Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore
The Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore is the head officer of the Parliament of the Republic of Singapore. Parliament must elect a Speaker at the beginning of each new parliamentary term after a general election. Parliament has the freedom to choose. By recent tradition, the Prime Minister nominates a person for the role; the person's name is proposed and seconded by the Members of Parliament, before being elected as Speaker. The Constitution states; the Speaker may or may not be an elected MP, but must possess the qualifications to stand for election as an MP as provided for in the Constitution. The Speaker cannot be a Cabinet Minister or Parliamentary Secretary, must resign from those positions prior to being elected as Speaker. Once elected, a Speaker continues in office until the dissolution of Parliament, unless he or she resigns, is appointed as a Cabinet minister of Parliamentary Secretary, or is disqualified from holding their seat as an MP; the role of the Speaker in Singapore is similar to that in most Commonwealth legislatures.
The Speaker presides over the sittings of Parliament, enforces the rules prescribed in its Standing Orders for the orderly conduct of parliamentary business. In carrying out their duties, the Speaker must remain fair to all MPs; the Speaker enforces the rules of debate. They decide who has the right to speak, put the question for Parliament to debate on and vote; the Speaker does not take part in the debates, but can abstain or vote for or against a motion if they have a vote as an elected MP. As the guardian of parliamentary privileges, MPs look to the Speaker for guidance on procedures, for rulings on any points of order; the Speaker is second in the order of succession for the office of the President of Singapore. Should the President's office be vacant, the chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisers is unable to take up the role, the Speaker will assume the duties of the President until a new President is elected. In terms of state protocol, the Speaker sits at the same level as the Chief Justice of Singapore.
The Speaker acts as Parliament's representative in its relations with other legislatures and outside bodies. The Speaker welcomes visiting dignitaries, represents Parliament at national events and during official visits abroad; the Speaker is overall in charge of the administration of its Secretariat. The Speaker is one of the few public sector roles which allow its office-holder to automatically qualify as a candidate in the Singapore presidential elections. A list of people who have served as Speakers of Parliament is set out below: The following table contains a list of Deputy Speakers of Parliament
Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong is a Singaporean politician. He is the current and third Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004, he took over the leadership of the People's Action Party when former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong stepped down from the position to become the new Senior Minister. Lee led his party to victory in the 2006, 2011 and 2015 general elections, he began his current term on 15 January 2016 following the opening of Singapore's 13th Parliament. Lee is the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew. Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler in 1974 and earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general, he won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.
The eldest child of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his wife Kwa Geok Choo, Lee Hsien Loong was born in Singapore on 10 February 1952. His paternal grandmother, Chua Jim Neo, was a Hokkien Nyonya, his mother has ancestry from Tong'an District, Fujian, China. According to Lee Kuan Yew's biography, the younger Lee had learnt the Jawi script from the age of five, has always been interested in the affairs of Singapore following his father to the rally grounds since 1963. Lee studied at Nanyang Primary School and received his secondary education at Catholic High School, before going on to National Junior College. In 1971, he was awarded a President's Scholarship and Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship by the Public Service Commission to study mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, he was Senior Wrangler in 1973, graduated in 1974 with first-class honours on a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction. In 1980, he completed a Master of Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Lee joined the Singapore Armed Forces in 1971, served as an officer from 1974 to 1984. In 1978, he attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, held various staff and command posts, including the Director of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate, Chief of Staff of the General Staff. Lee rose through the ranks in the Singapore Army, becoming the youngest brigadier-general in Singaporean history after his promotion in July 1983. Notably, he was put in command of the rescue operations following the Sentosa Cable Car Disaster. Lee served as commanding officer of 23rd Singapore Artillery in the Singapore Army before he left the SAF in 1984 to pursue civilian politics. In the 1980s, Lee was regarded as the core member of the next batch of new leaders in the People's Action Party leadership transition, taking place in the mid-1980s, as Lee Kuan Yew had declared that he would step down as prime minister in 1984. Following the 1984 general election, all of the old Central Executive Committee members resigned on 1 January 1985, except for Lee Kuan Yew himself.
Lee was first elected Member of Parliament for the Teck Ghee Single Member Constituency in 1984, at the age of thirty-two. Following his first election, he was appointed as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Defence by his father Lee Kuan Yew, the prime minister at that time. In 1985, Lee chaired the government's economic committee, which recommended changes to established government policies to reduce business costs, foster longer-term growth and revive the Singapore economy, experiencing a recession at the time; the committee's recommendations included reductions in corporate and personal taxes and the introduction of a consumption tax. In 1986, Lee was appointed the acting minister for Industry. In 1987, he became a full member of the Cabinet as the minister for trade and Industry and second minister for defence. Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986. Lee said that the youth wing would be a channel to communicate dissent, in which otherwise they might be "tempted" to vote for the opposition political parties and bring the PAP government down.
