1946 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1946 throughout the world. World Series: St. Louis Cardinals over Boston Red Sox All-Star Game, July 9 at Fenway Park: American League, 12–0 All-American Girls Professional Baseball League: Racine Belles Japanese Baseball League: Great Ring Negro League World Series: Newark Eagles over Kansas City Monarchs Negro League Baseball All-Star Game: East, 5–3. January 12 – Boston Red Sox star Ted Williams receives his discharge from the U. S. Marine Air Corps after a three-year stint serving in World War II. In spite of the long absence from competitive baseball, Williams will return to the major leagues by hitting.342 with 38 home runs and 123 RBI in 1946. January 12 – The first official professional game is played in Venezuela, launching the newly constituted four-team Liga de Béisbol Profesional de Venezuela; the league is composed of four teams: Caracas BBC, Magallanes BBC, Vargas BBC and Venezuela BBC. The inaugural game is won by Magallanes over Venezuela, 5–2, behind strong pitching from Alex Carrasquel, who gives up 11 hits in a complete game effort.
January 20 – In a classic pitching matchup played in Caracas, Alex Carrasquel of Magallanes beat Roy Welmaker and Vargas club, 3–2, in 17 innings. In the six-and-a-half-hour marathon, Carrasquel is good enough to silence the bats of Roy Campanella and Sam Jethroe. Both pitchers go the distance in one of the greatest matchups ever. February 19 – New York Giants OF Danny Gardella becomes the first major leaguer to announce he is jumping to the "outlaw" Mexican League, the first shot in the series of events that will dominate baseball more than the return of all the war veterans, his attempt to return to Major League Baseball a few years will initiate a major court battle. March 7 – Negro Leaguer Marvin Williams, playing for the Sabios de Vargas against the Navegantes del Magallanes, sets a still-standing Venezuelan League mark by driving in eight runs on two home runs and two singles, while leading Vargas to a 16–9 victory. April 18 – Jackie Robinson, signed to the Brooklyn Dodgers organization by owner Branch Rickey, makes his first appearance with the Montreal Royals in the International League.
April 23 – Ed Head pitches a no-hitter as the Brooklyn Dodgers blank the Boston Braves, 5-0. April 30 – Bob Feller tosses the second no-hitter of his career in a 1-0 Cleveland Indians win over the New York Yankees. June 24 – A bus carrying the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team crashed on Snoqualmie Pass in Washington State in the worst accident in the history of all of U. S. professional sports, as of October 2007. Nine members of the 16-member team were killed and six were injured. Eight of those who died served in World War II. July 9 – At Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox, the American League crushes the National League, 12–0, in the All-Star Game. July 14 – Player-manager Lou Boudreau of the Cleveland Indians hits four doubles and one home run, but Ted Williams wallops three homers and drives in eight runs, as the Boston Red Sox top the Indians, 11–10. In the Sox second-game win, the famous Boudreau Shift is born. Boudreau shifts all his players, except the third baseman and left fielder, to the right side of the diamond in an effort to stop Williams.
Ted walks twice while ignoring the shift. July 19 – Fourteen Chicago White Sox players are ejected from the game against the Boston Red Sox, leaving only the manager and coaches and the nine players on the field in the dugout. August 4 – St. Louis Browns relief pitcher Tom Ferrick earns the win in both games of a doubleheader with the Philadelphia Athletics. August 9 – All games were played at night for the first time in Major League history. September 13 – The Boston Red Sox clinch the American League pennant, edging the Cleveland Indians, 1–0, at Cleveland's League Park II on Ted Williams' inside-the-park home run, the only one of his career. Williams punches the ball over the shift when Cleveland left fielder Pat Seerey pulls in behind the shortstop position, it is Boston's first pennant since 1918. October 1 – October 3 – After finishing the regular season tied for first place, the St. Louis Cardinals and the Brooklyn Dodgers met in the first-ever National League playoff series; the Cardinals win the best-of-three series, two games to none, advance to the World Series.
