In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
Pirelli & C. S.p. A. is a multinational company based in Milan, listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922, with a temporary privatization period by the consortium led by the Chinese state-owned enterprise ChemChina. The company is the 5th largest tyre manufacturer behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear, is focused on the consumer business, it is present in Europe, Latam, Nafta and C. I. S. Operating commercially in over 160 countries, it has 19 manufacturing sites in 13 countries and a network of around 14,600 distributors and retailers. Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the FIA Formula One World Championship for 2011–2023 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli's headquarters are located in Milan's Bicocca district. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company. In the past it has been involved in fashion and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. On October 4, 2017, Pirelli returned to the Milan Stock Exchange after focusing its business on pure consumer products and related services, separating the business of industrial tyre.
Pirelli has published its Pirelli Calendar since 1964, which has featured the contribution of famous photographers over the years like Helmut Newton, Steve McCurry, Peter Lindbergh, Richard Avedon, Bruce Weber, Herb Rits and Annie Leibovitz. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes and made scuba diving rebreathers. Thereafter, Pirelli's activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its cable division to Goldman Sachs, which changed the new group's name to Prysmian. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in the same Milanese area that housed the first Pirelli factory during the 19th century. In 1974, Pirelli invented the "wide radial tyre", upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos. At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, which were too narrow to withstand the Stratos' power and did not provide enough grip.
Both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, but with a radial structure. Subsequently, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, headquartered in New Haven, for $190 million. In 2000, Pirelli sold its terrestrial fibre optic cables business to Cisco and its optical components operations to Corning, for 5 billion euro, it invested - through Olimpia -part of the resulting liquidity to become a majority shareholder in Telecom Italia in 2001, maintaining this position until 2007. In 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In 2005, Pirelli sold its Cables, Energy Systems and Telecommunications assets to Goldman Sachs and the newly formed company was named Prysmian. In the same year, 2005, Pirelli opened its first tyre production plant in China.
This was the beginning of the group's production complex in the country. In 2006, Pirelli chose Slatina for its first tyre production plant in Romania, extending the facility in 2011. In 2010, Pirelli completed its conversion to a pure tyre company by selling Pirelli Broadband Solutions and spinning off the real estate assets of Pirelli Re. Fondazione Pirelli was established in the same year to safeguard and celebrate the company's past and to promote business culture as an integral part of Italy's national cultural assets. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders had accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina, together with Camfin and LTI, for the company. The transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. In May 2017, it was announced that Pirelli returns to the world of cycling with a new road cycling tyre range, Pzero Velo. In September 2017, the company announced the will to sell up to 40 percent of its equity capital in an initial public offering as it plans to return to the Milan stock exchange in October.
Pirelli is focused on the consumer business, producing tyres for cars and bicycles. PZero: tyres for ultra-high performance cars. Cinturato: tyres for high end cars. Winter: tyres for low temperatures and snow. Scorpion: tyres for SUV and cross-over Diablo: road and track tyres. Scorpion: road and off-road tyres. PZero Velo: road racing. Cycl-e: urban and electric; the list of Pirelli shareholders as of September 2018: The list of Pirelli Board of Directors: As of March 2016. *The performance takes into account, as well as the deconsolidation of Venezuela, a non-recurring fiscal impact of 107.6 million euro linked to the devaluation of active deferred taxation by the Parent Group as a consequence of Pirelli’s new financial status after its merger with Marco Polo Industrial Holding. The Pirelli Calendar is published annually, features famous actresses and fashion models; the calendar features the work of many of the most respected fashion photographers in the world, including Herb Ritz, Richard Avedon, Mert & Marcus, Peter Lindbergh, Annie Leibovitz, Patrick Demarchelier.