On 28 November 1990, Goh Chok Tong took over from Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong was made one of two Deputy Prime Ministers. He continued to serve as the Minister for Trade and Industry until 1992. In 1992, Lee underwent a three-month period of chemotherapy; when his treatment began, he relinquished his position as the Minister for Trade and Industry, though he continued to be a Deputy Prime Minister. His chemotherapy was successful, his cancer has since gone into remission. Lee was appointed Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore in 1998, in 2001 he was made the Minister for Finance. To ease the growing budget deficit due to falling tax revenues from cuts in corporate and personal income taxes and other factors such as the Iraq War and SARS outbreak, Lee proposed on 29 August 2003 to raise the GST from three percent to five percent, a change which took place in January 2004. Lee initiated several amendments to render requirements for Singapore citizenship less r
Cabinet of Singapore
The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government of Singapore together with the President of Singapore. It is led by the Prime Minister of Singapore, the head of government; the Prime Minister is a Member of Parliament appointed by the President who selects a person that in his or her view is to command the confidence of a majority of the Parliament of Singapore. The other members of the Cabinet are Ministers who are Members of Parliament appointed by the President on the Prime Minister's advice. Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit and from engaging in any commercial enterprise; the Cabinet directs and controls the Government and is collectively responsible to Parliament. It has significant influence over lawmaking. Ministers may be designated by the Prime Minister to be in charge of particular ministries, or as Ministers in the Prime Minister's Office. Singapore's ministers are the best paid in the world. Prior to a salary review in 2011, the Prime Minister's annual salary was S$3.07 million, while the pay of ministerial-grade officers ranged between S$1.58 million and S$2.37 million.
On 21 May 2011, a committee was appointed by the Prime Minister to review the salaries of the Prime Minister as well as the President, political appointment holders, Members of Parliament. Following the recommended wage reductions by the committee which were debated and subsequently accepted in Parliament, the Prime Minister's salary was reduced by 36% to S$2.2 million. Nonetheless, the Prime Minister remains the highest-paid political leader in the world; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements. It wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, made up of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Following the general elections that year, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959.
The Governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of Prime Minister the person most to command the authority of the Assembly, other Ministers of the Cabinet on the Prime Minister's advice. In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the Assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of Singapore; the executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965. Following the 2011 general election, a Cabinet reshuffle took place effective 21 May 2011. Lim Hng Kiang and Lim Swee Say retained their Trade and Industry and Prime Minister's Office portfolios, while other ministers were given new appointments to the remaining 11 ministries. Heng Swee Keat and Chan Chun Sing, both elected to Parliament for the first time, were assigned the posts of Minister for Education, Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports.
A Cabinet Reshuffle took place in May 2018 with the stated purpose was to better prepare for a leadership transition to the "4G" leaders, Minister for Trade and Industry Lim Hng Kiang, Minister for Manpower Lim Swee Say, Minister for Communications and Information Yaacob Ibrahim all retired and were succeeded by Chan Chun Sing, Josephine Teo, S. Iswaran all of whom had held other cabinet appointments. Up to the outbreak of World War II, Singapore was part of the Crown colony known as the Straits Settlements together with Malacca and Penang; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was arguably the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, though its function was different from that of today's Cabinet. The Council, composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, existed to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would prejudice the public service.
In such urgent cases, the Governor had to inform the Council of the measures. Following the Second World War, the Straits Settlements were disbanded and Singapore became a Crown colony in its own right; the reconstituted Executive Council consisted of six officials and four nominated "unofficials". In February 1954, the Rendel Constitutional Commission under the chairmanship of Sir George William Rendel, appointed to comprehensively review the constitution of the Colony of Singapore, rendered its report. Among other things, it recommended that a Council of Ministers be created, composed of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House, who would be the leader of the largest political party or coalition of parties having majority support in the legislature; the recommendation was implemented in 1955. In the general election held that year, the Labour Front took a majority of the seats in the Assembly, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore.
