home and home series began, though most of Alabamas home game against Tennessee were played in Birmingham. The teams did play in Tuscaloosa a few times through1930, the game was not played in Tuscaloosa after 1930 until 1999. Alabama leads the series in all three venues, for games contested in Birmingham, 21–14–6, in Knoxville, 24–20–1, and in Tuscaloosa, Alabama won the last game, played on October 15,2016, 49–10. Alabama and Tennessee both have 12 shutouts in the series, in the 1950s, Jim Goostree, the head athletic trainer for Alabama, began another tradition as he began handing out cigars following a victory over the Volunteers. Both teams continued the tradition for some time, though kept it due to NCAA rules concerning extra benefits. Alabama publicly restarted the tradition in 2005, though as a result, every year since 2005, the winning team knowingly violates the NCAA rule and reports the violation in honor of tradition.
The Alabama–Tennessee rivalry has known for streaks. In the first major streak of the series, Bama won 5 straight over the Vols from 1907 to 1913, Alabama has the longest winning streak of the series,11 games, from 1971 to 1981. It was broken in 1982 when Johnny Majors led the Vols to a victory over Bear Bryant. Alabama had a 9-game unbeaten streak from 1986 to 1994, including a tie in 1993 which was forfeited due to NCAA sanctions. The streak was broken by Tennessee in 1995 when the Vols beat the Tide 41–14, Tennessee began their own 7 game win streak that night, which was broken when Alabama defeated the Vols 34–14 in 2002. To-date, no team owns seven consecutive victories over the Tide, Alabama currently has a ten-game winning streak in the series since 2007
Athens is a consolidated city–county in the U. S. state of Georgia, in the northeastern part of the state, comprising the former city of Athens proper and Clarke County. The University of Georgia, the flagship public research university, is located in this college town. In 1991, after a vote the preceding year, the city abandoned its charter to form a unified government with Clarke County. As of the 2010 census, the consolidated city-county had a population of 115,452. Athens is the sixth-largest city in Georgia, and the city of the Athens-Clarke County, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. Athens-Clarke County has the smallest geographical area of a county in Georgia, in the late 18th century, a trading settlement on the banks of the Oconee River called Cedar Shoals stood where Athens is located today. On January 27,1785, the Georgia General Assembly granted a charter by Abraham Baldwin for the University of Georgia as the first state-supported university. Sixteen years later, in 1801, a committee from the board of trustees selected a site for the university on a hill above Cedar Shoals in what was Jackson County.
On July 25, John Milledge, one of the trustees and governor of Georgia, bought 633 acres from Daniel Easley, Milledge named the surrounding area Athens after the city that was home to the academy of Plato and Aristotle in Greece. The first buildings on the University of Georgia campus were made from logs, the town grew as lots adjacent to the college were sold to raise money for the additional construction of the school. By the time the first class graduated from the university in 1804, completed in 1806 and named in honor of Benjamin Franklin, Franklin College was the University of Georgias and the City of Athens first permanent structure. This brick building is now known as Old College, Athens officially became a town in December 1806 with a government made up of a three-member commission. The university continued to grow, as did the town, with cotton mills fueling the industrial and commercial development, Athens became known as the Manchester of the South after the city in England known for its mills.
The university essentially created a reaction of growth in the community which developed on its doorstep. During the American Civil War, Athens became a significant supply center when the New Orleans armory was relocated to what is now called the Chicopee building, fortifications can still be found along parts of the North Oconee River between College and Oconee St. In addition, Athens played a part in the ill-fated Stoneman Raid when a skirmish was fought on a site overlooking the Middle Oconee River near what is now the old Macon Highway. As in many towns, there is a Confederate memorial. It is located on Broad Street, near the University of Georgia Arch, during Reconstruction, Athens continued to grow