October 15 – The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Boston Red Sox, 4-3, in Game 7 of the World Series to win their sixth World Series, four games to three; the Red Sox would not appear in the World Series for another 21 years, coincidentally, would be a rematch with the Cardinals. January 2 – Sonny Ruberto January 3 – Archie Reynolds January 7 – Joe Keough January 10 – Vern Geishert January 10 – George Korince January 15 – Tom Robson January 18 – Billy Grabarkewitz January 21 – Johnny Oates January 29 – Tony Pierce February 5 – Vic Correll February 5 – Norm Miller February 8 – Oscar Brown February 8 – Larry Burchart
Leones del Caracas
The Leones del Caracas are a Venezuelan baseball team that plays in the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League. In the 2015-16 season, they became the club with the highest average home attendance in the league, with an average of 10,845; the next season, the average attendance was 6,539. Cervecería Caracas was founded in 1942, after Cervecería Princesa, an early team, was bought and transformed into Caracas. At first, the team played its home games at the old Estadio Cerveza Caracas, located in the capital city of Caracas; the team was managed by big leaguer Alejandro Carrasquel. The Princesa team played its last game on May 7, 1942. Caracas debuted four days with a 7–3 victory over the Criollos; the game was played in a city on the north coast of Venezuela. Caracas faced its nemesis, the Navegantes del Magallanes for the first time on December 27 of that year, winning this now historic game by a 3–0 score. In its first stage, the team won two championship titles before moving to the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League in January 1946.
Since its inception, the Caracas team was characterized by having only Venezuelan players on their roster. The club changed its policy in 1950, after signing catcher Lester Fusselman and outfielder Maurice Mozzali, two St. Louis Cardinals prospects. In 1952, the franchise was bought by the publicist and sport commentator Pablo Morales and christened Leones del Caracas as a new franchise. Since the team plays its home games at the Estadio Universitario in Caracas. Businessman Oscar Prieto Ortiz joined Morales as a legal partner. Pete Rose was benched after a slump late in the 1964 MLB season, finishing with a.269 average, but continued to play winter ball in Venezuela with the Leones del Caracas team during the 1964–1965 season to improve his batting. By 2001, the descendants of Morales and Prieto sold their shares to the Grupo Cisneros, giving it majority control of the team. Through 2013, the Caracas team has won 20 championship titles, more than any other team in Venezuelan Professional Baseball League history.
The Estadio Universitario is a multi-use stadium located in Venezuela. The stadium holds 22,690 people and was built in 1952; this stadium forms part of the Central University of Venezuela campus and was designed by architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva. It is considered a masterpiece of urban planning and was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2000. 1947-1948: Jose A. Casanova* 1948-1949: Jose A. Casanova* 1951-1952: Jose A. Casanova* 1952–1953: Martín Dihigo Vs Magallanes 1956–1957: Clay Bryant Vs Industriales de Valencia 1961–1962: Regino Otero Vs Indios de Oriente 1963–1964: Regino Otero Vs Industriales de Valencia 1966–1967: Regino Otero Vs Tiburones de La Guaira 1967–1968: Regino Otero Vs Tigres de Aragua 1972–1973: Oswaldo Virgil Vs Águilas del Zulia 1977–1978: Felipe Rojas Alou Vs Águilas del Zulia 1979–1980: Felipe Rojas Alou Vs Cardenales de Lara 1980–1981: Alfonso Carrasquel Vs Cardenales de Lara 1981–1982: Alfonso Carrasquel Vs Cardenales de Lara 1986–1987: Bill Plummer Vs Tiburones de La Guaira 1987–1988: Bill Robinson Vs Tigres de Aragua 1989–1990: Phil Regan Vs Cardenales de Lara 1994–1995: Pompeyo Davalillo Vs Águilas del Zulia 2005–2006: Carlos Subero Vs Tigres de Aragua 2009–2010: Dave Hudgens Vs Navegantes del Magallanes* Won the title as Cervecería Caracas.
