Both leagues currently have 15 teams. The two league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the inaugural World Series, after the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues formalized the World Series as an arrangement between the leagues. National League teams have won 48 of the 112 World Series contested from 1903 to 2016, the 2016 National League champions are the Chicago Cubs. By 1875, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players was dangerously weak, additionally, Hulbert had a problem—five of his star players were threatened with expulsion from the NAPBBP because Hulbert had signed them to his club using what were considered questionable means. Hulbert had a vested interest in creating his own league. After recruiting St. Louis privately, four western clubs met in Louisville, Kentucky, Boston Red Stockings, the dominant team in the N. A. Hartford Dark Blues from the N. A. Mutual of New York from the N. A. St. Louis Brown Stockings from the N. A, the only strong club from 1875 excluded in 1876 was a second one in Philadelphia, often called the White Stockings or Phillies. The first game in National League history was played on April 22,1876, at Philadelphias Jefferson Street Grounds, 25th & Jefferson, the new leagues authority was tested after the first season. The National League operated with six clubs during 1877 and 1878, over the next several years, various teams joined and left the struggling league. By 1880, six of the eight members had folded. The two remaining original NL franchises, Boston and Chicago, remain in operation today as the Atlanta Braves, in 1883 the New York Gothams and Philadelphia Phillies began National League play. Both teams remain in the NL today, the Phillies in their original city, the NL encountered its first strong rival organization when the American Association began play in 1882. The A. A. played in cities where the NL did not have teams, offered Sunday games and alcoholic beverages in locales where permitted, the National League and the American Association participated in a version of the World Series seven times during their ten-year coexistence. These contests were less organized than the modern Series, lasting as few as three games and as many as fifteen, with two Series ending in disputed ties, the NL won four times and the A. A. only once, in 1886. Starting with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1887, the National League began to raid the American Association for franchises to replace NL teams that folded and this undercut the stability of the A. A. Other new leagues that rose to compete with the National League were the Union Association, the Union Association was established in 1884 and folded after playing only one season, its league champion St. Louis Maroons joining the NL. The NL suffered many defections of star players to the Players League, the Brooklyn, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and New York franchises of the NL absorbed their Players League counterparts. The labor strife of 1890 hastened the downfall of the American Association, after the 1891 season, the A. A. disbanded and merged with the NL, which became known legally for the next decade as the National League and American Association
Crosley Field was a Major League Baseball park located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Contrary to popular belief, it was not the home of the current NFL franchise of the same name. Crosley Field was on a block bounded by Findlay Street, Western Avenue, York Street. Crosley has the distinction of being the first major-league park with lights for playing night games, the Findlay and Western intersection was the home field of the Reds from 1884 until mid-season 1970, when the team moved to Riverfront Stadium. The location of the diamond and consequently the main seating area was shifted several times during the 86½ seasons that the Reds played at the site. They were replaced with the third stadium in the National League. It consisted of a double-deck grandstand around the diamond, positioned in the southwest corner of the lot, beyond first and third base were single-deck covered pavilions extended to the corners, with bleachers in the right field area. The unusual angle of the areas down the lines, and behind home plate gave that area a distinctive V shape, giving rise to one of several nicknames the park had. Redland Field, whose name was a reference to the Reds name and it was one of many classic steel and concrete ballparks constructed during the first ballpark boom era of 1909–1923. Chicagos Wrigley Field and Bostons Fenway Park were also built during this era, although occupying the site since 1884, the Reds dated their ballpark from the permanent structure opened in 1912. Throughout its history, Redland/Crosley Field was usually among the smallest parks in either the National or American leagues. It accommodated 25,000 fans in 1912, even at its peak, it barely exceeded 30,000 seats, excluding temporary seating areas created for opening day and World Series games. Groundskeeper Mathias Matty Schwab, who had hired in 1894 had the sod laid just in time for the Reds first game at the new park. In the game, the Reds rallied from a 5–0 deficit to defeat the Chicago Cubs 10–6, Schwab would be the Reds groundkeeper until he retired at age 83 in 1963. The win was tainted by the fact, made public a year later, the Reds gradually returned to mediocrity and attendance flagged. Thus, the park was renamed Crosley Field, and Crosley himself took the opportunity to advertise his Crosley cars, under Crosleys ownership, the park would undergo notable structural renovations. With the effects of the Great Depression in Cincinnati, the Reds convinced baseball owners to allow night baseball at Crosley Field, without lights, Larry MacPhail insisted, the team would fold because of low attendance. Lights had been installed in a number of Minor League baseball parks in the early 1930s, the major league owners acquiesced,632 individual lamps in eight metal stanchions were erected and on May 24,1935, the Reds hosted the Philadelphia Phillies under the lights
Cincinnati is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio that serves as county seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located on the side of the confluence of the Licking with the Ohio River. With a population of 298,550, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and its metropolitan statistical area is the 28th-largest in the United States and the largest centered in Ohio. The city is part of the larger Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area. In the 19th century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country, it rivaled the larger cities in size. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S and it was by far the largest city in the west. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnatis growth slowed considerably. Cincinnati is home to two sports teams, the Cincinnati Reds, the oldest franchise in Major League Baseball. The University of Cincinnati, founded in 1819, is one of the 50 largest in the United States, Cincinnati is known for its historic architecture. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as Paris of America, due mainly to such ambitious projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel. The original surveyor, John Filson, named it Losantiville, in 1790, Arthur St. Ethnic Germans were among the early settlers, migrating from Pennsylvania and the backcountry of Virginia and Tennessee. General David Ziegler succeeded General St. Clair in command at Fort Washington, after the conclusion of the Northwest Indian Wars and removal of Native Americans to the west, he was elected as the mayor of Cincinnati in 1802. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819, exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew rapidly over the two decades, reaching 115,000 persons by 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21,1825, the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown, by 1840, during this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City
Powel Crosley Jr.
