Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a multitalented racer. Ascari won consecutive world titles in 1953 for Scuderia Ferrari, he was the last Italian to date to win the title. This was sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952. Ascari won the Mille Miglia in 1954. Ascari was noted for the careful precision and finely-judged accuracy that made him one of the safest drivers in a most dangerous era. Ascari remains along with Michael Schumacher Ferrari's only back-to-back World Champions, he is Ferrari's sole Italian champion; when Alberto was a young child, his father, a famous racing driver, died in an accident at the 1925 French Grand Prix. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. Ascari took great pains to avoid tempting fate, his unexplained fatal accident – at the same age as his father's, on the same day of the month and in eerily similar circumstances – remains one of Formula One racing's great tragic coincidences.
Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, a talented Grand Prix motor racing star in the 1920s, racing Alfa Romeos. Just a fortnight before Alberto's seventh birthday, Antonio was killed while leading the French Grand Prix in 1925 at the Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, but the younger Ascari had an interest in racing in spite of; such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school. He raced motorcycles in his earlier years. At the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team, it was after he entered the prestigious Mille Miglia in an Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, supplied by his father's close friend, Enzo Ferrari, in 1940 that he started racing on four wheels regularly. He married a local girl the same year; when Italy entered World War II, the family garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service and maintain vehicles of the Italian military. It was during this period, he established a lucrative transport business, supplying fuel to army depots in North Africa.
His partner in the enterprise was Luigi Villoresi. The pair did; as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT, his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy. Soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning "Tubby". Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure. During the next four transitional years, Ascari was at the top of his game, winning numerous events around Europe, he won his first Grand Prix, the Gran Premio di San Remo in 1948 and took second place in the RAC International Grand Prix the same year, at Silverstone. Ascari won another race with the team the following year, Gran Premio del General Juan Perón de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, his biggest success came.
The team boss, Enzo Ferrari, had been a great friend and teammate to Antonio Ascari, had taking a keen interest in Alberto's successes. That won three more races that year; the first Formula One World Championship season took place in 1950, the Ferrari team made its World Championship debut at Monte Carlo with Ascari and the famous French driver Raymond Sommer on the team. The team had a mixed year – their supercharged Tipo 125 was too slow to challenge the dominant Alfa Romeo team so instead Ferrari began working on an unblown 4.5l car. Much of the year was lost as the team's 2-litre Formula Two engine was progressively enlarged, though when the full 4.5l Tipo 375 arrived for the Gran Premio d'Italia Ascari gave Alfa Romeo their sternest challenge of the year before retiring. The new Ferrari won the non-championship Gran Premio do Penya Rhin. Throughout 1951, Ascari was a threat to the Alfa Romeo team though he was undone by unreliability. However, after winning at the Nürburgring and Monza he was only two points behind Fangio in the championship standings ahead of the climactic Gran Premio de España.
Ascari took pole position, but a disastrous tyre choice for the race saw the Ferraris unable to challenge, Ascari coming home 4th while Juan Manuel Fangio won the race and the title. For 1952 the World Championship season switched to using the 2-litre Formula Two regulations, with Ascari driving Ferrari's Tipo 500 car, he missed the first race of the championship season as he was qualifying for the Indianapolis 500, at the time a World Championship event. He was the only European driver to race at Indy in its 11 years on the World Championship schedule, but his race ended after 40 laps without having made much of an impression, as a result of a wheel collapse. Returning to Europe he won the remaining six rounds of the series to clinch the world title and recording the fastest lap in each race, he scored the maximum amount of points a driver could earn since only the best four of eight scores counted towards the World Championship. Fangio missed m
Francorchamps is an old commune now part of the Stavelot municipality, a Walloon city in the Belgian province of Liège. It is home to the motor-racing Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. Media related to Francorchamps at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Peter Collins (racing driver)
Peter John Collins was a British racing driver. He was killed in the 1958 German Grand Prix, just weeks after winning the RAC British Grand Prix, he started his career as a 17-year-old in 1949, impressing in Formula 3 races, finishing third in the 1951 Autosport National Formula 3 Championship. Born on 6 November 1931, Collins grew up in Kidderminster, in Worcestershire; the son of a motor-garage owner and haulage merchant, Collins became interested in motor vehicles at a young age. He was expelled from school at 16 owing to spending time at a local fairground during school hours, he began competing in local trials races. In common with many British drivers of the time, Collins began racing in the 500 cc category, when his parents bought him a Cooper 500 from the fledgling Cooper Car Company. Success for Collins started once he switched to the JBS-Norton in 1951; those small vehicles, powered by Norton motorcycle engines, were the proving ground of many of Collins's F1 contemporaries, including Stirling Moss.