Major problems with the Rendel Constitution were that the Chief Minister and Ministers' powers were il
Presidential elections in Singapore
Presidential elections in Singapore, in which the President of Singapore is directly elected by popular vote, were introduced through amendments to the Constitution of Singapore in 1991. Potential candidates for office must meet stringent qualifications set out in the Constitution. Certificates of eligibility are issued by the Presidential Elections Committee. In particular, the PEC must assess that they are persons of integrity, good character and reputation; the general strictness of the qualifications has resulted in three out of the five presidential elections being walkovers, as presidents S. R. Nathan and Halimah Yacob were the sole candidates to receive a certificate of eligibility from the PEC in their respective years in the 1999, 2005 and 2017 elections; the stringent criteria, the transparency of the PEC's decision-making process and the practice of political parties endorsing candidates have drawn criticism. Since the constitutional amendments made in 2016, a presidential election will be reserved for a community in Singapore if no one from that community has been President for any of the five most recent terms of office of the President.
The communities are the Chinese community, the Malay community, the Indian or other minority communities. Candidates are required to satisfy the usual qualification criteria; the 2017 election was the first reserved election, was reserved for the Malay community. The office of President falls vacant upon the expiry of the incumbent's six-year term or if the President is for some reason unable to complete his or her term. If the office of President becomes vacant before the incumbent's term expires, a poll for an election must be held within six months. In other cases, an election can take place any time from three months before the expiry of the incumbent's term of office; the procedure for elections is laid out in the Presidential Elections Act. The process begins when the Prime Minister issues a writ of election to the returning officer specifying the date and place of nomination day. Potential candidates must obtain certificates of eligibility from the PEC, in most cases community certificates from the Community Committee, political donation certificates from the Registrar of Political Donations stating that they have complied with the Political Donations Act.
These documents must be submitted together with a nomination paper to the returning officer on nomination day. In addition, by that day, potential candidates must pay a deposit to the returning officer. If there is only one candidate nominated, he or she is declared to have been elected President. Otherwise, the returning officer issues a notice of contested election specifying when polling day will be. During the election period, a candidate may not spend more than $600,000 or 30 cents for each person on the electoral register, whichever is greater. Candidates may publish election advertising on the Internet, participate in scheduled television and radio broadcasts. Permits must be obtained to display posters and banners. A number of acts are unlawful, including bribery, dissuading electors from voting, making false statements about candidates and undue influence, it is a criminal offence to publish election surveys, exit polls on polling day before the polls have closed. Legal changes introduced in 2010 made the eve of polling day a "cooling-off day" – campaigning must not take place on that day or on polling day itself.
The President of Singapore is the nation's head of state. The President was indirectly elected by Parliament and had a ceremonial role; the Elected President scheme was instituted in 1991 through a constitutional amendment, which transformed the office of President into one directly elected by the people. The scheme conferred additional powers on the President that enabled him or her to act as a safeguard or "second key" over Singapore's rich financial reserves built up by the Government. Additionally, the President exercises a custodial role over the integrity of the public service with the power to veto public appointments and check against abuses of power by the government. In practice, the President's role remains ceremonial. In most cases, the Constitution requires the President to exercise his or her powers on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority; the qualifications required for a person to be elected as President are set out in the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore and are as follows: He or she must be a citizen of Singapore.
He or she must not be less than 45 years of age. His or her name must appear in a current register of electors, he or she must be resident in Singapore at the date of his or her nomination for election and must have been so resident for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than ten years prior to that date. He or she must not be subject to any of the following disqualifications: being and having been found or declared to be of unsound mind.
The Singapore passport is a travel document issued to the citizens of the Republic of Singapore. It is issued by the Checkpoints Authority of Singapore. Only Singaporean citizens can apply for this passport; the Singapore passport is ranked as the most powerful passport in the world with visa-free or visa on arrival access to 189 countries and territories, in conjuction with the passports of Japan and South Korea. Singapore's passport is a favourite target for counterfeiters, due to the liberal visa requirements for Singaporean travellers, the tendency for immigration to clear Singaporean passport holders more quickly; the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority thus adopted several measures to foil forgers, including digital photos and special ink since October 1999, the Biometric passport from August 2006. The first version of the modern Singapore passport was introduced on 20 June 1966, replacing the Singapore Provisional Passport issued from 17 August 1965. Between 1963 and 1965, Malaysian passports were issued to residents of Singapore when it formed part of Malaysia, CUKC British passports were issued prior to 1963.