Powel Crosley, Jr. was an American inventor, industrialist, and entrepreneur. He and his brother Lewis were responsible for many firsts in consumer products and he was the builder of the Crosley automobiles. He was the owner of the Cincinnati Reds major league team for many years. Crosley Field, a stadium in Cincinnati, Ohio, was renamed for him, the street-level main entrance to Great American Ball Park in Cincinnati is named Crosley Terrace in his honor. Crosleys Pinecroft estate and Seagate winter retreat, in Cincinnati and Sarasota, Powel Crosley Jr. was born in Cincinnati, Ohio to Charlotte and Powel Crosley, a lawyer. He completed his first year of school in College Hill. He transferred to the Ohio Military Institute, where he graduated in 1905 and he attended the University of Cincinnati but dropped out after two years, obsessed with the mechanics of automobiles. The mass production techniques employed by Henry Ford also caught his attention and would be implemented by his brother, Lewis, in 1907, Crosley formed a company to build an inexpensive automobile, the Marathon Six, in Connersville, Indiana. From there, Crosley traveled to Indianapolis where he went to work for Carl G. Fisher as a hand in the Fisher Automobile Company. That job ended when he broke his arm starting a car, from there he went to work for several auto manufacturers in Indianapolis and Muncie, Indiana. Although he often claimed that he was slotted to be a driver in the Indianapolis 500 and he tried but was unable to find a sponsor. When Powel returned he married Gwendolyn B, aiken in Hamilton County, Ohio on 17 October 1910. They had two children during the five years, Powel returning to Cincinnati after the birth of the first, Powel Crosley. Powel made several failed attempts to manufacture cars before finding success in auto accessories. In 1916, he co-founded the American Automobile Accessory Company with Ira J. Cooper, the companys best seller was a tire re-liner of Powels invention, which mail order giant Sears soon picked up. Another popular product was a holder that held five American flags. World War I generated patriotism and thousands were sold, Crosleys two secrets of success were his ability to invent useful gadgets and the business sense of his brother Lewis M. Crosley. By 1919, Powel and Lewis Crosley had sold more than a million dollars in parts and were diversifying into other products such as phonograph cabinets
James Luther Sewell was an American professional baseball player, coach and manager. He played in Major League Baseball as a catcher for the Cleveland Indians, Washington Senators, Chicago White Sox and he was regarded as one of the best defensive catchers of his era. He was linked to the Cleveland Indians because his brother Joe Sewell became their shortstop in 1920. When Indians scout Patsy Flaherty signed Sewell, he insisted that he play as a catcher. He began the 1921 season with the Columbus Senators in the American Association but, after only 17 minor league games, Sewell served as a reserve catcher, working behind Steve ONeill until the 1923 season when ONeill was injured in an auto accident. Sewell eventually took over as the Indians number one catcher in the 1926 season and he finished the year with only a.238 batting average but, led the American League catchers with 91 assists. In 1927, Sewell had a year, hitting for a career-high.294 batting average with 27 doubles,53 runs batted in. Sewell questioned Babe Ruths integrity in a game on June 11,1927 and he demanded that umpires check Ruths bat after he clouted two straight home runs off Garland Buckeye. Although he led the leagues catchers with 20 errors, he led the league with 119 assists and 71 baserunners caught stealing. Despite the fact that the Indians finished the season in sixth place, in 1928, he once again led the leagues catchers with 117 assists and 60 baserunners caught stealing and ranked twelfth in voting for the 1928 American League Most Valuable Player Award. In 1933, Sewell was traded to the Washington Senators for catcher Roy Spencer, during a September game against the Yankees, Sewell made an odd double play. Lou Gehrig and Dixie Walker were on base when, Tony Lazzeri hit a ball to right field. Gehrig hesitated as he waited to see if the ball might be caught, Sewell received the throw from the outfield and tagged both runners out with one sweeping motion. Cronin credited Sewell as a factor in helping the Senators pitching staff. The Senators eventually lost to the New York Giants in the 1933 World Series, in what would be his only postseason appearance, Sewell posted a.176 batting average, with one stolen base, one run scored, and one run batted in during the five-game series. Sewell began the 1934 season with an injury and didnt play his first game until June 13. Two weeks later, he was struck in the head and knocked unconscious by a pitch thrown by St. Louis Browns pitcher, Sewell ended the season with a.237 batting average. In January 1935, Sewell was traded to the St. Louis Browns, the Browns promptly traded him to the Chicago White Sox on the very same day