The team changed owners and name in 1952, but documents made public on October 4, 2011, state that the franchise official name - Caracas Base Ball Club - remained constant during all sale transactions in 1949, 1952 and 2001. This has resulted in a change on the historical stats of Leones del Caracas, as reflected in the official page of the league. On February 9, 1982, the Leones earned Venezuela's third Caribbean World Series and the franchise's first, by defeating Dominican Republics's Leones del Escogido with a 3-1 score; the Leones ended the series with a record of 1 defeat. The Venezuelan team, with Alfonso Carrasquel at the helm, gained the championship title with a 5-1 record. Leones was led by Series MVP Baudilio Díaz, CF Tony Armas and LF Luis Salazar; the pitching staff was led by Luis Leal, who posted a 2-0 record with a 2.08 ERA and 10 strikeouts and a in 13.0 innings of work. Behind him were Bud Black, Dennis Burtt and Tom Dixon. Venezuela featured 2B Steve Sax, SS Ron Gardenhire, 1B Dave Garcia, 3B Leonardo Hernández, pinch-hitter Andrés Galarraga and pitcher Joe Cowley, among others.
On February 7, 2006, the Leones earned Venezuela's first Caribbean World Series title in 16 years, by defeating the Tigres del Licey of the Dominican Republic with a 5-4 score in the last game. With the victory, the Leones won Venezuela's sixth Caribbean Series title, the franchise's second after the 1982 Caribbean Series; this marked the first time a Venezuelan team sweeps the Caribbean Series, a feat accomplished only by teams from Cuba, from Puerto Rico and from the Dominican Republic. * Retired by VPBL 1953 Caribbean Series 1957 Caribbean Series 1980 Caribbean Series 1982 Caribbean Series 2006 Caribbean Series Official Website
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
History of the Brooklyn Dodgers
The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League baseball team, active in the National League from 1884 until 1957, after which the club moved to Los Angeles, where it continues its history as the Los Angeles Dodgers. The team moved west at the same time as its longtime rivals, the New York Giants in the National League, relocated to San Francisco in northern California as the San Francisco Giants; the team's name derived from the reputed skill of Brooklyn residents at evading the city's trolley streetcar network. The Dodgers played in two stadiums in South Brooklyn, each named Washington Park, at Eastern Park in the neighborhood of Brownsville before moving to Ebbets Field in the neighborhood of Flatbush in 1913; the team is noted for signing Jackie Robinson in 1947 as the first black player in the modern major leagues. The first convention of the National Association of Base Ball Players were from Brooklyn, including the Atlantic and Excelsior clubs that combined to dominate play for most of the 1860s.
Brooklyn helped make baseball commercial, as the locale of the first paid admission games, a series of three all star contests matching New York and Brooklyn in 1858. Brooklyn featured the first two enclosed baseball grounds, the Union Grounds and the Capitoline Grounds. Despite the early success of Brooklyn clubs in the National Association of Base Ball Players, which were amateur until 1869, they fielded weak teams in the succeeding National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, the first professional league formed in 1871; the Excelsiors no longer challenged for the amateur championship after the Civil War and never entered the professional NAPBBP. The Eckfords and Atlantics thereby lost their best players; the National League replaced the NAPBBP in 1876 and granted exclusive territories to its eight members, excluding the Atlantics in favor of the New York Mutuals who had shared home grounds with the Atlantics. When the Mutuals were expelled by the league, the Hartford Dark Blues club moved in, changed its name to The Brooklyn Hartfords and played its home games at Union Grounds in 1877 before disbanding.