The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science and technology conducted on the Internet. "Power is nothing wit
Gordini is a division of Renault Sport Technologies. In the past, it was a sports car manufacturer and performance tuner, established in 1946 by Amédée Gordini, nicknamed "Le Sorcier". Gordini became a division of Renault in 1968 and of Renault Sport in 1976. Amédée Gordini competed in motor races since the 1930s, his results prompted Simca to develop road cars. Their association continued after World War II. In 1946, Gordini introduced the first cars bearing his name, Fiat-engined single-seaters raced by him and Jose Scaron, achieving several victories. In the late 1940s, the company opened a workshop at the Boulevard Victor in Paris, entering sports car and Grand Prix races. Gordini and Simca started to diverge in 1951 because of political conflicts. Gordini competed in Formula One from 1950 to 1956, although it achieved a major success in Formula Two during that period. After its Formula One program ended, Gordini worked with Renault as an engine tuner, entering Renault-Gordini cars at the 24 Hours of Le Mans between 1962 and 1969.
It tuned engines for Alpine, a rival sports car manufacturer associated with Renault. In 1957, Gordini and Renault manufactured the Dauphine Gordini, a modified version of the Renault Dauphine, a sales success. Gordini-tuned Renault cars won various rallies during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1963, the Gordini company planned to move its headquarters to Noisy-le-Roi. At the end of 1968, Gordini sold a 70 % majority stake from his firm to Renault. Renault-Gordini was moved to Viry-Châtillon in 1969 and became a sport division of Renault, before being merged with Alpine to form Renault Sport in 1976. On 1 January 1976, René Vuaillat became director of Gordini; the Gordini company name became wholly owned by Renault in 1977. Renault sold Gordini-badged performance versions of models including the Renault 5, the Renault 8 the Renault 12 and the Renault 17. In November 2009, Renault announced that it would be reviving the Gordini name for an exclusive line of hot hatches, in a similar fashion to Fiat's revival of its Abarth name.
Modern models to bear the name include the Renault Clio. Dauphine Gordini Renault 8 Gordini Renault 12 Gordini Renault 17 Gordini Clio Gordini RS Twingo Gordini Twingo Gordini RS Wind Gordini Since its early Renault models the most characteristic colour scheme of Gordini cars has been bleu de France with white stripes, although different combinations have been used over the years
Maserati in motorsport
Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants. One of the first Maseratis the Tipo 26 driven by Alfieri Maserati with Guerino Bertocchi acting as riding mechanic won the Targa Florio 1,500 cc class in 1926, finishing in ninth place in overall. Maserati was successful in pre-war Grand Prix racing using a variety of cars with 4, 6, 8 and 16 cylinders. Other notable pre-war successes include winning the Indianapolis 500 twice, both times with Wilbur Shaw at the wheel of a 8CTF. Maserati won the Targa Florio in 1937, 1938, 1939 and 1940; the first two wins were achieved by Giovanni Rocco with a Maserati 6CM and the last two by Luigi Villoresi with a 6CM in 1939 and a 4CL in 1940. Maserati's post-war factory effort in sports car racing began in 1954 for the second season of the World Sportscar Championship; the factory raced as Officine Alfieri Maserati.
Maserati scored points in all but one year of the first era of the World Sports Car Championship from 1953 to 1961. Both factory-entered and privately-entered cars were eligible to score points for the manufacturer. At the end of 1957 Maserati retired the factory team from racing though they continued to build cars for privateers. In the 1953 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed thirteenth. In the 1954 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fifth. In the 1955 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1956 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second including a win at the 1000 km Buenos Aires and the 1000 km at the Nürburgring; the win at 1956 1000 km Buenos Aires was a Maserati 300S sports car driven by Stirling Moss and Carlos Menditéguy. In the 1957 World Sportscar Championship Maserati again placed second; this time with wins at Sebring and Rabelöfsbanan In the 1959 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1960 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed third.
With a win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 driven by Stirling Moss and Dan Gurney. In the 1961 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second. With a repeat win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 this time driven by Lloyd Casner and Masten Gregory. Maserati returned to sportscar racing in 2004, entering the Maserati MC12 in the FIA GT Championship. Since 2005 the MC12 fieleded by Vitaphone Racing Team won five teams' championships and four drivers' championships in a row. Michael Bartels and Andrea Bertolini won the inaugural GT1 World Championship for Drivers in the 2010 FIA GT1 World Championship driving a Maserati MC12 for the Vitaphone Racing Team; the Vitaphone Racing Team won the GT1 World Championship for Teams. Maserati A6GCS Sports Car Maserati 350S Sports Car. Maserati 300S Sports Car. Maserati 250S Sports Car. Maserati 200S Sports Car. Maserati 150S Sports Car. Maserati 450S Sports Car. Maserati Tipo 60 Sports Car Maserati Tipo 61 the "Birdcage" Sports Car Maserati Tipo 63 Maserati Tipo 64 Maserati Tipo 65 Maserati Tipo 151 Maserati Tipo 152 Maserati Tipo 154 the "Racing Van" Maserati Barchetta Sports Car Maserati Ghibli II Open Cup gt Car Maserati Trofeo series gt Car.
Maserati Trofeo Light GT3 Racing Car Maserati MC12 GT1 Racing Car Gran Turismo GT4 Gran Turismo GT3 The Maserati Biturbo Group A racing car competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. The cars for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship season were entered by Pro Team Italia/Imberti; the car was in Group A Division 3 competing against the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and in the season Ford Sierra RS 500. The car was driven by Bruno Giacomelli, Armin Hahne, Marcello Gunella, Mario Hytten, Nicola Tesini and Kevin Bartlett. For the British Touring Car Championship the cars were entered by Trident Motorsport; this was for the 1989 seasons. The car was driven by John Lepp and Vic Lee. A former 1987 WTCC car was bought by Adriano Dece who converted it for used on road rallies and the company manufactured the Maserati Biturbo Group A Rally car. Maserati participated in Formula One motor racing during the 1950s and 1960s.
Its works Formula One programme was broadly successful, providing a total of 9 Grand Prix wins for the factory team. In addition, Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1957 World Championship of Drivers with a Maserati 250F. Maserati designed two Formula One cars: the Maserati 4CLT and the Maserati 250F, the pre-World War II Maserati 4CL was used with some success. In addition, the Maserati A6GCM, designed as a Formula Two car, was used in F1. Due to financial difficulties in the late 1950s the team had to withdraw from Formula One in 1958 despite the 250F still being successful. Privateers continued to use the 250F until 1960. In the 1960s, Maserati supplied engines to British Formula One team Cooper; the most successful car of that collaboration was the Cooper-Maserati T81, which had a Maserati V12 engine. It won the 1966 Mexican Grand Prix and the 1967 South African Grand Prix, driven by John Surtees and Pedro Rodríguez respectively; the 1948 Maserati 4CLT was one of the first cars built to the new Formula One regulations, introduced in 1946, was developed from the 1938 Maserati 4CL voiturette car.
The older design was still competitive despite the hiatus of World War II and was entered into Formula One races when racing resumed after the war. Its success encouraged Maserati to develop the car's design and these refinements were brought together as the 4CLT. Maseraticorse.com
1952 Indianapolis 500
The 36th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Friday, May 30, 1952. The event was part of the 1952 AAA National Championship Trail and was race 2 of 8 in the 1952 World Championship of Drivers. Troy Ruttman won the race for car owner J. C. Agajanian. Ruttman, aged 22 years and 80 days, set the record for the youngest 500 winner in history, it was the last dirt track car to win at Indy. Ruttman's win saw him become the youngest winner of a World Drivers' Championship race, a record he would hold for 51 years until the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix when Spanish driver Fernando Alonso won at the age of 22 years and 26 days. Bill Vukovich led 150 laps, he nursed his car to a stop against the outside wall, preventing other cars from getting involved in the incident. In the third year that the 500 was included in the World Championship, Ferrari entered the race with Alberto Ascari; the effort gained considerable attention. It was the only World Championship race in 1952 that Ascari did not win.
Fifth place finisher Art Cross was voted the Rookie of the Year. Though at least one rookie starter was in the field every year dating back to 1911, this was the first time the now-popular award was designated. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 17 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 18 – Second day time trials Saturday May 24 – Third day time trials Sunday May 25 – Fourth day time trials Monday May 26 – Fifth day time trials Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lead lap Pole position: Fred Agabashian – 4:20.85 Agabashian's Cummins Diesel Special was the first entry in the Indianapolis 500 to be powered by a turbocharged engine. Gear-driven centrifugal blowers known as "superchargers" had been used since the 1920s to increase the volumetric efficiency and power output of racing engines, but the Cummins Diesel was the first to make use of the "free" energy contained in the engine exhaust stream to drive a turbine wheel connected to a centrifugal blower. Fastest Lead Lap: Bill Vukovich – 1:06.60 As of 2015, Troy Ruttman remains the youngest driver to win the Indianapolis 500, at 22 years and 80 days.
Ruttman became the youngest driver to win a race counting for the Formula One championship. His record was broken by Fernando Alonso at the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix. Alberto Ascari marked the first instance of a driver competing for the World Drivers' Championship to race in the 500. Although he finished 31st at Indy, he went on to win all of the remaining races and the title. 1952 was the only occasion when the fastest and slowest qualifiers for the race started next to each other. The race was carried live on the radio on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network. During the offseason, the Speedway management created the network to handle broadcasting duties in-house; the arrangement was under the flagship of 1070 WIBC-AM of Indianapolis, featured a crew that consisted of WIBC talent. WIBC landed exclusive rights of the broadcast in the Indianapolis market, which would draw the ire of the other major stations in the area. In years, the broadcast would be carried on all five stations inside the city.
Sid Collins served as booth announcer. Jim Shelton was among the turn reporters, reporting from turn 4. Gordon Graham reported from victory lane. Like previous years, the broadcast featured live coverage of the start, the finish, 15-minute live updates throughout the race. At least twenty stations around the county picked up the broadcast. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975
Cooper Car Company
The Cooper Car Company is a car manufacturer founded in December 1947 by Charles Cooper and his son John Cooper. Together with John's boyhood friend, Eric Brandon, they began by building racing cars in Charles's small garage in Surbiton, England, in 1946. Through the 1950s and early 1960s they reached motor racing's highest levels as their rear-engined, single-seat cars altered the face of Formula One and the Indianapolis 500, their Mini Cooper dominated rally racing. Due in part to Cooper's legacy, Great Britain remains the home of a thriving racing industry, the Cooper name lives on in the Cooper versions of the Mini production cars that are still built in England, but are now owned and marketed by BMW; the first cars built by the Coopers were single-seat 500-cc Formula Three racing cars driven by John Cooper and Eric Brandon, powered by a JAP motorcycle engine. Since materials were in short supply after World War II, the prototypes were constructed by joining two old Fiat Topolino front-ends together.
According to John Cooper, the stroke of genius that would make the Coopers an automotive legend—the location of the engine behind the driver—was a practical matter at the time. Because the car was powered by a motorcycle engine, they believed it was more convenient to have the engine in the back, driving a chain. In fact there was nothing new about'mid' engined racing cars but there is no doubt Coopers led the way in popularizing what was to become the dominant arrangement for racing cars. Called the Cooper 500, this car's success in hillclimbs and on track, including Eric winning the 500 race at one of the first postwar meetings at Gransden Lodge Airfield created demand from other drivers and led to the establishment of the Cooper Car Company to build more; the business grew by providing an inexpensive entry to motorsport for every aspiring young British driver, the company became the world's first and largest postwar, specialist manufacturer of racing cars for sale to privateers. Cooper built up to 300 single-and twin-cylinder cars during the 1940s and 1950s, dominated the F3 category, winning 64 of 78 major races between 1951 and 1954.