His breakthrough came, away from the track, when at a party hosted by the great pre-war lady racer, Kay Petre, Collins managed to inveigle himself with John Wyer, the team principal at Aston Martin, earning his test drive at Silverstone. During that test, Aston was joined by the Formula 2 team, HWM – and by the time the teams were preparing to leave, Collins had a contract with both. At HWM Collins he became part of a three-car team with Lance Macklin and Moss, they competed in most of the F2 races in Britain and in Europe. Collins showed in speed, but the underfinanced HWM-Alta finished a race, his best result was second place in the Grand Prix des Sables d'Olonne. Collins got his Formula One break in 1952, with HWM, his best result in a World Champion event was sixth in the Grand Prix de l'ACF at Rouen-Les-Essarts. Success did not come the team's way, Collins left after the 1953 season. Not known for his technical knowledge, Collins was happy to have his mechanics set up his car, he drove it with his consummate natural skill.
This was evident in 1954, when Tony Vandervell signed Collins to drive the fearsome "Thinwall Special". The potent machine was a crowd pleaser at Formula Libre events, he was amongst the first to handle the "Vanwall Special" on the world stage, but he only finished seventh in the Grand Premio d'ItaliaAfter being a constant thorn in BRM's side, he joined the team for the 1955 season. He raced a Maserati 250F belonging to team owner, Alfred Owen, winning the BRDC International Trophy and the London Trophy; these results led to a drive with the works Maserati in the Gran Premio d'Italia. Meanwhile, he had better success in sportscars. Throughout the first half of the 1950s, Collins was a stalwart performer for the Aston Martin team, scoring a sensational victory at the 1952 Goodwood Nine Hours race; the following year he took the Aston Martin DB3S he shared with Pat Griffith to victory in the RAC Tourist Trophy at Dundrod. Further successes included second places in an Aston Martin DB3S at Le Mans in 1955 and 1956 with Paul Frère and Moss respectively.
For the 1956 season, Collins joined Ferrari on the strength of a superb drive in the previous year's Targa Florio, in which he partnered Moss to victory in a Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR. This proved to be a turning point, with a solid second-place finish behind Moss at the Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco, wins at the Grote Prijs van Belgie and Grand Prix de l'ACF. In those early days at Ferrari, Collins earnt the unstinting admiration of Enzo Ferrari, devastated by the untimely death from muscular dystrophy at age 24 of his son and who turned to Collins for solace, treating him as a member of the family. Collins was on the verge of becoming Britain's first F1 World Champion when he handed his Lancia-Ferrari D50 over to team leader Juan Manuel Fangio after the latter suffered a steering-arm failure toward the end of the Gran Premio d'Italia at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. Collins finished second, but the advantage handed to Moss, the extra points gained by Fangio's finish, demoted Collins to third place in the championship.
Collins's selfless act gained him respect from Enzo Ferrari and high praise from Fangio: "I was moved to tears by the gesture... Peter was one of the finest and greatest gentlemen I met in my racing career." Meanwhile, in sports cars, he finished second in a Ferrari 860 Monza in the Mille Miglia and at the Swedish Sports Car GP in a Ferrari 290MM with Wolfgang von Trips in 1956. These three were back-to-back, his last World Sports Car Championship podium was another second place at the'Ring with Mike Hawthorn. In 1956, Collins moved to Monaco to avoid compulsory military service in the British Army and thus continue his racing career. In January 1957, Collins married American actress Louise King, daughter of the executive assistant to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld, the couple took up residence on a yacht in Monaco harbour. In the same year, Collins was joined at Ferrari by Hawthorn; the two became close friends arranging to split their winnings between each other, together engaged in a fierce rivalry with fellow Ferrari driver Luigi Musso.