The team known as the Dodgers was formed as the Brooklyn Grays in 1883 by real estate magnate and baseball enthusiast Charles Byrne, who convinced his brother-in-law Joseph Doyle and casino operator Ferdinand Abell to start the team with him. Byrne arranged to build a grandstand on a lot bounded by Third Street, Fourth Avenue, Fifth Street, Fifth Avenue, named it Washington Park in honor of first president George Washington; the Grays played in the minor level Inter-State Association of Professional Baseball Clubs that first season. Doyle became the first team manager, they drew 6,431 fans to their first home game on May 12, 1883 against the Trenton, New Jersey team; the Grays won the league title after the Camden Merritt club in New Jersey disbanded on July 20 and Brooklyn picked up some of its better players. The Grays were invited to join the two year old professional circuit, the American Association to compete with the eight year old NL for the 1884 season. After winning the American Association league championship in 1889, the Grays moved to the competing older National League and won the 1890 NL Championship, being the only Major League team to win consecutive championships in both professional "base ball" leagues.
They lost the 1889 championship tournament to the New York Giants and tied the 1890 championship with the Louisville Colonels. Their success during this period was attributed to their having absorbed skilled players from the defunct New York Metropolitans and Brooklyn Ward's Wonders. In 1899, most of the original old Baltimore Orioles NL stars from the legendary Maryland club which earlier won three consecutive championships in 1894-1895-1896, moved to the Grays along with famed Orioles manager Ned Hanlon who became the club's new manager in New York / Brooklyn under majority owner Charles Ebbets, who had by now accumulated an 80% share of the club; the new combined team was dubbed the "Brooklyn Superbas" by the press and would become the champions of the National League in 1899 and again in 1900. The team name, Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers, was coined in 1895; the nickname was still new enough in September 1895 that a newspaper could report that "'Trolley Dodgers' is the new name which eastern baseball cranks have given the Brooklyn club."
In 1895, Brooklyn played at Eastern Park, bounded by Eastern Parkway, Powell Street, Sutter Avenue, Van Sinderen Street, where they had moved early in the 1891 season when the second Washington Park burned down. Some sources erroneously report that the name "Trolley Dodgers" referred to pedestrians avoiding fast cars on street car tracks that bordered Eastern Park on two sides. However, Eastern Park was not bordered by street-level trolley lines that had to be "dodged" by pedestrians; the name "Trolley Dodgers" implied the dangers posed by trolley cars in Brooklyn which in 1892, began the switch from horse-power to electrical power, which made them much faster, were hence regarded as more dangerous. The name was shortened to Brooklyn Dodgers; the "Trolley Dodgers" name was adopted by the team for the 1911 and 1912 seasons, the "Dodgers" name was used in 1913. Other team names used by the franchise that came to be called "the Dodgers" were the Atlantics, Bridegrooms or Grooms (1888
1953 in music
This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1953. 1953 in British music 1953 in Norwegian music 1953 in country music 1953 in jazz February 6 – Contralto Kathleen Ferrier terminally ill with cancer, leaves Covent Garden Opera House on a stretcher after being taken ill on the second night of her run in Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice. February 11 – The Louisville Orchestra, conducted by the composer, premieres Carlos Chávez's Fourth Symphony. March 12 – Heinrich Sutermeister's opera Romeo and Juliet receives its first UK performance at Sadler's Wells Theatre in London, conducted by James Robertson. May 26 – Werner Meyer-Eppler, Fritz Enkel, Herbert Eimert, Robert Beyer open a pioneering electronic music studio at the Cologne studios of the NWDR. July 16–29 – The Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik are held at Darmstadt. July 18 – Elvis Presley makes his first recordings, which this recording is owned by Jack White when he won an auction on eBay in January 2015. September 27 – Helen Traubel ends her long association with the Metropolitan Opera, after having appeared in Chicago as a night-club singer.
October – Sir Arthur Bliss replaces Sir Arnold Bax as Master of the Queen's Music. October 5 – Wilhelm Furtwängler and the soloist's in the Vienna State Opera's production of Don Giovanni publicly protest the suspension of Egon Hilbert as administrator of the Burg Theater and State Opera. October 19 – Opening of the Covent Garden opera season, with a production of Wagner's Die Walküre. October 30 – Ernst Marboe is announced as the new administrator of the Vienna State Opera and Burg Theater, replacing Egon Hilbert. November 2 – the Metropolitan Opera announces that a new two-year contract has been agreed with the musicians' union, averting a threatened strike by the orchestra. November 17 – Carl Ebert is announced as the new Intendant of the Städtische Oper, Berlin. December 7 – the La Scala opera season opens with a production of Alfredo Catalani's La Wally, to mark the hundredth anniversary of the composer's birth. Alfred Schnittke becomes a student of Evgeny Golubev. Frank Sinatra begins recording at Capitol.
American singer Frankie Laine sets the all-time United Kingdom record for weeks at Number One in a given year on the UK Singles Chart, when his hit singles "Answer Me," "Hey Joe!" and "I Believe" hold the top slot for 27 weeks: a little over half a year. "I Believe", Number One for 18 weeks holds the all-time record for a single. Over 50 years both records will still hold. Eddie Fisher becomes "The Coca-Cola Kid" on the television show, Coke Time at a salary of one million dollars a year; the Platters form in Los Angeles. "Crazy Man, Crazy", recorded by Bill Haley & His Comets, becomes the first rock and roll single to make the Billboard national American musical charts. The Erato Records label is founded to promote French classical music. Anita O'Day Collates – Anita O'Day The Astaire Story – Fred Astaire Broadway's Best – Jo Stafford By the Light of the Silvery Moon – Doris Day Calamity Jane – Doris Day Country Girl – Bing Crosby Dean Martin Sings – Dean Martin Dinah Shore Sings the Blues – Dinah Shore Georgia Gibbs Sings Oldies – Georgia Gibbs Jazz at Massey Hall – The Quintet Kay Starr Style – Kay Starr Let There Be Love – Joni James May I Sing To You – Eddie Fisher New Concepts of Artistry in Rhythm – Stan Kenton Portrait Of New Orleans – Jo Stafford and Frankie Laine Requested By You – Frank Sinatra Sinatra Sings His Greatest Hits – Frank Sinatra Songs by Tom Lehrer – Tom Lehrer Songs of Open Spaces – Guy Mitchell Starring Jo Stafford – Jo Stafford The following singles achieved the highest chart positions in the limited set of charts available for 1953.
These singles reached the top of US Billboard magazine's charts in 1953. "The Clock" – Johnny Ace with the Beale Streeters "Hound Dog" – Big Mama Thornton "I Forgot More Than You'll Ever Know"- The Davis Sisters " He Treats Your Daughter Mean"- Ruth Brown "Mess Around" – Ray Charles "Please Don't Leave Me" – Fats Domino "Your Cheatin' Heart" – Hank Williams "And This Is My Beloved" w. & m. adapted Robert Wright & George Forrest "Angel Eyes" w. Earl Brent m. Matt Dennis "Anna" w. William Engvick F. Giordano m. R. Vatro "Answer Me, My Love" w. Carl Sigman & m. Gerhard Winkler & Fred Ravich "Baubles, Bangles And Beads" w. & m. adapt Robert Wright & George Forrest. Introduced by Doretta Morrow in the musical Kismet "Bell Bottom Blues" w. Hal David m. Leon Carr "Bimbo" w.m. Rodney Morris "Black Hills Of Dakota" w. Paul Francis Webster m. Sammy Fain. Introduced by Doris Day in the film Calamity Jane. "The Boy Friend" w.m. Sandy Wilson. "Can-Can" w.m. Cole Porter "Caribbean" w.m. Mitchell Torok "C'est Magnifique" w.m. Cole Porter.
