Reginald Harold Haslam Parnell was a racing driver and team manager from Derby, England. He participated in seven Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one podium, scoring a total of nine championship points. Parnell, as both a driver and a team manager, had a considerable influence on post-war British motorsport until his premature death in 1964. Parnell raced at Brooklands and was banned following an accident with Kay Petre which ended her racing career. Before the war he bought up racing cars. Once the hostilities had ceased he sold them to form the basis of post-war racing entries, he raced a whole host of cars before turning to management and taking Aston Martin into Formula 1. Parnell went on to run the Yeoman Credit Racing team with the help of his son Tim who raced in Formula 1 himself. Parnell came from a family. In 1933, he was a spectator when Donington Park held its first motor race, he decided to try the sport. By 1935, he bought an old 2-litre Bugatti single-seater for just £25.
It broke its rear axle in the paddock at its first meeting, but buying spare parts for the Bugatti was too expensive, so it was replaced with a MG Magnette K3. Parnell had secured wins at both Brooklands and Donington Park, but in 1937 he lost his licence following a practice accident for the 500 Mile race, at Brooklands, he misjudged an overtaking move on Kay Petre, when he lost control of the MG, crashing into her Austin 7 from behind, causing it to roll. She crashed badly and was injured, she never raced competitively again. Although she put the incident down to "bad luck", the RAC revoked Parnell's racing license for two years; this meant. The ban meant in effect that, during 1938, Parnell found himself unable to race his cars, he soon discovered that lending the cars to other drivers was an excellent way of being involved in racing, his abilities as a team manager were developed during this period. With his licence restored in 1939, Parnell was back with 4.9-litre Bugatti-engined single-seater, known as the BHW.
He was successful with this BHW at Donington Park. Meanwhile, he started to construct his own car for voiturette, known as the Challenger, however with the outbreak of World War II, the best years of his career were wasted. During the war years, Parnell finished the Challenger and built up a comprehensive collection of racing machinery, which included Alfa Romeo, ERA, Delage, MG and Maserati models, he sold race cars, with many famous and less famous racing machines passing through his hands, whilst making a name for himself in the business. This did not prevent Parnell from driving as soon, he returned to racing as soon as he could in 1946 in a variety of machinery, most notably a Maserati 4CLT an ERA A-type alongside several Delages and Rileys. As for the Challenger, it was sold; this proved to be a poor year for mechanical reliability, although in his Maserati 4CLM, he did finish second behind Prince Bira in the Ulster Trophy, around the streets of Dundrod. There was only one motor racing event held on English soil in 1946, this took place at Gransden Lodge, with Parnell winning the main race of the event, the Gransden Lodge Trophy.
In 1947, Parnell was Britain's most successful racing driver. He began the year by winning two ice races in Sweden, with his ERA A-type, before returning to Britain, to win the Jersey Road Race in the Maserati 4CLT, he would have won in Ulster, had his acquired ERA E-type not broken a de Dion tube. The following year, Parnell would again win the Gold Star, he finished third in the circuit's inaugural meeting. He won the Goodwood Trophy at the first-ever meeting at Sussex circuit, was second in the Penya Rhin Grand Prix and fifth in the Gran Premio d'Italia. Parnell maintained this success into 1949 with the Maserati, gaining many successes at Goodwood, earning him the nickname, "Emperor of Goodwood", raced at every major circuit across Europe, he competed in the early-season races in South America. It was in Sweden, he was there for the 1947 Swedish Winter Grand Prix at Rommehed, which he duly won, leading an ERA clean sweep of the podium, as the only three cars to finish. Their chief rivals – the French – were stranded miles away from the circuit, on a ship stuck fast in the ice.
