Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khiljis, Hotaks, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.
These tribes migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as Ariana
Mohammed Zahir Shah
Mohammed Zahir Shah was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973. He established friendly relations with countries and tried to modernize his country. While staying in Italy for medical treatment, Zahir Shah was overthrown in a coup by his cousin and former prime minister. He remained in exile near Rome until 2002, returning to Afghanistan after the end of the Taliban and he was given the title Father of the Nation, which he held until his death in 2007. Zahir Shah was born on 15 October 1914, in Kabul, Nadir Shah assumed the throne after the execution of Habibullah Ghazi on 10 October 1929. Mohammed Zahirs father, son of Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan, was born in Dehradun, British India, Nadir Shah was a descendant of Sardar Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai, half-brother of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan. His grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan was in charge of the negotiations with the British resulting in the Treaty of Gandamak, during the reign of Amir Habibullah they received the title of Companions of the King.
Zahir Shah was educated in a class for princes at Habibia High School in Kabul. He continued his education in France where his father had served as an envoy, studying at the Pasteur Institute. When he returned to Afghanistan he helped his father and uncles restore order and he was enrolled at an Infantry School and appointed a privy counsellor. Zahir Shah served in the government positions of deputy war minister and minister of education, Zahir Shah was fluent in Pashto and French. Zahir Khan was proclaimed King on 8 November 1933 at the age of 19, after his ascension to the throne he was given the regnal title He who puts his trust in God, follower of the firm religion of Islam. For the first thirty years he did not effectively rule, ceding power to his uncles, Mohammad Hashim Khan. By the end of the 1930s, agreements on foreign assistance and trade had reached with many countries, most notably with the Axis powers, Italy. Zahir Shah provided aid and Afghan fighters to the Uighur, all the Afghan volunteers were killed by the Chinese Muslim troops, who abolished the First East Turkestan Republic, and reestablished Chinese government control over the area.
After the end of the Second World War, Zahir Shah recognised the need for the modernisation of Afghanistan, during this period Afghanistans first modern university was founded. During his reign a number of advances and reforms were derailed as a result of factionalism. The title AlMutawakkil ala Allah, The leaner on Allah is taken from the Quran, Sura 8, by the time he returned to Afghanistan during the twenty-first century, his rule was characterized by a lengthy span of peace, but with no significant progress
World peace or peace on Earth is an ideal state of freedom and happiness among and within all nations and people. This ideal of world non-violence provides a basis for peoples and nations to willingly cooperate, for example, since 1945, the United Nations and the 5 permanent members of its Security Council have worked to resolve conflicts without war or declarations of war. However, nations have entered numerous military conflicts since that time, many theories as to how world peace could be achieved have been proposed. Several of these are listed below, main article, Peace through strength The term is traced back to the Roman Emperor Hadrian but the concept is as old as the recorded history. In fact, near the entrance to the headquarters of the SAC at Offutt Air Base stands a large sign with a SAC emblem and its motto, realize a principled and peaceful and prosperous future. And play the role only America can play, World peace is sometimes claimed to be the result of a certain political ideology.
Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theorist, assumed that a world revolution would lead to world peace. Proponents of the democratic peace theory claim that strong empirical evidence exists that democracies never or rarely wage war against each other. There are, several wars between democracies that have taken place, historically, a good example of this is World War I, during which both Britain and Germany became partially self-sufficient. This is particularly important because Germany had no plan for creating a War economy, thus, a powerful lobby—unless there are only national companies—will argue against wars. Mutual assured destruction is a doctrine of military strategy in which a use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both belligerents. Hinckley saw a trend in national politics by which city-states and nation-states have unified, non-interventionism should not be confused with isolationism. Isolationism, like non-interventionism, advises avoiding interference into other nations internal affairs but emphasizes protectionism and restriction of international trade, non-interventionism, on the other hand, advocates combining free trade with political and military non-interference.
Nations like Japan are perhaps the best known for establishing isolationist policies in the past, the Japanese Shogun Tokugawa initiated the Edo Period, an isolationist period where Japan cut itself off from the world as a whole. World peace has been depicted as a consequence of local, self-determined behaviors that inhibit the institutionalization of power, similar collaborative mechanisms are emerging from the Internet around open-source projects, including Wikipedia, and the evolution of other social media. Through most of human societies have been based on personal relations, individuals in groups know each other. Today in most lower-income societies hierarchies of groups distribute wealth based on relationships among group leaders. This creates loyalty to a state that enforces the rule of law and contracts impartially and reliably and provides equal protection in the freedom to contract – that is, liberal democracy
Prime Minister of Afghanistan
The Prime Minister of Afghanistan is a currently defunct post in the Afghan Government. The position was created in 1927, and was appointed by the King, mostly as an advisor, during the 1980s, the position was the head of government. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers was not headed by the Prime Minister, only during his absence was the Premier the acting Chairman of the Council. Until 1963, King Mohammed Zahir Shah appointed his relatives as prime ministers, King Zahir Shah had the power to dismiss or transfer the Prime Minister. This was changed, stating that the Head of the Afghan Government was the Prime Minister, and it was the first time that King Zahir Shah did not play an important role in the government, leaving it to an elected authority. However, it stated that they cannot engage in any other profession during their tenure of office. The 1964 Constitution granted the Prime Minister the power to summon the Electoral College in case of the death of the King, the Prime Minister only answered to the Wolesi Jirga about the General Policy of the government, and individually for their prescribed duties.