However, despite a third-place finish at the Groβer Preis von Deutschland, Ferrari were disadvantaged for much of the season as the 801 model was overweig
The Maserati A6GCM is a single seater racing car from the Italian manufacturer Maserati. Developed for Formula Two, 12 cars were built between 1951 and 1953; the A6GCM belongs to the A6 family of Maserati vehicles which comprised many models from street cars to racing cars. The name of the car is derived as follows: A6: the name of the series: A for Alfieri, 6 for 6 cylinders G: Ghisa, the engine block was in cast iron C: Corsa, for Racing M: Monoposto, for single seater; the Tipo6 CS has been spotted as a good contender in front of single seaters in Formula 2, despite its small engine. Thus Maserati decided to develop a specific model; the inline 6-cylinder two-liter engine with DOHC and 12 valves, 3 two-barrel Weber carburetors delivered 160 hp to 197 hp. It was developed by Vittorio Bellentani. With a 1,987 cc capacity delivering 160 hp, in 1951 and 1952 Then 1,988 cc capacity delivering 180 hp, in late 1952 And with a 1,970 cc capacity 76.2 mm × 72 mm, with a compression ratio of 12:1, with twin ignition) delivering 197 hp, in 1953.
The engine was mated to a 4-speed gearbox. The frame was developed by Medardo Fantuzzi; the car weighed 550 -- 570 kg, depending of the engine installed. The rigid rear axle employed cantilevered leaf springs combined with Houdaille shock absorbers; the brakes are hydraulic driven drums. The initial wheelbase was 2,280 mm; the front track was 1,278 mm and was reduced to 1,200 mm as the car received larger wheels in its version. The rear track received the same treatment going from 1,225 mm to 1,160 mm; the spoked wheels were 4 in × 15 in, replaced by 5 in × 16 in, in 1953. The 1953 version was the work of Gioacchino Colombo who modified the car significantly: now with a nearly 200 hp engine, new suspension and improved brakes; the body was reworked and made narrower and the car received an oval front grill. This version is known as the "interim" A6GCM or A6SSG; the A6GCM foreshadowed the next model: the 250F. In fact several of the A6GCMs, produced in late 1952 and 1953, were converted to 250Fs in 1954.
The same model raced in Formula One races and in Formula Two, in races which counted for the World Championship as well as in non-championship events, as it was the case in the early 1950s. With 151 race starts and 81 race finishes, with 23 podiums and 6 Grand Prix race wins, the A6GCM has had an exceptional track record supported by exceptional drivers. Note: when Maserati competed in its home town, Modena, in 1953, it managed to finish in the top three positions
Louis Rosier was a racing driver from France. He participated in 38 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 13 May 1950, he achieved 2 podiums, scored a total of 18 championship points. He won the Dutch Grand Prix twice in consecutive years between 1950 and 1951, the Circuit d'Albi, Grand-Prix de l'Albigeois and the 24 Hours of Le Mans with his son Jean-Louis Rosier. Rosier owned the Renault dealership of Clermont-Ferrand. In 2016, in an academic paper that reported a mathematical modeling study that assessed the relative influence of driver and machine, Rosier was ranked the 19th best Formula One driver of all time. Rosier finished 4th at Silverstone in a Talbot, in October 1948; the event was the RAC International Grand Prix, the first grand prix to be held in England since 1927. He drove a 4.5-liter, unsupercharged Talbot-Lago to 3rd place at the 1949 British Grand Prix at Silverstone. He was a lap behind the winner with a speed of 76.21 miles per hour. Rosier won an International Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps in June 1949.
He piloted a Talbot in the 500-kilometre, 32-lap event, achieving a time of 3 hours, 15 minutes, 17 seconds. He assumed the lead after 23 laps. Rosier won the 1950 24 Hours of Le Mans in a blue Talbot, he teamed up with his son Jean-Louis Rosier who only drove two laps during the race, which means Louis won the race by himself. He finished one lap ahead of Pierre Meyrat; the Rosiers covered 256 laps, 2,163 miles, in 23:54:2.2. Rosier captured the Grand Prix d'Albi in Albi, France in May 1953, he drove a Ferrari, covering the 18 laps of the finals, 160 kilometres, in 56:36:8. He averaged 160 kilometres per hour. Rosier placed second in a Ferrari at a Grand Prix in Aix-Les-Bains, in July 1953, his time was 2:24:48.1. In April 1956 Rosier finished 4th in a 201-mile race at Aintree. Stirling Moss drove a blue Maserati to victory in the 67-lap event for Formula One cars, with an average speed of 84.24 miles per hour. Rosier finished 5th at the 1956 German Grand Prix behind the wheel of a Maserati. Louis Rosier was the owner and manager of a racing team, the "Ecurie Rosier".
