GNK Dinamo Zagreb
Građanski nogometni klub Dinamo Zagreb referred to as GNK Dinamo Zagreb or Dinamo Zagreb, is a professional Croatian football club based in Zagreb. The club was founded in 1911 as 1. HŠK Građanski or Prvi hrvatski građanski športski klub, 1945 changed name to Dinamo Zagreb, they play. They are the most successful club in Croatian football, having won 19 Croatian Football League titles, 15 Croatian Football Cups and five Croatian Football Super Cups; the club has spent its entire existence in top flight, having been members of the Yugoslav First League from 1946 to 1991, the Croatian First League since its foundation in 1992. After the Second World War, the new communist regime considered clubs like HŠK Građanski as fascist and nationalistic; as such, they were banned, and, in 1945, NK Dinamo was founded as a club to act as an unofficial successor to HŠK Građanski, getting around the ruling party's disapproval. They entered the Yugoslav First League in its inaugural 1946 -- 47 season. In their second season in Yugoslav top flight in 1947–48 they finished as Yugoslav champions, their first major trophy.
The club won seven Yugoslav Cups. Amid the breakup of Yugoslavia and formation of the Croatian football league system, Dinamo left the Yugoslav league in 1991. Dinamo are the only Croatian club with European silverware, having won the 1966–67 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup by defeating Leeds United in the final, they finished runners-up in the same competition in 1963 when they lost to Valencia. Until the early 1990s, its foundation year was considered to be 1945 but amid political turmoil during the breakup of Yugoslavia the club began claiming direct lineage to pre-WWII clubs Građanski Zagreb and HAŠK. In order to reflect this, in June 1991, it was renamed HAŠK Građanski, which lasted until February 1993 when it was renamed Croatia Zagreb, they won five league titles and participated in the 1998–99 and 1999–2000 UEFA Champions League group stages carrying that name before reverting to "Dinamo Zagreb" in February 2000. Although the subject was dropped for a while, in 2011, club management began claiming that Dinamo is the direct descendant of Građanski and in April that year decided to prepend the adjective "Građanski" to the club's official name, turning it into the present-day GNK Dinamo.
The team's traditional colour is royal blue, replaced for European matches in recent times with the darker navy blue. The club's biggest rivals are Hajduk Split, matches between the two teams are referred to as "Eternal Derby." One of the club's most notable wins came in the 2015–16 UEFA Champions League group stage, a 2–1 home victory against English side Arsenal, their first Champions League victory since the 1999–2000 season. Another notable match was a 0–0 draw against Manchester United in the 1999–2000 season, who were the European champions at the time, with many fans considering it one of Dinamo's finest performances in the club's history. In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the three most successful Zagreb-based clubs—HAŠK, Građanski and Concordia—were all disbanded by a decree issued by the communist authorities in May 1945. In order to replace them, a new sports society called FD Dinamo was founded on 9 June 1945; the new club inherited Građanski's colors and fan base, with most of Građanski's players continuing their careers at Dinamo.
In the first few years, the club played their home matches at Građanski's old ground, Stadion Koturaška, but soon moved to former HAŠK's old ground at Stadion Maksimir. In addition, former Građanski manager Márton Bukovi was appointed Dinamo's first manager; the most notable Građanski players who joined Dinamo upon its formation were August Lešnik, Mirko Kokotović and Franjo Wölfl. Of the HAŠK players that joined Dinamo, the regulars in the first team soon became Ratko Kacian, Željko Čajkovski, Svetozar Peričić and Dragutin Lojen. Following its formation, the club entered Yugoslav First League in its inaugural 1946–47 season and finished runners-up, five points behind champions Partizan. In the following 1947–48 season, Dinamo won their first trophy after winning the Yugoslav championship with five points ahead of Hajduk Split and Partizan. In the 1951 season, the club finished runners-up again, but compensated with their first Yugoslav Cup title after defeating Vojvodina 4–0 in the two–legged final.
Dinamo added three more cup titles and two championship wins. In addition, they were cup runners–up on three occasions. Dinamo first entered European competitions in the preliminary round of the 1958–59 European Cup, but were knocked out by the Czechoslovak side Dukla Prague; the club had some success in the 1960–61 European Cup Winners' Cup, as they managed to reach the semi-finals where they lost to Italian side Fiorentina. They have competed in the 1961–62 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, but failed to progress beyond the second round in which they were knocked out by Barcelona. However, in the 1962–63 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Dinamo managed to reach the final, but lost 4–1 on aggregate to Spanish side Valencia. In the 1963–64 European Cup Winners' Cup, they made an early exit in the first round after a defeat to Scottish side Celtic. During this period, many of Dinamo's star players were integral part of the Yugoslavian national team, including Željko Čajkovski, Zlatko Škorić, Krasnodar Rora, Denijal Pirić, Dražan Jerković, Ivica Horvat, Slav
Fudbalski klub Sarajevo is a Bosnian professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is one of the most successful clubs in the country. Founded on 24 October 1946, FK Sarajevo was the most successful club from SR Bosnia in former SFR Yugoslavia, winning two Yugoslav First League titles, being runners-up on two other occasions and finishing 6th in that competition's all-time table; the club's official colours are white. FK Sarajevo was the only major football club founded by the post-war Yugoslav authorities in the city of Sarajevo; the club entered the Yugoslav First League in the 1948–49 season, competed in all but two seasons in the top tier. After Bosnia and Herzegovina gained independence from Yugoslavia, FK Sarajevo became one the country's biggest ambassadors, departing on a large world tour during the Bosnian War with the goal of gaining international support for the country's cause. Today, FK Sarajevo is one of the most prominent members of the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where it has won three Bosnian championships, five Bosnian Cups and one Bosnian Supercup.
Furthermore, the club was runners-up in the national championship another six times. It is ranked first in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina all-time table and is the country's most prominent representative in European competitions. FK Sarajevo is the most popular football club in the country, together with FK Željezničar, with whom it shares a strong rivalry that manifests itself in the Sarajevo derby; the club plays its home matches at the Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium, named after legendary club striker Asim Ferhatović. The stadium has a capacity of 34.500. Since March 2019, FK Sarajevo is run by Vietnamese businessman Nguyễn Hoài Nam and the PVF Investment and Trading, JSC. FK Sarajevo was established on 24 October 1946 as the result of a merger between local Sarajevo football clubs Udarnik and Sloboda; the club first appeared on the Yugoslav sports scene in 1946 under the name SD Torpedo that represented an homage to Torpedo Moscow. The first chairman of the newly founded club was Safet Džinović, while the positions of vice-chairmen were granted to Vojo Marković and Alojz Stanarević respectively.
Furthermore, Josip Bulat was named manager. The newly formed team, which inherited the results and league standings of Udarnik, was joined by selected players from both Udarnik and Sloboda. Namely, Hodžić, Vlajičić, Šarenkapa, Pauković, Fizović, Konjević, Radović, Viđen and Mustagrudić from the former, Mantula, Glavočević, Tošić, Novo, Strinić, Đ. Lovrić and Alajbegović from the latter; the team played its first match on 3 November 1946. Another historical assembly was held on 5 October 1947 when it was decided, on the proposal of editor of the popular daily newspaper Oslobođenje, Mirko Ostojić, that the club name would be changed to SDM Sarajevo, before it was changed to the current name in 1949. In September 1948 SDM Sarajevo was joined by Yugoslav footballing legend Miroslav Brozović, who brought in a needed level of experience to the new team; the Mostar native wore the black and white jersey of FK Partizan, as well as captaining the Yugoslav national team. Brozović was offered the position of player-manager which he accepted, turning his attentions to promoting the team to the Yugoslav First League.