This volume of construction enabled the company to grow into the senior categories. Though Schell retired in the first lap, this marked the first appearance of a rear-engined racer at a Grand Prix event since the end of WWII; the front-engined Formula Two Cooper Bristol model was introduced in 1952. Various iterations of this design were driven by a number of legendary drivers – among them Juan Manuel Fangio and Mike Hawthorn – and furthered the company's growing reputation by appearing in Grand Prix races, which at the time were run to F2 regulations; until the company began building rear-engined sports cars in 1955, they had not become aware of the benefits of having the engine behind the driver. Based on the 500-cc cars and powered by a modified Coventry Climax fire-pump engine, these cars were called "Bobtails". With the center of gravity closer to the middle of the car, they found it was less liable to spins and much more effective at putting the power down to the road, so they decided to build a single-seater version and began entering it in Formula 2 races.
Jack Brabham raised some eyebrows when he took sixth place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a rear-engined Formula 1 Cooper. When Stirling Moss won the 1958 Argentine Grand Prix in Rob Walker's entered Cooper and Maurice Trintignant duplicated the feat in the next race at Monaco, the racing world was stunned and a rear-engined revolution had begun; the next year, 1959, Brabham and the Cooper works team became the first to win the Formula One World Championship in a rear-engined car. Both team and driver repeated the feat in 1960, every World Champion since has been sitting in front of his engine; the little-known designer behind the car was Owen Maddock, employed by Cooper Car Company. Maddock was known as ` Whiskers' to Charles Cooper. Maddock was a familiar figure in the drivers' paddock of the 1950s in open-neck shirt and woolly jumper and a prime force behind the rise of British racing cars to their dominant position in the 1960s. Describing how the revolutionary rear-engined Cooper chassis came to be, Maddock explained, "I'd done various schemes for the new car which I'd shown to Charlie Cooper.
He kept saying'Nah, that's not it, try again.' I got so fed up I sketched a frame in which every tube was bent, meant just as a joke. I showed it to Charlie and to my astonishment he grabbed it and said:'That's it!' " Maddock pioneered one of the first designs for a honeycomb monocoque stressed skin composite chassis, helped develop Cooper's C5S racing gearbox. Brabham took one of the championship-winning Cooper T53 "Lowlines" to Indianapolis Motor Speedway for a test in 1960 entered the famous 500-mile race in a larger and offset car based on the 1960 F1 design, the unique Type T54. Arriving at the Speedway 5 May 1961, the "funny" little car from Europe was mocked by the other teams, but it ran as high as third and finished ninth, it took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment realized the writing was on the wall and the days of their front-engined roadsters were numbered. Beginning with Jim Clark, who drove a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indianapolis 500 since has had the engine in the back.
The revolution begun by the little chain-driven Cooper 500 was complete. Once every Formula car manufacturer beg
Piero Taruffi, was a racing driver from Italy. He is the father of a daughter, Prisca Taruffi, a rally driver. Taruffi began his motorsport career racing motorcycles, he won the 1932 500cc European Championship on a Norton and in 1937 set the motorcycle land speed record at 279.503 km/h. Taruffi drove a newly introduced 2-litre, 4-cylinder Ferrari, which placed third in the 360 kilometre race Grand Prix de Bari at Bari, Italy, in September 1951, he finished behind Juan Manuel Fangio and Froilán González with a time of 2 hours 58 minutes 40 3/5 seconds. Taruffi and Alberto Ascari participated in the Carrera Panamericana in the mountains of Mexico in November 1951, they placed first and third over the course from Mexico City to León, Guanajuato, a 267-mile leg. Taruffi led second-placed Troy Ruttman by more than four minutes. Taruffi trimmed 15 minutes on the Mexico City-Leon leg and another 21 minutes between Leon and Durango. In the process he climbed from 12th to third overall. Taruffi won the race on 25 November, with a time of 21:57:52, over mountains and plains of the southeastern tip of Mexico.
He had an average speed of 87.6 mph. Taruffi set a world record for 50 miles in an auto of 22 cubic centimetre displacement in January 1952, he attempted a 100-mile record but his motor burned out after 98 miles. Taruffi was in a two-litre Ferrari for the running of the third Grand Prix de France, in Paris in May 1952, he captured first place with a time of three hours over a distance of 285 miles. His average speed was 95 mph. Taruffi placed second to Fangio in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana, with a time of 18:18:51 in a Lancia, his time was better than the previous year. In March 1954, Taruffi lost the Florida International Grand Prix with an hour to go, after having led the first three hours, when his Lancia stopped, he pushed it to the pits and team mechanics began working on it with diligence. Taruffi was still out of the car when the O. S. C. A. Shared by Stirling Moss and Bill Lloyd crossed the finish line. Taruffi had averaged 81.1 miles per hour. Taruffi won the 1,080-kilometre Tour of Sicily in April 1954.
His time of 10 hours 24 minutes 37 seconds established a record for an event which opened Italy's sports car racing season. It was 14 years old at the time, he averaged 64.4 miles per hour in a Lancia 3300. Taruffi and Harry Schell placed fifth overall in the 1955 Florida Grand Prix. Taruffi claimed first place in a Ferrari, at the 1955 Tour of Sicily, with an overall time of 10 hours 11 minutes 19.4 seconds, with an average speed of 105.998 kilometres per hour. Taruffi dropped out of the 1955 Mille Miglia, when he encountered a broken oil pump on the course north of Rome, he and eventual winner, Stirling Moss, were vying for the lead in the early stages of the race. Cesare Perdisa won by 22 seconds in the 1955 Grand Prix of Imola. Taruffi spun his car into a straw bale at the edge of the track on the first lap, he was uninjured, though his car was damaged, he was forced to retire from the race. Jean Behra and Taruffi teamed to secure a fifth-place finish in a Maserati at the 1956 12 Hours of Sebring.
Taruffi established a world record for Class E cars in June 1956. He raced 100 miles in 46 minutes 27.2 seconds, an average of 129.9 miles per hour. At Monza, Taruffi broke the one-hour mark of 212.543 kilometres per hour. A third record he performed was for 200 kilometres, his time was 53 minutes 14.5 seconds. In the 17th running of the Tour of Sicily, in 1957, Taruffi had a small crash while in pursuit of leader Olivier Gendebien, he continued in his Maserati. Gendebien won in a Ferrari; the event was marred by the death of J. Olivari, burned to death when his Maserati hit a wall in one of the course's 11,000 curves. Taruffi's final triumph was at the 1957 Mille Miglia, the last competitive edition of the famous Italian race. At this tragic race, Alfonso de Portago crashed his car with great loss of life. Taruffi won in a Ferrari 315S. Following the race he pledged to his wife, that he would never race again, he was 50 years of age. Taruffi was the author of The Technique of Motor Racing. In November 1957 the Saturday Evening Post published Taruffi's article, Stop us before we kill again.
The former racer discussed the 1955 Le Mans and 1957 Mille Miglia races in which drivers and numerous spectators died. In August 1952 Taruffi protected a racing car design under patent 2,608, 264; the patent had three torpedo-shaped parallel bodies joined together. Independent twin motors and wheels were in the two larger bodies, at right; the driver and the passengers sit in the car's central part. The central portion is both smaller than the others. Taruffi commented on low centre of gravity of his design, he participated in 18 World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 3 September 1950. He scored a total of 41 championship points, he participated in numerous non-championship Formula One races. Taruffi drove a Ferrari to victory in the May 1952 Swiss Grand Prix, he led with the Ferrari of Rudolf Fischer coming in second. The Piero Taruffi museum is in Bagnoregio, a small town between Viterbo and Orvieto in Central Italy, it has vintage motorbikes of his era. Taruffi drove a Ford stock car owned by Floyd Clymer of Los Angeles in the 2,000-mile Pan-American race held in November 1954.
* Indicates shared drive with Juan Manuel Fa