Set up to run Rosier's Talbot-Lago T26, evolved to an actual team running 250Fs and Ferrari 500s for Rosier and another driver. Throughout the 1950s, Écurie Rosier provided drives in Formula One for Henri Louveau, Georges Grignard, Louis Chiron, Maurice Trintignant, André Simon and Robert Manzon. Louis Rosier was one of the key sponsors of the Charade race track. After World War II, Jean Auchatraire and Louis Rosier promoted the idea of a race track around Clermont-Ferrand. A set of preliminary designs were drawn up for a circuit of a length between 4 and 6 km, meeting the latest safety regulations with large parking capacity at a location just outside the city limits on a hilly landscape; the Le Mans disaster on 11 June 1955 brought the project to a halt. All race events were postponed. No further events were allowed to take place on temporary urban tracks. Racing events were only to be allowed on dedicated race-tracks, providing that they met a new set of rules. In Clermont-Ferrand, as was the case for many other new race tracks, new safety devices were being imagined and discussed and assessed.
But the concept of a "mountain race track" moved forward. It would be the only one of its kind in France. Auchatraire and Raymond Roche worked together to get the project accepted by the political community before searching for funding, but Rosier was killed at Montlhéry on 26 October 1956 and would not witness his project come to fruition. The racetrack was opened on 27 July 1958, with the name of its famous founder "Circuit de Charade Louis Rosier". Soon after, several champions participated in racing events on the track, each of them, including Stirling Moss, making positive statements about the track and its surrounding. Rosier's Renault dealership in Clermont-Ferrand was one of the largest Renault dealerships in France. Rosier's dealership sold other industrial and farming equipment; the building housing this important business has been destroyed. In 1951, Louis Rosier designed a prototype based on the 4CV Renault. In 1953, using the concept of a barchetta that he raced at Le Mans, together with Italian coachbuilder Rocco Motto, designed a cabriolet, still using 4CV Renault sub assemblies.
This model was built in a quantity of about 200 units by Brissonneau. It was introduced at a car show in New York; some time he designed a roadster using Renault Frégate elements with an aluminum body developed by Rocco Motto, on a multi-tubular frame. The engine was revised, the body was lightened, the results was an interesting 950 kg for 80 hp. Louis Rosier sustained head injuries in a crash at the Montlhéry track, south of Paris, France, on 7 October 1956. Three weeks on 29 October 1956, Rosier succumbed to the injuries received in the crash. * Indicates shared drive with Charles Pozzi
Connaught Engineering referred to as Connaught, was a Formula One and sports car constructor from the United Kingdom. Their cars participated in 18 Grands Prix, entering a total of 52 races with their A, B, C Type Formula 2 and Formula 1 Grand Prix Cars, they scored 17 championship points. The name Connaught is a pun on Continental Autos, the garage in Send, which specialised in sales and repair of European sports cars such as Bugatti, where the cars were built. In 1950, the first single-seaters, the Formula 2 "A" types, used an engine, developed by Connaught from the Lea-Francis engine used in their "L" type sports cars; the engine was extensively re-engineered and therefore is a Connaught engine. The cars were of conventional construction for the time with drive through a preselector gearbox to a de Dion rear axle. In 1952 and 1953, the races counting towards the World Championship were to Formula 2 rules so drivers of these cars could take part in those events as the table below shows. Connaught designed a new car for the 2½ litre Formula 1 of 1954, to have a rear-mounted Coventry Climax V8 engine, but when the engine was not proceeded with, a conventionally arranged "B" type was designed using an Alta engine developed into 2½ litre form.
The first cars were built with all-enveloping aerodynamic bodywork but rebodied conventionally. In 1955, driving a Connaught in this form, Tony Brooks scored the first win in a Grand Prix by a British driver in a British car since 1923, in a non World Championship race at Syracuse. Thereafter the "B" type has been known as the "Syracuse" Connaught and the name was used for the car presented in the 2004 revival In 1962, Jack Fairman attempted to qualify for the Indianapolis 500 in a Connaught race car, but failed to find the necessary speed to make the field. Prior to the single-seat racing cars they built a small number of road going sports cars developed on the Lea-Francis Sports Chassis, which achieved considerable competition success; these were of types L2 and L3, three examples of the stark Cycle Winged L3/SR Sports Racer. Two sports cars, based on the A Type Formula 2 cars, the ALSRs were built for competition work. In 2004, the Connaught name was revived by Connaught Motor Company for their Type D Syracuse and Type D-H hybrid supercars.
*Constructors points not awarded until 1958 ± = Indicates a shared drive List of car manufacturers of the United Kingdom Connaught Motor Company
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract