SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Salawati Daud

Salawati Daud was an Indonesian politician and a member of the Communist Party of Indonesia. In 1945 she began publishing the magazine Wanita in Makassar, which had a circulation of 1,000. Salawati Daud was married to a government official from Maros, a guerrilla stronghold during the Indonesian War of Independence, she travelled to Jakarta, trying to convince the republican government to support the guerrilla struggle. Salawati Daud became the first female mayor in Indonesia, being elected mayor of Makassar in 1949; as mayor, she confronted Dutch commander Captain Raymond "Turk" Westerling. In the early 1950s she became a prominent figure in the women's movement Gerwis. In 1955 she was moved to Jakarta. Salawati Daud became a prominent leader of the women's movement Gerwani. Salawati Daud was one of many Gerwani leaders imprisoned after the 1965 military takeover. On October 1, 1965, after the Gerwani headquarters had received confusing information about the events at Lobang Buaya, Salawati Daud cycled to parliament to inquire what was going on.

She was stopped by soldiers on her way. At the Bukit Duri prison, Salawati Daud played an important role in intervening against mistreatment of other inmates, she had strong nationalist credentials for her role in the freedom struggle, the guards had difficulties confronting her. Salawati Daud's actions for the welfare of the prisoners were appreciated by other inmates, according to the account of Carmel Budiardjo

Western Tlacolula Valley Zapotec

Tlacolula Valley Zapotec or Valley Zapotec known by the varietal name Guelavia Zapotec is a Zapotec language of Oaxaca, Mexico. Tlacolula Valley Zapotec is a cluster of Zapotec languages spoken in the western Tlacolula Valley, which show varying degrees of mutual intelligibility. All varieties of Valley Zapotec are endangered; the languages in this group include: Santa Ana del Valle Zapotec Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec San Juan Guelavía Zapotec San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya ZapotecTeotitlán del Valle dialect is divergent, 59% intelligible to San Juan Guelavía proper. In April 2014, linguist Brook Danielle Lillehaugen, along with students from Haverford and Swarthmore Colleges, visited Tlacolula de Matamoros to present an online Tlacolula Valley Zapotec talking dictionary to local leaders, it was estimated. Tlacolula Valley Zapotec is a VSO language. Most stops may fluctuate as well. Rhotic consonants are voiceless. Most consonants may be geminated.

Approximant consonants are phonetically realized as and. Voiceless stops have a slight aspiration; some sounds are only found in loanwords. The following is represented in the San Juan Guelavía dialect: Tlacolula Valley Zapotec vowels are classified as modal, checked, or breathy. Vowels may occur as pharyngealized /vˤ/ or glottalized /vˀ/. Vowels may be differentiated by tone. Tlacolula Valley Zapotec has four tones: level high, level low and falling. Vowels differing in phonation occur together in the same syllable as diphthongs. While a given vowel complex will always have the same tone, there are no tone contrasts for the same vowel complex; the chart the level high, level low, rising, or falling the tone makes that the syllables make in the vowels of the word. Speakers take notice of the vowel complex, in the chart. Colonial Valley Zapotec, a historical form of Valley Zapotec preserved in archival documents written during the Mexican colonial period. We provide data showing that positional verbs in CVZ have unique morphological properties and participate in a defined set of syntactic constructions, showing that positional verbs formed a formal class of verbs in Valley Zapotec as early as the mid-1500s.

This work contributes to the typological literature on positional verbs, demonstrating the type of morphosyntactic work that can be done with a corpus of CVZ texts, contributes to our understanding of the structure and development of the modern Zapotec positional verb system with implications for the larger Zapotec locative system. Though the most basic order has the verb at the beginning of the sentence, all Zapotec languages have a number of preverbal positions for topical, negative, and/or interrogative elements; the following example from Quiegolani Zapotec shows a focused element and an adverb before the verb Laad - foc ʂ-unaa-poss-woman Dolf-Rodolfo d͡ʒe - z-u - prog-stand nga - there = Roldofo's wife was standing there. Zapotec languages show the phenomenon known as pied-piping with inversion, which may change the head-initial order of phrases such as NP, PP, QP. A few varieties of Zapotec have passive morphology, shown by a prefix on the verb. Compare Texmelucan Zapotec root /o/'eat' and its passive stem /dug-o/'be eaten', with the prefix /dug-/.

In many other cases, the transitive-intransitive verb pairs are appropriately described as causative vs. noncausative verb pairs and not as transitive-passive pairs. Most if not all varieties of Zapotec languages have intransitive-transitive verb pairs which may be analyzed as noncausative vs. causative. The derivation may be obvious or not depending on the kinds of sounds. In the simplest cases, causative is transparently seen to be a prefix, cognate with /s-/ or with /k-/, but it may require the use of a thematic vowel /u/, as in the following examples from Mitla Zapotec:Setting aside possible abstract analyses of these facts, we can illustrate the kinds of non-causative vs. causative pairs with the following examples. The presence of the theme vowel /u-/ should be noted in the causative verbs, in some cases is the only difference between the two verbs. One example of a double causative is included here. Tlacolula Valley Zapotec differs from other Zapotec language varieties in its use of pronominal clitics in regards to formality and hierarchy.

Zapotec words contain three important syllabic positions: pre-key syllable, key syllable, clitic. Some key syllables exhibit changes. There is no true morphology in the Zapotec noun. There is no case marking. Plurality is indicated in the noun phrase, either by a number or a general quantifier that may be translated as "plural". Possessors are indicated in the noun phrase either by a nominal or a pronominal element; the only clear morphology in most varieties