FK Sarajevo first entered the top-flight Yugoslav First League after eliminating Belgrade club Sloga. They drew the first match 3:3 in Novi Sad, but won the second match 5:1 in Sarajevo; the team were relegated after their first season in the First League, but were promoted back to the top-tier in 1950. From on FK Sarajevo played in every season of the First League apart from 1957 to 1958; the club's first taste of European competitions began during the 1960s when it took part in the 1960 Mitropa Cup and the 1961–63 Balkans Cup, while the first serious European competition the club took part in was the 1962–63 Intertoto Cup. 1966–67 Yugoslav First League table: A key player for Sarajevo in their early years was legendary striker Asim Ferhatović, nicknamed Hase, who played for the club from 1952 to 1967. In 1963–64, he was top scorer in the First League with nineteen goals, while the club finished fourth; the following year the club finished second. Sarajevo won their first Yugoslav First League title in 1966–67, becoming the first national champions from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo started the historic season with Brozović at the helm of the coaching staff. The team had a dream start with back to back wins against FK Sutjeska Nikšić and their city rivals FK Željezničar; this was followed by a draw against the European Cup runners-up, FK Partizan, in which Sarajevo squandered an early lead. With seven points from their first three fixtures, Sarajevo was still not considered a title favorite, but, to change after Brozović's boys returned from the Dalmatian coast with a win against Hajduk Split. Four days Sarajevo beat NK Olimpija 2:1 at a sold out Koševo stadium. Hard earned wins against HNK Rijeka and Red Star Belgrade followed, by the winter break Sarajevo had won 14 out of their first 20 league fixtures, finishing the year at pole position; the team opened the second part of the season away to Dinamo Zagreb in the last sixteen of the Yugoslav Cup winning 1:0 courtesy of a Boško Antić stunner. In the quarterfinals Sarajevo got the better of FK Napredak, but lost in the Cup final to Hajduk Split, played at the Stari plac stadium on May 24.
The team was back to winning ways, defeating Red Star Belgrade at the Marakana 3:1 with two goals by Antić and one by Prodanović. A week OFK Belgrade was def
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west and Hungary to the north and Romania to the east, Albania and Greece to the south; the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Vojvodina; the SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy.
Until 1948, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism; the SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation; the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in early 1990s. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence; the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
Two of its republics and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" is now used retrospectively; the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug and slavija. The Slavic word jug means'south', while slavija denotes a'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be'South-Slavia' or'Land of the South Slavs'; the full official name of the federation varied between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades —the official name of the state. After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country.
The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1945, King Peter II was deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced; the state is most referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist"; the names are as follows: Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages Latin: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija Cyrillic: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: Macedonian pronunciation: Slovene language Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most known as Yugoslavia.
The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans; the Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, under his command the movement soon began establishing "liberated territories" which attracted the attention of occupying forces. Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, representing the republican, left-wing, socialist elements of the Yugoslav political
Fudbalski Klub Vardar known as FK Vardar or Vardar, is a football club based in the capital city of Skopje, in North Macedonia. The club was founded in 1947 and they have been members of the Macedonian First Football League since its inception in 1992; the Philip II Arena has been the home ground of FK Vardar since 1947. Vardar is the most popular and renowned Macedonian football club both domestically and abroad, having won 10 national championships and 5 national cups. A football club named Vardar after the river of Vardar was established in 1911 but existed in the shadow of other major clubs in Skopje in the pre-WWII period. After the WW2 FK Vardar was established with the merger of city rivals FK Pobeda and FK Makedonija, in the hall of cinema "Vardar" on 22 July 1947; the foundation assembly had decided the club color to be blue and it was, but at the next assembly the decision was changed to red and white. FK Pobeda has competed in the first season of the Federal League after the World War II, finished at the 8th place and won the relegation play–offs against FK Sloga from Novi Sad, FK Vardar was a member of the Federal league from the beginning.
However, during the following decade they were several times promoted back again. The present recognizable red and black color was adopted after the 1963 Skopje earthquake; the club won its first major trophy in the 1960–61 Yugoslav Cup. Many famous players from the region started their careers at Vardar, their triumph in the Yugoslav Cup was a highlight; the leader of that particular generation of players was Andon Dončevski, who coached the team from 1985 to 1988. Due to massive irregularities during the last 34th week of fixtures, the 1985–86 Yugoslav First League season ended notoriously. Football Association of Yugoslavia headed by Slavko Šajber voided the last week results ordering a replay of all 9 fixtures. Twelve clubs were docked 6 points due to alleged participation in the match-fixing scandal. All teams agreed to replay their games but FK Partizan, who had won the title with a 4–0 over FK Željezničar Sarajevo, after which the game was awarded 3–0 to FK Željezničar Sarajevo, which gave Red Star Belgrade the title.
Red Star Belgrade played in the 1986–87 European Cup. However, after a sequence of legal processes, the original final table, with FK Partizan as champions, was recognized in 1987; the following 1986-87 Federal League season saw 10 teams starting with −6 points. Vardar Skopje, who had not been deducted 6 points, won the title, participated in the 1987–88 European Cup, but the points deduction was annulled after more legal proceedings, the title was given to FK Partizan, who headed the table with the deduction, but for UEFA, Vardar was recognized as a champion. In 1986–87 Federal League team had a group of wonderful players, led by the talented Darko Pančev and including Ilija Najdoski, Dragi Kanatlarovski and Vujadin Stanojković. FK Vardar went on to spend 33 seasons in the Federal top flight from 1947 to 1992 and is ranked 11th on the all-time table. Vardar celebrated Macedonia independence by winning three consecutive titles including going unbeaten in the inaugural season. During the 90's they remained at the top of Macedonian football reaching five Cup finals.
After a lean spell by their standards, they bought the league again in 2001–02 and the following season just missed out on qualifying for the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League group stage. A remarkable achievement, in the Second qualifying round they eliminated CSKA Moscow and came within a goal of getting past Sparta Prague. In 2011, Vardar was relegated from the Macedonian First Football League, but after a buying the license from Miravci it stayed; the following season they brought the league again after nine years. To date they have 17 major honors to their name. In 2012, with the new transformation FK Vardar became the first team in Macedonia organized as a joint stock company incorporated under the companies act. FK Vardar went on to spend 24 seasons in the Macedonian First Football League from 1992 to 2017 and is ranked 1st on the all-time table. In their history, FK Vardar has had many memorable matches. First big one came in 1961 against Dunfermline from Scotland, victory at home ground 2:0 glorious moments in Cup winners Cup.
Among those, the one that stands out the most was defeating FK Partizan by a score of 5–0. In early history, the 2–1 victory over Varteks in the Yugoslav Cup final is remembered by the club as its first major trophy win. A game that had the highest attendance was a match up against Trepča where FK Vardar won 2–1 and earned promotion to the Yugoslav First League. Other matches to remember came against the great four Red Star Belgrade, Partizan Belgrade, Dinamo Zagreb and Hajduk Split. 1985 home ground victory over Dinamo Bucurset from Romania 1:0 in UEFA Cup competition. At the beginning of the Macedonian First Football League the most memorable matches were all the wins against rival Pelister, including the first Macedonian Football Cup final in 1993 where FK Vardar won 1–0 at the old City Stadium; the biggest international achievement of the club came in 2003 when FK Vardar came one goal short of qualifying for the UEFA Champions League group stage. They had great match against Barry Town from Wales and 3–0 victory at home ground another glorious 2–1 away win over Russian heavy weights CSKA Moscow.
In 2004 UEFA Intertoto Cup they destroyed Ethnikos Achnas from Cyprus in both matches home and away with identical victories of 5–1 1–0 victory against Belgian side Gent at home ground. In the 2017–18 Champions League second qualifying round, Vardar were drawn against Swedish side Malmö FF, in the first leg away, they have played a draw and
Omladinski fudbalski klub Beograd known as OFK Beograd, is a Serbian professional football club based in Belgrade. It is one of the oldest football clubs in Serbia competing in Serbia's third tier; the club is one of the most respected due to numerous players of high quality coming through its youth ranks through the years. OFK Beograd is part of the OSD Beograd sport society; the club was founded in 1911 as Beogradski sport klub was one of the most prominent football clubs in Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was the most successful club between 1923 and 1941, with five national champion titles. BSK played its first game on 13 October 1911 against Šumadija from Kragujevac and won 8–1. In 1945, after the World War II, club was reestablished under the name Metalac by its former members; this club carried the name until 1950, when it was once again renamed into BSK, but in the 1957, the name was altered into OFK Belgrade. A two decade long "Golden Era" began when the club won the Yugoslav Cup in 1953.
Three other Yugoslav Cup wins followed, in the 1961 -- 62 and 1965 -- 66 seasons. The club was the Yugoslav First League runner-up twice, in 1954–55 and in 1965–66. In the meantime, the club had changed its name once again. In 1957, the club was named OFK Beograd, once again in an attempt to attract spectators to the stadium younger ones who opted for either Red Star or Partizan. In that time, the players played attractive and lovely football and therefore got the nickname of "Romantičari"; the 1960s and the first half of the 1970s were years of European glory. OFK Beograd had participated eight times in European competitions, their biggest success came in the 1962–63 European Cup Winners' Cup season, playing in the semi-final against Tottenham Hotspur, eventual champions. In the following ten years, teams such as Napoli, Feyenoord and Juventus lost to OFK Beograd; the Romantičari were not able to take advantage of their success on the European scene. After several successful seasons, a sudden fall occurred.
During the 1980s, the club has been changing leagues, from the First Division to the Second. In the summer of 2003, they were back in European competition, they played in the UEFA Intertoto Cup. OFK defeated Estonian side Narva Trans at home by the score of 6–1, but UEFA cancelled the result because of a smoke bomb being thrown on the field during the game. Only the second leg result would count. OFK Beograd won in Tallinn with a score of 5–3, they were eliminated in the second round by Czech club 1. FC Slovácko, with a score of 4–3; the club was back on the European stage in 2004. They started playing in the second round of the Intertoto eliminated Dinaburg. In the third round, OFK went on to play against Tampere United. OFK Beograd went on to play in the semifinals, they were eliminated by Atlético Madrid losing the first leg 1–3 at home with Aleksandar Simić scoring for OFK and Fernando Torres, Diego Simeone and Ariel Ibagaza scoring for Atlético, losing the second leg 2–0 in Madrid meant OFK were eliminated 1–5 on aggregate.
Though OFK were eliminated it was seen as a honour and a return to the clubs glory days to have a European powerhouse such as Atlético play at Omladinski stadion with world class talents such as Torres and Simeone. In 2005, the club entered the UEFA Cup in the second round of qualifying losing to Lokomotiv Plovdiv on the away goals rule. In 2006, the club faced French side Auxerre in the UEFA Cup. In the first game, in Belgrade, OFK defeated their opponents by the score of 1–0 a goal from centre-back Miloš Bajalica in the 31st minute of play proving the difference, a great result considering Auxerre was one of France's strongest clubs. In the second game OFK Beograd lost 5–1 with the result standing at 2–1 for Auxerre with ten minutes to play, a result which would see OFK Beograd eliminate Auxerre. However, the young OFK team capitulated in the last ten minutes of play conceding three goals and were eliminated 5–2 on aggregate. In the 2010 Europa League, OFK beat Torpedo Zhodino of Belarus 3–2 on aggregate and went on to play Galatasaray where they lost 7–3 on aggregate, coming back from two-nil down to draw 2–2 with late goals been scored by Miloš Krstić and Nenad Injac in Turkey against Galatasaray but losing the second leg 1–5 at home with Danilo Nikolić scoring the only goal for OFK.
OFK Beograd were relegated from the Serbian SuperLiga after finishing fifteenth in the 2015–16 season. The next season saw relegation from the 2016–17 Serbian First League after finishing bottom of the table; the club played in the Serbian League Belgrade in the 2017–18 season, finishing in second place behind Žarkovo who were promoted to the Serbian second tier. In November 2018 the "Klub prijatelja OFK Beograda" was formed with the goal of saving the club from becoming extinct and helping the club through its most difficult times; the KPO is made up of loyal fans who want to see OFK return to its former glories competing at the top of the first tier of Serbian football. National Championships – 5 Yugoslav First League: Winners: 1930–31, 1932–33, 1934–35, 1935–36, 1938–39 Runners-up: 1927, 1929, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1954–55, 1963–64National Cups – 5 Yugoslav Cup: Winners: 1934, 1953, 1955, 1961–62, 1965–66Serbia and Montenegro Cup: Runners-up: 2005–06 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup: 1/2 Finalists: 1962–63UEFA Cup: 1/4 Finalists: 1972–73Inter-Cities Fairs Cup: 1/2 Final
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of 122 m above sea level; the estimated population of the city in 2018 is 810,003. The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day; the oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had Janko Kamauf. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county, is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and Sesvete districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse.
The city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south. The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, all government ministries. All of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road and air networks of Croatia, it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are the service sector; the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, was used for the city in the 17th century; the name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.
The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag. For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian; the same form is reflected in a number such as Csepreg. The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word * grębъ which means uplift. An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram; the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period. In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis. In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water. In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well, using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando!.
The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, the larger, western Gradec, inhabited by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour. During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital; the history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A. D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill.
Today the latter is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242; as a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and