The organiser decided to rerun the event as the Stockholm Grand Prix, on Lake Vallentuna. Meanwhile, between the two races Parnell had the idea of fitting twin rear wheels to his ERA to improve its road-holding on the ice; when he arrived at the race, the lead French driver, Raymond Sommer objected but Parnell had checked the rules beforehand and found that there was nothing to preclude twin rear wheels. Despite temperatures of −15° Fahrenheit, Parnell's extra wheels made the difference, as he skated to victory; the following season, he received a tremendous accolade, he was asked to drive the fourth works Alfa Romeo, in the inaugural World Championship Formula One race at Silverstone, finishing in an excellent third place and a place on the podium, behind and on the same lap as his teammates Giuseppe Farina and Luigi Fagioli. He would be the only British driver to be selected to race with the all-conquering factory. Whilst racing his Maserati, under the Scuderia Ambrosiana banner, he became involved with BRM as a test driver of the original V16 and as the team's lead driver of the BRM Type 15, although BRM did not make many appearances.
He remained under contract to BRM for 1951, but raced his Maserati because BRM could never get him a ca
Raymond Sommer was a French motor racing driver. He raced both before and after WWII with some success in endurance racing, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race in both 1932 and 1933, although he did not reach the finishing line in any subsequent appearance at the Le Mans, he did lead each event until 1938. Sommer was competitive at the highest level in Grand Prix motor racing, but did not win a race, he won the French Grand Prix in 1936. After racing resumed in the late 1940s, Sommer again won a number of sports car and minor Grand Prix events, finished in fourth place in the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix, the second round of the newly-instituted Formula One World Drivers' Championship, he was killed toward the end of 1950, when his car overturned during a race at the Circuit de Cadours. Sommer was born in Mouzon, in the Ardennes département of France, into a wealthy Sedan carpet-making family, his father, Roger Sommer, broke the Wright Brothers' record for the longest flight in 1909. It was not until 1931 that Raymond started to display daredevil tendencies of his own, entering motor races in a privateer Chrysler Imperial.
The following year, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race, despite having to drive over 20 hours solo after his teammate, Luigi Chinetti, retired ill. During the 1930s, Sommer was to dominate the French endurance classic, winning again in 1933 driving an Alfa Romeo alongside Tazio Nuvolari, he led every race until 1938, only to suffer a mechanical failure, once when 12 laps in the lead. Sommer traveled to Long Island, New York, to compete in the 1936 Vanderbilt Cup where he finished fourth behind the winner, Nuvolari. However, his tendency to run in his own entered Alfa Romeos did him no favours on the Grand Prix scene, although a regular top-10 finisher in Grands Épreuves he never won a race. At the time, the German manufacturers Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union were the dominant force in Grand Prix racing, together with the French Bugatti team. Sommer turned to sports cars once more, in 1936 he won the French Grand Prix with Jean-Pierre Wimille, the Spa 24 Hours endurance race with co-driver Francesco Severi.
More wins came his way including at the "Marseilles Three Hours" at Miramas, the Grand Prix de Tunisie and La Turbie hill climb competition in 1938 and 1939 with Alfa Romeo 308 until the outbreak of World War II, where he played an active part in the French Resistance movement. Following the war, Sommer returned to winning ways, claiming victory in the 1946 René Le Bègue Cup race at Saint-Cloud. At the 1947 Turin Grand Prix in Valentino Park he won the first Grand Prix for Enzo Ferrari as an independent constructor; the following season, Sommer switched from the Ferrari team, again for a owned car, this time a Talbot-Lago. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship began and Sommer drove in two Grand Prix races for Ferrari and three in a entered Talbot-Lago, retiring in all but one. In July 1950 he won the Aix les Bains Circuit du Lac Grand Prix with a Ferrari 166. In September 1950, he entered the Haute-Garonne Grand Prix in Cadours, where the steering failed on his 1100 cc Cooper and the car overturned at a corner.