In April 1978, Mohammed Daoud Khan was killed during a coup that started the Saur Revolution, the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan revived the office of Prime Minister that year, and it remained throughout the 1980s. The President was in charge of the appointment of the Prime Minister, the Councils stated purpose was to formulate and implement domestic and foreign policies, to formulate economic development plans and state budgets, and to ensure public order. Under the 1987 Constitution, the President was required to appoint the Prime Minister in order to form the Government, the Prime Minister had the power to dissolve the government. Several Afghan presidents during the Democratic Republic era were appointed as Prime Minister, with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Prime Minister was no longer in charge of the government. The General Secretary of the PDPA or the Director of the KHAD exercised greater power, the 1990 Constitution established that only Afghan-born citizens are eligible to hold the office, something that was not specified in the previous documents.
After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullahs government, a state was created. Thus, the office of Prime Minister once again played an important role in the history of the nation, there was constant friction between the President and the Premier during this period. The State had collapsed and there was not an effective central Government from 1992 until 1996, the position became de facto ceremonial, with little power in what was left of the Government. The title was abolished when the Taliban forces of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan took over control in 1996, the Deputy Leader of the Taliban was often known as the Prime Minister throughout its rule. With the death of Mohammad Rabbani in 2001, the Taliban decided not to revive the office, President of Afghanistan List of heads of state of Afghanistan Chief Executive Officer Internet Page that has copies of several Afghan Constitutions
A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication, if a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously, for example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles — king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts. A king can be a husband and a queen can be a kings wife. If both people in a reign, neither person is generally considered to be a consort.
Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, and is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as any other monarch, historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become republics, advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the continuity of national leadership. In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch, a form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship.
Monarchies take a variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held simultaneously by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France. Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time, hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, in most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture, in more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic
Pashtunistan is the geographic region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Alternative names historically used for the region included Afghānistān and Pashtūnkhwā, Pashtunistan borders Punjab to the east and Turkic speaking regions to the west and north, Kashmir to the northeast, and Balochistan to the south. For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line and this porous line that runs through the center of the Pashtun region forms the modern border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the call their home in their own language Afghánistán. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the very concept of Pakhtunistan was taken from the old word Pakhtunkhwa. The British were using Pathanistan for Pakhtunistan in the beginning, depending on the source, the ethnic Pashtuns constitute 42-60% of the population of Afghanistan.
In neighboring Pakistan they constitute 15.42 percent of the 190 million population, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, Pashto speakers constitute above 73 percent of the population as of 1998. In recent age, people of the Western world have explored the area. Arab Muslims arrived in the 7th century and began introducing Islam to the native Pashtun people, some of the Arabs settled in the Sulaiman Mountains, the Pashtunistan area fell to the Turkish Ghaznavids whose main capital was at Ghazni, with Lahore serving as the second power house. The Ghaznavid Empire was taken over by the Ghorids from todays Ghor, the army of Genghis Khan arrived in the 13th century and began destroying Persian-speaking cities in the north while the Pashtun territory was defended by the Khilji dynasty of Delhi. In the 14th and 15th century, the Timurid dynasty was in control of the cities and towns. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the region was ruled by Turkic dynasties from Delhi, an early Pashtun nationalist was the warrior-poet Khushal Khan Khattak, who was imprisoned by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for trying to incite the Pashtuns to rebel against the rule of the Mughals.
However, despite sharing a language and believing in a common ancestry. The eastern parts of Pashtunistan was ruled by the Mughal Empire, during the early 18th century, Pashtun tribes led by Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the Safavids in the city of Kandahar. In a chain of events, he declared Kandahar and other parts of what is now southern Afghanistan independent, by 1738 the Mughal Empire had been crushingly defeated and their capital sacked and looted by forces of a new Iranian ruler, the military genius and commander Nader Shah. Besides Persian and Caucasian forces, Nader was accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, and 4,000 well trained Pashtun troops from what is now Afghanistan and North-west Pakistan. The famous couplet by Ahmad Shah Durrani describes the association the people have with the city of Kandahar. Translation, I forget the throne of Delhi when I recall the mountain peaks of my beautiful Pukhtunkhwa, the last Afghan Empire was established in 1747 and united all the different Pashtun tribes as well as many other ethnic groups