The Straits Settlements, of which Singapore was its capital from 1832 until 1946 issued its own passports prior to World War II. Between 1967 and 1999, Singapore issued a Restricted Passport with a blue cover for travel to West Malaysia; the Restricted Passport was conceived due to the fact that many Singaporeans would travel to West Malaysia for business and leisure purposes. The Restricted Passport ceased to be issued after 1999 due to a lack of demand and the red Singapore Passport was deemed to the be only valid travel document for overseas travel by Singaporean citizens from 1 January 2000; the Singaporean passport is valid for a period of five years for passports issued since 1 April 2005 and ten years for passports issued before said date. Before biometric passports were issued in August 2006, passports for male citizens between 11 and 18 were only valid for two years, had to be renewed or replaced every two years. Biometric passports cannot be modified due to the "write once" policy by ICAO.
A new passport is valid for a total period of five years. For the renewal of a passport that has a validity of nine months or less, the new one will have a validity of five years plus the remaining validity in the old passport. However, if a passport is being renewed with a validity of more than nine months, it will be valid for five years and nine months. To travel overseas, a passport must be valid for at least six months. Since 15 August 2006, all newly issued Singaporean passports contain biometric features. A major reason for this addition is to comply with the requirements for the US Visa Waiver Program; the features help to prevent forgery and minimise the abuse of Singaporean passports. The biometric passports contain 64 pages, unlike the machine readable passports, which contain 96 pages, it costs S$80 for a passport, with the higher cost due to the special features encoded into the passport. There is a ten-dollar rebate if one applies for the passport on the Internet, by post or by deposit box with applicants having to collect the passport personally.
The biometric passport is valid for 5 years for first time applicants, compared with 10 years for issued passports without biometric features. The new passport does not accept modifications such as extensions of validity, updating of photographs due to ICAO's "write once" policy. In a break from long standing practice, the passport number is now unique to each passport, instead of being identical to the holder's NRIC number. Children are no longer allowed to travel on their parents' passports; the biometric passport project cost the Singaporean government a total of S$9.7 million. A new Singapore biometric passport design was introduced on 26 October 2017, it features a redesigned front cover as well as several new security features such as a Multiple Laser Image in the shape of Singapore Island and a window lock of the image of the passport holder which can be viewed as a positive or negative image when tilted and viewed under a light source. New visa page designs, featuring the Singapore Botanic Gardens, Marina Barrage, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore Sports Hub and Punggol New Town were introduced in the new biometric passport, replacing the previous Central Business District and Esplanade visa page designs.
Singaporean passports are bright red in colour, with the words "REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE" inscribed at the top of the front cover, the coat of arms of Singapore emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The motto and the title of the national anthem of Singapore, Majulah Singapura, is inscribed on the scroll of the coat of arms, whilst the word "PASSPORT" is inscribed below; the biometric passport symbol appears at the bottom of the front cover under the word "PASSPORT". The passport contains a note from the President of Singapore addressing the authorities of all territories: Singaporean passports include the following data on the plastic information page: Photo of the passport bearer Type Code of issuing state Passport number Name Sex Nationality Date of birth Place of birth Date of issue Date of expiry Modifications Authority National ID numberThe information page ends with the Machine Readable Zone. Visa requirements for Singaporean citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states which are placed on citizens of Singapore.
As of 26 March 2019, Singaporean citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 189 countries and territories, ranking the Singapore passport the most powerful in the world and in Asia, as well
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a ministry of the Government of Singapore responsible for conducting and managing diplomatic relations between Singapore and other countries and regions. It is headed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, the office held by Dr Vivian Balakrishnan. Established in 1965, the Ministry now has 50 overseas missions including 7 High Commissions, 21 Embassies, 4 Permanent Missions to the United Nations, 17 consulates. Singapore has appointed 31 Honorary Consuls-General/Consuls abroad and has 46 non-resident Ambassadors and High Commissioners based in Singapore; the MFA provides consular assistance to Singaporeans travelling and studying overseas. The MFA is divided into 11 Directorates which deal with political and economic matters, 7 Directorates which oversee matters relating to protocol, consular issues and the Singapore Cooperation Programme among others; the Corporate Affairs Directorate oversees organisational and resource management while the Human Resource Directorate and Diplomatic Academy manage the development of personnel and training.
Singapore maintains diplomatic relations with 188 countries. In Singapore, there are 70 resident foreign Embassies and High Commissions, 43 foreign Consulates, 11 International Organisations based in Singapore. In addition, more than 60 non-resident foreign Ambassadors are accredited to Singapore. Minister for Foreign Affairs Foreign relations of Singapore List of diplomatic missions of Singapore Official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
High Court (Singapore)
The High Court of the Republic of Singapore is the lower division of the Supreme Court of Singapore, the upper being the Court of Appeal. It consists of the Chief Justice of Singapore and the Judges of the High Court. Judicial Commissioners are appointed to assist with the Court's caseload. There are two specialist commercial courts, the Admiralty Court and the Intellectual Property Court, a number of judges are designated to hear arbitration-related matters; the seat of the High Court is the Supreme Court Building. The High Court exercises both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. By possessing original jurisdiction, the Court is able to hear cases at first instance – it can deal with trials of matters coming before the courts for the first time. A special aspect of the Court's original jurisdiction is its judicial review jurisdiction, under which it determines the constitutionality of legislation and actions taken by the Government; the Court exercises its appellate jurisdiction when it hears appeals from trials originating in the Subordinate Courts such as District Courts and Magistrates' Courts.
The Court exercises supervisory and revisionary jurisdiction over subordinate courts. The exercise of judicial review of administrative acts carried out by public authorities to ensure that they comply with principles of administrative law is an aspect of the Court's supervisory jurisdiction. Under the principles of stare decisis, the High Court is bound by decisions of the Court of Appeal. In turn, decisions of the High Court must be followed by District Courts and Magistrates' Courts. On the other hand, a Judge of the High Court is not bound by previous decisions by other High Court Judges; as a matter of comity, though, a Court will not depart from a previous decision unless there is a good reason to do so. If there are conflicting High Court decisions, it is up to the Court of Appeal to decide which decision is correct. In 1826, Singapore was united with Malacca and Prince of Wales' Island to form the Straits Settlements, which were granted a Court of Judicature by the Second Charter of Justice dated 27 November 1826.
The Charter conferred on the Court the jurisdiction of the Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in civil and revenue matters, among other things. The judges of the Court were the Governor, the Resident Counsellor, the Recorder of Prince of Wales' Island and Malacca; the Governor's power to overrule decisions of the Recorder led to dissatisfaction as the Recorder was the only member of the Court, a professional judge, there were calls for the executive and judicial branches to be separated. This issue was not resolved by the Third Charter of Justice granted to the Straits Settlements on 12 August 1855, though there were now to be two Recorders, one for Penang and the other for Singapore and Malacca, it was only in 1867 that the Resident Counsellors ceased to exercise judicial powers. The Court of Judicature of the Straits Settlements was abolished in 1868 and replaced by the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements; the Supreme Court was reorganized in 1873 to consist of the Chief Justice, the Judge at Penang, a Senior and Junior Puisne Judge.
By this time Singapore had become the centre of government and trade in the Straits Settlements, so the Chief Justice and Senior Puisne Judge resided in Singapore, while the Judge of Penang and the Junior Puisne Judge were stationed in Penang. The Supreme Court was given jurisdiction to sit as a Court of Appeal; as a result of legislation passed in 1885, the Supreme Court consisted of the Chief Justice and three puisne judges. The Court was altered in 1907, it now had two divisions, one exercising original civil and criminal jurisdiction and the other appellate civil and criminal jurisdiction. During the Japanese occupation of Singapore, all the courts that had operated under the British were replaced by new courts established by the Japanese Military Administration; the Syonan Koto-Hoin was formed on 29 May 1942. Following the end of World War II, the courts that had existed before the war were restored and remained unchanged until Singapore's independence from the United Kingdom through merger with Malaysia in 1963.
The judicial power of Malaysia was vested in a Federal Court, a High Court in Malaya, a High Court in Borneo, a High Court in Singapore. In 1965 Singapore became an independent republic. However, the High Court remained part of the Federal Court structure until 1969, when Singapore enacted the Supreme Court of Judicature Act to regularize the judicial system. Coming into force on 9 January 1970, the Act declared that the Supreme Court of Singapore now consisted of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeal and the High Court; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council remained Singapore's highest appellate court until a permanent Court of Appeal for both civil and criminal appeals was established. Appeals to the Privy Council were abolished in 1994; the Supreme Court of Singapore is the nation's superior court of record. It is superior in the sense that its jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases is unlimited compared to the Subordinate Courts of Singapore, it hears appeals from lower courts.
As a court of record, it keeps a perpetual record of its proceedings. The High Court is the lower division of the upper one being the Court of Appeal; the High Court consists of the Chief Justice of Singapore and the Judges of the High Court. A person is qualified to be appointed a Judge if he or she has for an