Introduced by Lilo and Peter Cookson in the musical Can-Can "Changing Partners" w. Joe Darion m. Larry Coleman "Chicka Boom" w.m. Bob Merrill "Crying In the Chapel" w.m. Artie Glenn "Cry Me a River" w.m. Arthur Hamilton "Dragnet" w.m. Walter Schumann "Ebb Tide" w. Carl Sigman m. Robert Maxwell "Eh, Cumpari!" trad Ital w. m. adapt. Julius LaRosa & Archie Bleyer "Ev'rybody Loves Saturday Night" Campbell "Fate" w. & m. adapt Robert Wright & George Forrest from music by Alexander Borodin Adapted from Symphony No. 2 in B Minor. It was introduced by Alfred Drake and Doretta Morrow in the musical Kismet. "From Here to Eternity" w. Robert Wells m. Fred Karger "Gambler's Guitar" w.m. Jim Lowe "Gee!" w.m. Viola Watkins, Daniel Norton & William Davis "Giddy-Up-A Ding Dong" w.m. Freddie Bell, Pep Lattanzi "Goodnite, Goodnite" James Hudson, Calvin Carter "Half a Photograph" w. Bob Russell m. Hal Stanley "The Happy Wanderer" w. Florenz Siegesmund & Edith Möller Antonia Ridge m. Friedrich Wilhelm Möller "Here's That Rainy Day" w. Johnny Burke m
Dominican Professional Baseball League
The Dominican Republic Professional Baseball League or LIDOM by its acronym in Spanish, is a winter professional baseball league consisting of six teams spread across the Dominican Republic. The league's players include many prospects that go on to play in Major League Baseball in the United States while signing many current MLB veterans; the champion of LIDOM advances to play in the yearly Caribbean Series. Each team plays a fifty-game round-robin schedule that begins at the middle of October and runs to the end of December; the top four teams engage in another round-robin schedule with 18 games per team from the end of December to the end of January. The league's champion advances to the Caribbean Series to play against the representatives from Mexico, Venezuela and Puerto Rico; the current champion of LIDOM are the Estrellas Orientales, who won the National Championship nine-game Series 5-1 versus theirs opponents Toros del Este. Caimanes del Sur 1983-1989 Delfines del Atlántico Pollos del Cibao / Pollos Nacionales / Pollos Béisbol Club from 1999-2002 Gigantes del Nordeste Gigantes del Cibao For his close involvement in the Dominican league's establishment and early development, Pedro Miguel Caratini has been called "the father of Dominican baseball".
During the years 1930-1963, military dictator General Rafael Trujillo can be credited with furthering the sport of baseball in Dominican Republic. Trujillo encouraged many sugar refineries to create teams of cane cutting laborers to play baseball during the idle months of cultivation. Fostering high levels of competition, the organization structure continued to mature stimulating growth in the intensity and popularity of the game. In 1937, teams of the Dominican Republic signed a large number of players from the Negro League of the United States; these players were given large salaries by Dominican men with political power. Among these players were baseball stars James Thomas "Cool Papa" Bell and Satchel Paige. However, these contracts exhausted team finances leading to a decline of Dominican baseball until 1950. In the early 1900s, four Dominican teams formed; these teams still exist today, form the foundation of Dominican professional baseball: Tigres del Licey Estrellas Orientales Leones del Escogido Sandino renamed Águilas Cibaeñas Brought to the country by fleeing cubans that were escaping the Ten Years' War that started on 1868 and ended on 1878, thus giving it the named ten years' war.
The game of few, was slow to gain popularity, but when it started getting played by locals the game had a leap in popularity. And this same popularity led to the creation of LIDOM; the league that helped Latino players avoid the ethnocentrism and exclusion of the major leagues of the United States, developed their own teams, sort of like African Americans with the Negro American League. They were their own Major League, young kids and adults lined up to see their people play, to see fellow Dominicans just like them take the mound and swing the bat, it gave a poor country a sense of belonging. Today many people depend feel connected to the sport. In 2017, from the start of the season in mid October until its end in December, it feels like the 2000 World Series in New York City, its like if every person in the country is thinking, talking, or watching something about the sport 24/7. As a cultural icon of the Dominican Republic, baseball holds a strong presence in the country. Surrounded by impoverished neighborhoods, these baseball stadiums of the larger Dominican cities are maintained.
Owners of big businesses like sugar refineries funded the construction of these fields, benefit from the games. Games in these stadiums attract a sense of community can be observed. Like their American counterparts, these "latinized" games exude free-spiritedness, social cohesion, festivity from the fans and players alike. In the Dominican Republic, baseball players are regaled as sports heroes and function as role models to their fan base; this idolization is covered by the media more so than in the United States. The Dominican Republic is a develping country. In a 2016 CIA estimate, it was shown. In addition, the CIA estimated in 2016. With poverty costing many Dominicans a chance to get a higher education, many look up to the great success of those who make it to the MLB, KBO, NPB. Causing many young Dominicans to see the sport of Baseball as a way to leave the poverty behind, find a new meaning; because of this, children begin playing organized baseball as early as six years old, compete with others in leagues with the hopes of being recognized by baseball scouts.
Some argue that the perception of baseball as economic salvation is in reality detrimental to the youth of the Dominican Republic. For each time a Dominican succeeds, it intensifies the efforts of thousands of other Dominicans, motivating them to give up on education, concentrate on training for baseball, fail at being signed overseas. After Fidel Castro's revolution in Cuba and the subsequent U. S. blockade, scouts of the majors turned their sights towards the Dominican Republic. Posed with the opportunity to acquire quality talent at a reasonable price, major league teams established "working rela
Thomas Henry Connolly was an English-American umpire in Major League Baseball. He officiated in the National League from 1898 to 1900, followed by 31 years of service in the American League from 1901 to 1931. In over half a century as an American League umpire and supervisor, he established the high standards for which the circuit's arbiters became known, solidified the reputation for integrity of umpires in the major leagues. Connolly was born in Manchester and played cricket as a boy, it was not until his family emigrated to the United States in 1885, settling in Natick, that he saw the game of baseball played for the first time, but he was fascinated and resolved himself to learning as much about the game as he could. He immersed himself in the rule book, within a few years was umpiring for local games. While working in YMCA games, he was discovered by major league umpire Tim Hurst, who obtained a position for Connolly in the New England League, where he umpired from 1894 to 1897. In 1898, the National League brought Connolly up to the majors, but he was angered by the league president's reluctance to back up umpires' decisions on the field, resigned in the middle of the 1900 season signed with the fledgling American League in 1901.
That league's president, Ban Johnson, was eager to create a reputation for the AL as a solid challenger to the NL, he gave umpires a greater measure of support than they had received, demonstrating that attacks upon umpires would not be tolerated and that their judgment was final. On April 24, 1901, Connolly had the privilege of umpiring, as its sole arbiter, the first AL game played. Although he had begun his career by showing that he was willing to remove players from the field — he ejected more than 10 in his first AL season — he came to earn great respect from the players, once went 5 full seasons without ejecting a player.note He showed an ability to stand firm against the toughest players in defense of the rules. During the ensuing argument, Connolly was struck in the mouth by a bottle thrown by a spectator, his reputation earned him prominent game assignments, including the first AL games played at Comiskey Park, Shibe Park, Fenway Park, Yankee Stadium. Connolly was the sole AL umpire chosen to work in the first World Series in 1903.
In 1931, new AL president Will Harridge was concerned about widespread complaints that the quality of umpiring in the league had deteriorated, Connolly retired from active field work to become the league's first supervisor of umpires. Travelling throughout the league to work with other umpires and ensure that everyone's work was meeting the same high standards, he remained in that post until 1954, came to be known as the nation's foremost expert on baseball rules. In his career, Connolly worked in an AL-record eight World Series: 1903, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1913, 1916, 1920 and 1924, he was the home plate umpire for Addie Joss' perfect game on October 2, 1908, one of four no-hitters in which he called balls and strikes. Connolly was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953, one of the first two umpires given that honor. Connolly and Klem are the only two umpires in history to have worked in five decades. Connolly died in 1961 at age 90 in Natick, survived by seven children, predeceased by his wife, who had died in 1943.
^ note Some sources say 10 years. List of Major League Baseball umpires Tom Connolly at the Baseball Hall of Fame Tom Connolly at Find a Grave