Sommer, wearing his traditional canvas helmet, was killed. French Grand Prix 1936 Grand Prix de Marseilles 1932, 1937, 1946 Grand Prix de Tunisie 1937 Grand Prix de L'U. M. F. 1935 Gran Premio del Valentino 1947 Madrid Grand Prix 1949 Spa 24 Hours 1936 Turin Grand Prix 1947 24 Hours of Le Mans 1932, 1933 Raymond Sommer profile at Grand Prix encyclopedia
The Circuit Bremgarten was a 7.28 km motorsport race track in Bern, Switzerland which hosted the Swiss Grand Prix from 1933 to 1954 and the Swiss motorcycle Grand Prix. Bremgarten was built as a motorcycle racing track in 1931 in the Bremgartenwald in the north of Bern; the circuit itself had no true straight, instead being a collection of high-speed corners. It hosted its first automobile race in 1934. In 1948 it claimed the life of Italian racer Achille Varzi. From the outset, Bremgarten's tree-lined roads poor light conditions and changes in road surface made for what was acknowledged to be a dangerous circuit in the wet. Bremgarten has not hosted an official motorsport event since 1955, when spectator racing sports, with the exception of hillclimbing and rallying, were banned in Switzerland following the 1955 Le Mans disaster. Although there was a 1982 Swiss Grand Prix, it took place in France. On June 6, 2007 an amendment to lift the ban was passed by the lower house of the Swiss parliament, 97 in favour and 77 opposed.
The legislation failed to pass the upper house, was withdrawn in 2009 after being rejected twice. The Grand Prix of Bern took place at Bremgarten from 1931 to 1937 and in 1947 and 1948. In August 1931 the Bern Grand Prix took place and the Irish motorcyclist Stanley Woods won the 500cc event on a Norton, he won three more events here. Jimmie Guthrie won the 350cc and 500cc races in 1937; the Bremgarten Circuit was one of the original rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle World Championship during the inaugural season of 1949 and from 1951 to 1954. Famous riders who raced here included: Hans Stärkle, Freddie Frith and Geoff Duke. Italian racer Omobono Tenni was killed at Bremgarten during practice for the 1948 event. Circuit Bremgarten on Google Maps
Peter Whitehead (racing driver)
Peter Nield Whitehead was a British racing driver. He was born in Menston and was killed in an accident at Lasalle, during the Tour de France endurance race. A cultured and well-travelled racer, he was excellent in sports cars, he won the 1938 Australian Grand Prix, which along with a 24 Heures du Mans win in 1951 was his finest achievement, but he won two 12 Heures internationales de Reims events. He was a regular entrant for Peter Walker and Graham Whitehead, his half-brother, his death in 1958 ended a career that started in 1935 – however, he was lucky to survive an air crash in 1948. Yorkshireman Whitehead, coming from a wealthy background, gained from the wool industry, started racing in a Riley when he was 19, he moved up to an ERA B-Type the following season and scored the first major result for the Alta, when he finished third in the Limerick Grand Prix, a Formula Libre race. In 1936, he shared his ERA with Walker, finished third in the Donington Grand Prix, he took the ERA to Australia in 1938 while touring on business, where he scored his first major victory, winning the 1938 Australian Grand Prix at Bathurst, as well as the inaugural Australian Hillclimb Championship.
He gained a third place in the Nuffield Trophy. During World War II, Whitehead was a pilot with the Royal Air Force, he was back in competition as soon as racing was revived, taking his trusty ERA to second place in the British Empire Trophy, held at the Douglas Circuit on the Isle of Man in the summer of 1947, he raced in the Lausanne Grand Prix, finishing sixth. In 1948, he survived a plane crash at Croydon Aerodrome, when he was on his way to Milano, to arrange the purchase a Ferrari 125; the accident left him badly hurt and out of racing for a year. Peter Whitehead is notable as the first person to whom Enzo Ferrari sold a Formula One car: a Ferrari 125 in 1949. With the car painted green, he won the Velká cena Československa. In doing so, he became the first Englishman to win a major international motor race outside of the United Kingdom since Richard Seaman; the following season, Whitehead made his debut in the Formula One championship at Monaco, but did not start. His next outing in the championship came in the Grand Prix l’A.
C. F. Where he came close to winning but was slowed with a gearbox problem which he dropped to third; that was to be his only podium finished in 11 championship starts between 1950 and 1954. During 1950 season, he won two minor Formula One races, the Jersey Road Race and the Ulster Trophy, but the biggest career victory came in Sports Cars, he win in Formula Two across Europe. He added victories in the 1954 Lady Wigram Trophy, in New Zealand, repeated the feat in 1956 and 1957, he won the 1956 Rand Grand Prix. All four of those victories, he was driving a Ferrari. 1950 saw Whitehead start his first 24 Hours of Le Mans race, together with John Marshall in a Jaguar XK120. The pair finished in 15th place, he teamed up with Peter Walker to win the 1951 race, however, in a Jaguar C-Type, at an average speed of 93.112 mph. In 1953, Whitehead decided to concentrate on sports cars, in July, he saw more success sharing a Jaguar C-Type with Stirling Moss in the 12 Heures Internationales de Reims, he returned again in 1954, in a full works supported Jaguar D-Type to win the event again partnered by Ken Wharton.
Prior to that first win at Reims, he won the Hyères 12 Hours. In 1954, again paired with Wharton, he was placed sixth in the RAC Tourist Trophy road race. Whitehead's last great performance was at Le Mans in 1958 where he came second in an Aston Martin DB3S, sharing the driving with his half-brother, Graham. A couple of months Peter and Graham were competing together in the Tour de France, when their Jaguar 3.4-Litre crashed off a bridge into a 30-foot ravine at Lasalle, near Nîmes after overturning twice, with Graham at the wheel. Graham escaped with serious but not life-threatening injuries. Small, Steve; the Guinness Complete Grand Prix. Guinness. P. 400. ISBN 0851127029. Peter Whitehead: 1954 Formula One Season By Jeremy McMullen
Maserati in motorsport
Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants. One of the first Maseratis the Tipo 26 driven by Alfieri Maserati with Guerino Bertocchi acting as riding mechanic won the Targa Florio 1,500 cc class in 1926, finishing in ninth place in overall. Maserati was successful in pre-war Grand Prix racing using a variety of cars with 4, 6, 8 and 16 cylinders. Other notable pre-war successes include winning the Indianapolis 500 twice, both times with Wilbur Shaw at the wheel of a 8CTF. Maserati won the Targa Florio in 1937, 1938, 1939 and 1940; the first two wins were achieved by Giovanni Rocco with a Maserati 6CM and the last two by Luigi Villoresi with a 6CM in 1939 and a 4CL in 1940. Maserati's post-war factory effort in sports car racing began in 1954 for the second season of the World Sportscar Championship; the factory raced as Officine Alfieri Maserati.
Maserati scored points in all but one year of the first era of the World Sports Car Championship from 1953 to 1961. Both factory-entered and privately-entered cars were eligible to score points for the manufacturer. At the end of 1957 Maserati retired the factory team from racing though they continued to build cars for privateers. In the 1953 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed thirteenth. In the 1954 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fifth. In the 1955 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1956 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second including a win at the 1000 km Buenos Aires and the 1000 km at the Nürburgring; the win at 1956 1000 km Buenos Aires was a Maserati 300S sports car driven by Stirling Moss and Carlos Menditéguy. In the 1957 World Sportscar Championship Maserati again placed second; this time with wins at Sebring and Rabelöfsbanan In the 1959 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1960 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed third.
With a win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 driven by Stirling Moss and Dan Gurney. In the 1961 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second. With a repeat win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 this time driven by Lloyd Casner and Masten Gregory. Maserati returned to sportscar racing in 2004, entering the Maserati MC12 in the FIA GT Championship. Since 2005 the MC12 fieleded by Vitaphone Racing Team won five teams' championships and four drivers' championships in a row. Michael Bartels and Andrea Bertolini won the inaugural GT1 World Championship for Drivers in the 2010 FIA GT1 World Championship driving a Maserati MC12 for the Vitaphone Racing Team; the Vitaphone Racing Team won the GT1 World Championship for Teams. Maserati A6GCS Sports Car Maserati 350S Sports Car. Maserati 300S Sports Car. Maserati 250S Sports Car. Maserati 200S Sports Car. Maserati 150S Sports Car. Maserati 450S Sports Car. Maserati Tipo 60 Sports Car Maserati Tipo 61 the "Birdcage" Sports Car Maserati Tipo 63 Maserati Tipo 64 Maserati Tipo 65 Maserati Tipo 151 Maserati Tipo 152 Maserati Tipo 154 the "Racing Van" Maserati Barchetta Sports Car Maserati Ghibli II Open Cup gt Car Maserati Trofeo series gt Car.
Maserati Trofeo Light GT3 Racing Car Maserati MC12 GT1 Racing Car Gran Turismo GT4 Gran Turismo GT3 The Maserati Biturbo Group A racing car competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. The cars for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship season were entered by Pro Team Italia/Imberti; the car was in Group A Division 3 competing against the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and in the season Ford Sierra RS 500. The car was driven by Bruno Giacomelli, Armin Hahne, Marcello Gunella, Mario Hytten, Nicola Tesini and Kevin Bartlett. For the British Touring Car Championship the cars were entered by Trident Motorsport; this was for the 1989 seasons. The car was driven by John Lepp and Vic Lee. A former 1987 WTCC car was bought by Adriano Dece who converted it for used on road rallies and the company manufactured the Maserati Biturbo Group A Rally car. Maserati participated in Formula One motor racing during the 1950s and 1960s.
Its works Formula One programme was broadly successful, providing a total of 9 Grand Prix wins for the factory team. In addition, Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1957 World Championship of Drivers with a Maserati 250F. Maserati designed two Formula One cars: the Maserati 4CLT and the Maserati 250F, the pre-World War II Maserati 4CL was used with some success. In addition, the Maserati A6GCM, designed as a Formula Two car, was used in F1. Due to financial difficulties in the late 1950s the team had to withdraw from Formula One in 1958 despite the 250F still being successful. Privateers continued to use the 250F until 1960. In the 1960s, Maserati supplied engines to British Formula One team Cooper; the most successful car of that collaboration was the Cooper-Maserati T81, which had a Maserati V12 engine. It won the 1966 Mexican Grand Prix and the 1967 South African Grand Prix, driven by John Surtees and Pedro Rodríguez respectively; the 1948 Maserati 4CLT was one of the first cars built to the new Formula One regulations, introduced in 1946, was developed from the 1938 Maserati 4CL voiturette car.
The older design was still competitive despite the hiatus of World War II and was entered into Formula One races when racing resumed after the war. Its success encouraged Maserati to develop the car's design and these refinements were brought together as the 4CLT. Maseraticorse.com
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι. In architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to raise people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown an increasing use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in events such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used. Traditionally, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a somewhat lower platform for the silver medalist, to the left of the gold medalist is an lower platform for the bronze medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver and Bronze were equal in elevation. In many sports, results in the top three of a competition are referred to as "podiums" or "podium finishes". In some individual sports, "podiums" is an official statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career.
The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, "to podium", meaning to attain a podium place. Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the 1932 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid; the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Present are the dignitaries selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. In an international series, the national anthem of the winning driver, the winning team or constructor may be played over a public address system and the flags of the drivers' countries are hoisted above them; the recordings are short versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a slow lap in Formula One, that driver is transported to the pit lane via road car by the Formula One Administration security officer.
Following the presentation of the trophies, the drivers will spray Champagne over each other and their team members watching below, a tradition started by Dan Gurney following the 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans race. The drivers will refrain from spraying champagne if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. In countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, for example rose water; the term has become common parlance in the media, where a driver may be said to "be heading for a podium finish" or "just missing out on a podium" when he is heading for, or just misses out on a top three finish. The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics. Instead, the winning team celebrates in victory lane, top-five and top-ten finishes are recognized statistically; those finishing second to fifth are required to stop in a media bullpen located on pit lane for interviews.
The INDYCAR Verizon IndyCar Series does not use a podium at either the Indianapolis 500 or at Texas Motor Speedway. The Indy 500 has a long tradition of the winning driver and team celebrating in victory lane, while Texas Motor Speedway president Eddie Gossage has stated that victory lane should be reserved for the winner of the race. However, the series does use a podium at all other races road course events. Architectural podiums are consist of a projecting base or pedestal at ground level, they have been used since ancient times. Sometimes only meters tall, architectural podiums have become more prominent in buildings over time, as illustrated in the gallery. Lectern